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World War I (1914-1918)

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World War I (1914-1918) Chapter 14 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I (1914-1918)


1
World War I (1914-1918)
  • Chapter 14

2
I. The Road to War
  • Hidden Causes of WWI existed well before 1914
  • Imperialism
  • -European powers had been building empires for
    centuries
  • -the colonies supplied European powers with raw
    materials

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I. The Road to War
  • -European powers competed for territory around
    the world which
  • -led to conflicts in those areas
  • Militarism
  • -def policy of building up a nations armed
    forces in preparation of war
  • -empires were expensive to build and defend
  • -by 1890, the strongest European nation was
    Germany

5
I. The Road to War
  • -England was not concerned because they had the
    strongest navy in the world
  • -in 1897, Germanys Kaiser (emperor) decided
    that his nation should also become a major sea
    power
  • -Germany and England began to compete in the
    building of warships
  • -France, Italy, Japan, and the U.S. quickly
    joined the naval arms race

6
I. The Road to War
  • Nationalism
  • -def a devotion to the interests and culture
    of ones nation
  • -often leads to competition and rivalries among
    nations
  • -many feared Germanys growing power in Europe
  • -also, various ethnic groups resented domination
    by others and wanted their nations to become
    independent
  • -those ethnic groups looked to larger nations
    for protection

7
I. The Road to War
  • -Russia viewed itself as the protector of
    Europes Slavic peoples, no matter which govt
    they lived under
  • -ex the Serbs Serbia was an independent
    nation, but millions of ethnic Serbs lived
    under the rule of Austria-Hungary
  • -that led to a rivalry between A-H and Russia
    for influence over Serbia

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I. The Road to War
  • Alliances
  • -def a formal agreement or union between
    nations
  • -developed in Europe during the late 1800s
  • -designed to increase a nations security and to
    defend each other during an attack

10
I. The Road to War
  • -two great alliances formed in Europe by 1907
  • a. Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary,
    Italy
  • b. Triple Entente England, France, Russia

11

12
I. The Road to War
  • Immediate Cause of WWI (sparkplug) was
  • -the assassination of Archduke Franz
    Ferdinand and his wife Sofie on June 28,
    1914
  • -he was the heir to the throne in Austria-
    Hungary
  • -shot while visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia, which was
    a province of A-H
  • -killed by Gavrilo Princip (19 yrs old), a
    member of the Black Hand (terrorist group
    promoting Serbian nationalism)

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15
I. The Road to War
  • After the assassination, A-H met with Germany
  • Germany issued the Blank Check- promise to back
    Austria-Hungary up if they went to war
  • -July 28 A-H blamed the Serbian govt and
    declared war on them
  • -July 29 Russia, Serbias protector, began
    mobilization (the readying of troops for war)
  • - Germany, A-Hs chief ally, demanded that
    Russia stop mobilizing
  • - Russia refused Russias ally, France,
    began mobilization as did Germany

16
I. The Road to War
  • -Aug. 1 Germany declared war on Russia
  • -Aug. 3 Germany declared war on France
  • -The U.S. remained neutral

17
I. The Road to War
  • Germany knew it would be forced to fight a
    two-front war (East and West) eventually
  • sothey had a plan called the Schlieffen Plan
  • -called for a quick strike on France to knock
    them out of the war and then they would turn
    and attack Russia

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20
II. War Begins
  • To get to France as quickly as possible, the
    German Army passed through Belgium, a neutral
    country
  • -the invasion brought England, Belgiums
    protector, into the war on Aug. 4
  • -Germany had hoped England, with the worlds
    strongest Navy, would stay out of the war

21
II. War Begins
  • After the start of the war, countries in Europe
    began to take sides
  • Central Powers Allied Powers (Allies)
  • Germany France Russia
  • A-H Italy (1915) Serbia
  • Bulgaria Romania Greece
  • Ottoman Empire (Turkey) Montenegro Portugal
  • Belgium U.S. (1917)
  • Great Britain

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II. War Begins
  • The war reached a stalemate, a situation in which
    neither side could gain an advantage, on the
    Western Front (in France)
  • -the Allies began to dig trenches to help reduce
    casualties and the Germans did the same (trench
    warfare)
  • -the move to the trenches prolonged the war
  • -heavy casualties resulted from soldiers going
    over the top into no mans land (area between
    the trenches)

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II. War Begins
  • New Weapons used during WWI
  • Machine gun forced the soldiers to the trenches
    fired up to 450 rounds a minute
  • 2) Tanks first used by the British used
    mainly to smash barbed wire fences to clear the
    way for the infantry (foot soldiers)
  • 3) Poison gas chemical warfare used by the
    Germans first

26
II. War Begins
  • U-boats German submarines
  • -attacked without warning used to fight the
    British blockade
  • -interfered with American trade and threatened
    the safety of Americans
  • 5) Airplanes used only for observation at
    first
  • -later armed with machine guns and bombs
  • -Manfred von Richthofen Red Baron (German ace
    pilot shot down over 80 planes)

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32
II. War Begins
  • The U.S. remained neutral at first and continued
    to trade with both sides
  • -we were an isolated country at that time

33
III. U.S. Declares War
  • 3 Major Events led the U.S. to join the Allies
  • Germanys use of unrestricted submarine warfare
    Ex
  • a. Sinking of the Lusitania (May 7, 1915)
    British passenger liner sunk by a German u-
    boat because it was secretly carrying
    weapons for the Allies 1,200 died (128
    Americans)

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III. U.S. Declares War
  • Election of 1916 Pres. Wilson ran under the
    slogan He kept us out of the war and was
    re-elected
  • Feb. 1, 1917 Germany resumed unrestricted
    submarine warfare thought they could defeat the
    British and win the war before the U.S. could
    make a difference

37
III. U.S. Declares War
  • Zimmerman Note / Telegram German foreign
    secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, made a secret offer
    to Mexico
  • -if they would attack the U.S., then they
    would be given back the lost territory in TX, AZ,
    and NM
  • -the note was intercepted by the British
  • -neither Wilson nor Mexico took the note
    seriously
  • -however, the American public called for war

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III. U.S. Declares War
  • Revolution in Russia March 1917, Czar Nicholas
    II was overthrown and replaced by a republican
    (democratic) govt
  • -since a czar was no longer in power, the
    U.S. viewed Russia as an acceptable ally
  • -this was the last stumbling block to a full
    Am. commitment to the Allies

40
III. U.S. Declares War
  • Pres. Wilson asked Congress to declare war on
    Germany saying
  • The world must be made safe for democracy.
  • War was declared on April 6, 1917

41
V. Americans on the European Front
  • American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) led by Gen.
    John J. Pershing
  • -arrived in Paris on June 14, 1917 provided
    reinforcements to British and French troops
  • -U.S. soldiers nicknamed doughboys

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44
VI. Postwar
  • An armistice (cease fire) was signed on Nov. 11,
    1918 (11th hour, 11th day, 11th month)
  • WWI Casualties
  • -Russia 9 million -Germany 7 million
  • -France 6 million -A-H 7 million
  • -England 4 million
  • -U.S. 364,000

45
VI. Postwar
  • Pres. Wilsons Plan for Peace
  • -to prevent future world wars he outlined his
    goals in his Fourteen Points speech before
    Congress included
  • Ban on secret treaties / alliances
  • Freedom of the seas
  • Reduction of arms

46
VI. Postwar
  1. self-determination, or power to make decisions
    about ones own future, for all A-Hs ethnic
    groups
  2. League of Nations international org. that would
    help keep world peace and maintain order

47
VI. Postwar
  • Paris Peace Conference (Jan. 1919) attended by
    the Big 4 (leaders of the 4 major Allied
    powers)
  • Woodrow Wilson (U.S.)
  • David Lloyd George (G.B.)
  • George Clemenceau (France)
  • Vittorio Orlando (Italy)

48
VI. Postwar
  • -remember Russia had dropped out of the war in
    1917 and Italy joined Allies in 1915
  • -Goals Wilson concerned about world peace
    brought 14 Points with him the other 3 leaders
    wanted to punish Germany (esp. France)

49
VI. Postwar
  • -Treaty of Versailles officially ended WWI
    compromise included
  • War Guilt Clause forced Germany to take the
    blame for starting the war (big mistake!)
  • Germany stripped of all colonies and loses some
    land in Europe
  • -Alsace Lorraine back to France, territory taken
    from Germany and used to create Poland, Rhineland
    becomes a DMZ between France and Germany
  • Germany forced to pay reparations (payment for
    damages) to Allies - 33 billion total

50
VI. Postwar
  • German military restricted
  • -not allowed to have Air Force
  • -navy restricted
  • -army reduced to 100,000
  • League of Nations created

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VI. Postwar
  • Germany signed it on June 28, 1919
  • Republicans in Congress were upset that they were
    not represented in Versailles (Wilson was a Dem.)
  • -so they refused to approve the treaty The
    U.S. never joined League of Nations (very weak
    without U.S.)
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