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Title: Unit 1: Ancient Civilizations


1
Unit 1 Ancient Civilizations
2
Four River Valley Civilizations
3
Ancient Egypt
4
The Nile RiverAll of Egypt is the Gift of the
Nile - Herodotus
5
Cool Etesian Winds stay near the ground as they
blow southward to fill the void
Hot desert air rises
The Etesian Winds blow from May to October and
reach gales of 40 MPH which allows boats to sail
against the Niles currents
6
ANCIENT EGYPT
  • GOVERNMENT
  • AND
  • SOCIETY

7
EGYPTIAN GOVERNMENT
  • Egyptian government, society, and religion was
    dominated by a king who was called Pharaoh.
  • The pharaoh was considered to be a god. He
    headed an elaborate civil and religious
    bureaucracy.
  • Therefore, the government of Egypt was both a
    monarchy and a theocracy

8
MONARCHIES
Monarchy A government headed by a single ruler.
Usually a king or queen.
  • Absolute or Unlimited Monarchy
  • The leader has total control and his/her power
    cant be checked
  • Limited Monarchy
  • The leader has some restraints and his/her power
    is checked by others in the government
  • Dynasty
  • A sequence of rulers from the same family in
    which the leader is chosen by heredity
  • The oldest son inherits the throne
  • If there is no son, the oldest daughter becomes
    queen
  • If there is no child, a new dynasty is formed

9
  • Theocracy - A government in which a god or
    representative of a god is considered to be the
    civil ruler
  • Bureaucracy - A large body of officials and
    administrators who run the daily government

10
SOCIETY OF ANCIENT EGYPT
PHARAOH
Upper Class
Nobles, Priests, Large Landowners, Bureaucrats
Artisans, Merchants, Scribes, Professionals,
Small Landowners
Lower Class
Peasants, Farmers
SLAVES 1. Captives 2. Debtors 3. Criminals
11
Hieroglyphics
12
Rosetta Stone
13
Jean-François Champollion
14
ANCIENT EGYPT
Neolithic Culture
6000 BC
Archaic Period
3100 BC
Old Kingdom
2700 BC
First Intermediate Period (Age of Nobles)
2181 BC
Middle Kingdom
2000 BC
Second Intermediate Period (Hyksos Control)
1780 BC
New Kingdom
1550 BC
Age of Decline
1085 BC
Roman Conquest
30 BC
15
Ancient EgyptArchaic Period(3100 BC - 2700 BC)
  • Upper and Lower Egypt are united
  • Hieroglyphic writing develops
  • Trade with other civilizations expanded
  • Memphis established as Egyptian capital
  • Heavy emphasis on polytheistic religion
  • Important Rulers
  • Menes United upper and lower Egypt. He became
    Egypts first king and established its first
    dynasty.

16
Ancient EgyptOld Kingdom(2700 BC - 2181 BC)
  • Strong class of nobility developed
  • Rise of sun god RA as supreme god
  • Mummification developed to preserve bodies for
    the afterlife
  • First and largest pyramids built
  • Important Rulers
  • Zoser (Djoser) - Ordered first step pyramid
    built. First king to be considered a god.
  • Khufu - First king called Pharaoh. He built the
    largest of the pyramids at Giza.

17
The Great Pyramids of Giza
18
Egyptian Religion Polytheistic (Multiple gods)
19
Mummification
20
Mummification
One of the embalmer's men makes a cut in the left
side of the body and removes many of the internal
organs. It is important to remove these because
they are the first part of the body to decompose.
Embalming the body First, his body is taken to
the tent known as 'ibu' or the 'place of
purification'. There the embalmers wash his body
with good-smelling palm wine and rinse it with
water from the Nile.
21
Mummification
The liver, lungs, stomach and intestines are
washed and packed in natron which will dry them
out. The heart is not taken out of the body
because it is the centre of intelligence and
feeling and the man will need it in the
afterlife.
A long hook is used to smash the brain and pull
it out through the nose.
22
Mummification
The body is now covered and stuffed with natron
which will dry it out. All of the fluids, and
rags from the embalming process will be saved and
buried along with the body.
23
Mummification
After forty days the body is washed again with
water from the Nile. Then it is covered with oils
to help the skin stay elastic.
The dehydrated internal organs are wrapped in
linen and returned to the body. The body is
stuffed with dry materials such as sawdust,
leaves and linen so that it looks lifelike.
24
Mummification
Finally the body is covered again with
good-smelling oils. It is now ready to be wrapped
in linen.
In the past, when the internal organs were
removed from a body they were placed in hollow
canopic jars. Over many years the embalming
practices changed and embalmers began returning
internal organs to bodies after the organs had
been dried in natron. However, solid wood or
stone canopic jars were still buried with the
mummy to symbolically protect the internal
organs.
25
Mummification
Wrapping the mummy First the head and neck are
wrapped with strips of fine linen. Then the
fingers and the toes are individually wrapped
The arms and legs are wrapped separately. Between
the layers of wrapping, the embalmers place
amulets to protect the body in its journey
through the underworld.
26
Mummification
The arms and legs are tied together. A papyrus
scroll with spells from the Book of the Dead is
placed between the wrapped hands.
A priest reads spells out loud while the mummy is
being wrapped. These spells will help ward off
evil spirits and help the deceased make the
journey to the afterlife.
27
Mummification
More linen strips are wrapped around the body. At
every layer, the bandages are painted with liquid
resin that helps to glue the bandages together.
A cloth is wrapped around the body and a picture
of the god Osiris is painted on its surface.
28
Mummification
Finally, a large cloth is wrapped around the
entire mummy. It is attached with strips of linen
that run from the top to the bottom of the mummy,
and around its middle. A board of painted wood
is placed on top of the mummy before the mummy is
lowered into its coffin. The first coffin is then
put inside a second coffin.
29
Mummy of Ramesses II
30
Ancient Egypt First Intermediate Period(Age of
Nobles)(2181 BC - 2000 BC)
  • Civil wars among nobles
  • Power was divided among nobles who ruled as
    governors of various regions of Egypt.

31
Ancient Egypt Middle Kingdom(2000 BC - 1780 BC)
  • Pharaohs reunified Egypt
  • Egyptian borders were expanded
  • Egyptian capital moved to Thebes
  • Pyramids were replaced by cliff tombs
  • Important Rulers
  • Amenemhet I - Re-established control by Pharaoh.
    Expanded Egyptian wealth through conquest and
    trade

32
Ancient Egypt Second Intermediate Period(Hyksos
Control)(1780 BC - 1550 BC)
  • Invaders called Hyksos from the south of invaded
    and took control of Egypt
  • Hyksos leaders controlled the Egyptian throne for
    two centuries
  • Introduced bronze weapons and new military
    techniques to Egypt

33
Ancient EgyptNew Kingdom(1550 BC - 1085 BC)
  • Pharaohs established a powerful military using
    new military weapons techniques
  • Egypt expanded its empire to Mesopotamia and
    reached its greatest size
  • Dominated land and sea for 500 years
  • Egyptian culture reached its pinnacle

34
Ancient EgyptNew Kingdom(1550 BC - 1085 BC)
  • Important Rulers
  • Ahmose I - Drove Hyksos from Egypt
  • Hatshepsut - First female ruler in history
  • Thutmose III - Greatest Egyptian military leader.
    Expanded Egypt to its greatest size
  • Ramesses II Strong military pharaoh. He built
    magnificent cities and structures. Pharaoh who
    dealt with Moses during the Hebrew Exodus

35
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37
Ancient EgyptAge of Decline(1085 BC - 30 BC)
  • A series of weak rulers gradually lost power and
    territory
  • 575 BC - Egypt conquered by Persians
  • 332 BC - Egypt conquered by Alexander the Great
    and the Greeks
  • 30 BC The last Pharaoh Cleopatra dies and Egypt
    is added to the Roman Empire
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