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THE WAR ENDS

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THE WAR ENDS The End of the Fighting April 1917 United States entered war Germany had to win before United States was able to fight A New German Offensive Germany ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 6 December 2019
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Title: THE WAR ENDS


1
THE WAR ENDS
2
The End of the Fighting
  • April 1917 ? United States entered war
  • Germany had to win before United States was able
    to fight

3
A New German Offensive
  • Germany refocused efforts at Western Front
  • no longer fighting with Russia in east
  • March 1918 ? Germany led major assault
  • made progress gained around 40 miles

4
A New German Offensive
  • June 1918 ? American soldiers helped in Europe
    gave Allies hope
  • 800,000 German soldiers died

5
German Collapse
  • Second Battle of the Marne
  • Allies stopped Germans (had done so in 1914, as
    well)
  • Allies used tanks aircraft to gain ground
  • many Germans simply gave up
  • they knew Germany was defeated

6
German Collapse
  • October 1918 ? Allied forces broke through
    heavily defended Hindenburg Line
  • German leaders approached Allies for truce
  • November 11, 1918 ? armistice agreed to
  • Veterans Day

7
Differing Allied Goals
  • America, Woodrow Wilson
  • - Fourteen Points President Wilsons plan for
    organizing post-World War I Europe for avoiding
    future wars
  • - within Fourteen Points
  • -reduction of weapons
  • -right of all people to choose their own
    governments (democracies)
  • -organization for worlds nations to join, to
    protect from future aggression

8
Differing Allied Goals
  • France, Georges Clemenceau
  • punish Germany
  • make Germany pay for costs of war
  • Great Britain, David Lloyd George
  • punish Germany
  • dont weaken Germany
  • wanted Germany to stop communism from spreading
    out of Russia

9
Differing Allied Goals
  • Italy, Vittorio Orlando
  • wanted to gain territory
  • -Italy was essentially ignored

10
Treaty of Versailles
  • Allies finally compromised on goals
  • Treaty of Versailles was closer to Clemenceaus
    goals than Wilsons
  • Germany had to accept the terms of the treaty

11
Treaty of Versailles
  • Germany was forced to
  • - pay reparations compensation in money,
    payable by a defeated country to another for loss
    suffered during war
  • -take responsibility for conflict
  • -return conquered land to France Russia
  • -give land for formation of new country of
    Poland
  • -give colonies around world to various world
    powers
  • -limit size of military

12
Treaty of Versailles
  • June 28, 1919 ? signed by Germany
  • Wilson did get one thing he asked for
  • League of Nations international body of nations
    formed after World War I to prevent future wars
  • -Germany was excluded from the League
  • -United States did not join League

13
Other Treaties
  • treaties between Allied Central Powers
  • Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire were broken
    apart to form other countries
  • mandates territories once part of the Ottoman
    Empire that the League of Nations gave to other
    European powers to rule after World War I

14
Other Treaties
  • mandates
  • France controlled Syria Lebanon
  • Great Britain controlled Palestine Iraq
  • Balfour Declaration
  • statement issued by the British foreign secretary
    in favor of establishing a Jewish homeland in
    Palestine
  • -Transjordan from Palestine

15
The Costs of War
  • Human Costs
  • -9 million soldiers died
  • -21 million soldiers wounded
  • -13 million civilians died
  • -70 million people died from Spanish Flu
    Pandemic

16
The Costs of War
  • Economic Costs
  • -France, Belgium, Russia
  • -farmland cities were destroyed
  • -countries started importing from different
    sources or develop own products
  • -American Japanese economies prospered
  • -332 billion total cost of war

17
The Costs of War
  • Political Changes
  • -communist revolution in Russia
  • -monarchies in Austria-Hungary, Germany,
    Ottoman Empire overthrown
  • Unrest in Colonies
  • -colonists expected democracies because the
    Allied Powers had fought a war to spread
    democratic ideals

18
The Costs of War
  • fifteen new nations/mandates formed before 1921
  • Finland Czechoslovakia
  • Estonia Austria
  • Latvia Hungary
  • Lithuania Yugoslavia
  • East Prussia Syria
  • Poland Iraq
  • Lebanon Palestine
  • Transjordan
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