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THE NATION AT WAR

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Title: CHAPTER 24 THE NATION AT WAR Author: Timothy Hall Last modified by: Valued Gateway Client Created Date: 6/25/1998 8:58:36 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE NATION AT WAR


1
THE NATION AT WAR
  • America Past and Present
  • Chapter 24

2
A New World Power
  • American foreign policy aggressive, nationalistic
    since late 19th century
  • Colonialism draws U.S. into international affairs

3
"I Took the Canal Zone"
  • 1903--Colombian senate refuses to allow U.S. to
    build Panama Canal
  • Roosevelt abetted revolution to separate Panama
    from Colombia
  • Independent Panama permits construction
  • 1914--Panama Canal opened

4
The Roosevelt Corollary
  • U.S. treats Latin America as a protectorate
  • Roosevelt Corollary--U.S. will ensure stability
    of Latin American finance
  • Roosevelt Corollary spurs intervention in
  • Dominican Republic
  • Panama
  • Cuba

5
Ventures in the Far East
  • Diplomatic agreements with Japan
  • Korea under Japanese influence
  • Japan to respect U.S. control of Philippines
  • Japanese resentment builds over Open Door policy
    in China

6
Taft and Dollar Diplomacy
  • Taft substitutes economic force for military
  • American bankers replaced Europeans in Caribbean
  • Taft's support for U.S. economic influence in
    Manchuria alienates China, Japan, Russia

7
Foreign Policy Under Wilson
  • Wilson inexperienced in diplomacy
  • Tries to base foreign policy on moral force
  • Resorts to military force in Latin America

8
Troubles Across the Border
  • 1913--Huerta leads coup in Mexico
  • Wilson denies Huerta recognition
  • Revolutionary regimes must reflect a just
    government based upon law
  • Wilson blocks arms shipments to Mexico
  • 1914--U.S. seizes Vera Cruz
  • 1916--U.S. Army pursues Pancho Villa across
    U.S., Mexican border

9
Toward War
  • 1914--War in Europe
  • Central Powers headed by Germany
  • Allied Powers headed by England, France
  • Wilson sympathizes with England, seeks U.S.
    neutrality

10
The Neutrality Policy
  • Progressives see war as wasteful, irrational
  • Suspicion that business seeks war for profit
  • Immigrants prefer U.S. neutrality
  • A long tradition of U.S. neutrality
  • Americans see little national stake in war

11
Freedom of the Seas
  • England blockades Germany
  • U.S. ships to Germany seized
  • Wilson accepts English promise of reimbursement
    at wars end

12
The U-Boat Threat
  • German submarines violate international law by
    shooting without warning
  • August, 1915-- Lusitania sunk by U-Boat
  • April, 1916--Wilson issues ultimatum call off
    attacks on cargo and passenger ships or
    U.S.-German relations will be severed
  • Germany pledges to honor U.S. neutrality

13
"He Kept Us Out of War"
  • 1916--Wilson campaigns on record of neutrality
  • Republican Charles Evans Hughes campaigns on
    tougher line against Germany
  • Wilson wins close election
  • Wins large labor, progressive vote
  • Wins majority of womens vote

14
The Final Months of Peace
  • 1917--Germany lifts restrictions on U-Boats
  • Wilsons response
  • Orders U.S. merchant vessels armed
  • Orders U.S. Navy to fire on German U-Boats
  • April 2, 1917--War declared on Germany

15
U.S. Losses to the German Submarine Campaign,
1916-1918
16
Over There
  • U.S. allies in danger of losing war
  • Germans sink 881,000 tons of Allied shipping
    during April, 1917
  • Mutinies in French army
  • British drive in Flanders Stalled
  • Bolsheviks sign separate peace with Germany
    German troops to West
  • Italian army routed
  • Allies braced for spring, 1918 offensive

17
Mobilization
  • No U.S. contingency plans for war
  • 200,000 troops at wars beginning
  • Draft conscripts 2 million by wars end

18
War in the Trenches
  • Teaming of U.S., English navies halves Allied
    losses to submarines
  • June 1917--U.S. troops arrive in France
  • Spring, 1918--U.S. forces help halt final German
    offensive
  • battle of Chateau Thierry
  • battle of Belleau Wood
  • September--Germans out of St. Mihiel

19
Over Here
  • Victory on front depends on mobilization at home
  • Wilson consolidates federal authority to organize
    war production and distribution
  • Wilson begins campaign for American emotions

20
The Conquest of Convictions
  • 1918--Wilson uses popular anti-German rage to
    pass the Sedition Act
  • Criticism of the war was penalized
  • Dissenters imprisoned
  • Summer, 1918--anticommunism prompts deployment of
    U.S. troops to Russia
  • 1918-1919--Red Scare results in domestic
    suppression of radicals

21
A Bureaucratic War
  • Wartime agencies supervise production,
    distribution to maximize war effort
  • Government seizes some businesses to keep them
    running
  • Cooperation between government and business the
    norm
  • Business profits from wartime industry

22
Labor in the War
  • Union membership swells
  • Labor shortage prompts
  • wage increase
  • entry of Mexican-Americans, women, African-
    Americans to war-related industrial work force

23
African-Americans and the War
  • 200,000 blacks serve in France
  • 42,000 combat troops
  • Great Migration to northern factories
  • Blacks must adjust industrial work pace
  • Encounter Northern racism
  • 1917-1919--Race riots in urban North
  • Wartime experience prompts new surge of black
    resistance

24
The Treaty of Versailles
  • Common concern about Bolshevik revolution
  • Wilsons Fourteen points call for non-punitive
    settlement
  • England and France balk at Fourteen Points
  • Want Germany disarmed and crippled
  • Want Germanys colonies
  • Skeptical of principle of self-determination

25
A Peace at Paris
  • Wilson fails to deflect Allied punishment of
    Germany in treaty
  • Treaty creates Wilsons League of Nations
  • Article X of League charter requires members to
    protect each others territorial integrity
  • League's jurisdiction excludes member nations
    domestic affairs

26
Rejection in the Senate
  • Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge leads
    opposition to Treaty, League
  • October, 1919--stroke disables Wilson
  • November--Treaty fails in Senate
  • January, 1920--final defeat of Treaty
  • July, 1921--U.S. peace declared by joint
    Congressional resolution

27
Election of 1920
  • Wilson hopes reelection will provide mandate for
    League of Nations
  • Landslide for Republican Warren Harding
  • Defeat of League of Nations brings defeat of
    Progressive spirit
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