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Physical Geography

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Physical Geography Looking at the Earth Geography involves the study of places: their locations, their characteristics, and how humans use and move around them. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical Geography


1
Physical Geography Looking at the Earth
Geography involves the study of places their
locations, their characteristics, and how humans
use and move around them.
Satellite image of Africa, Europe, Asia, and
Australia.
NEXT
2
Physical Geography Looking at the Earth
The Five Themes of Geography
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
The Geographers Tools
NEXT
3
Geographers view the world in terms of the use
of space.
Geographers study the world by looking at
location, place, region, movement, and
human-environment interaction.
NEXT
4
SECTION
The Five Themes of Geography
1
The Geographers Perspective
Geographers and Historians Historians look at
events over time Geographers look at - use of
space on Earth - interactions that take place
there - patterns and connections between people
and land Geography is the study of the
distribution and interaction of - physical
features on Earth - human features on Earth
Continued . . .
NEXT
5
SECTION
1
continued The Geographers Perspective
Methods of Geography Geographers use a variety
of tools - maps - photographs - charts,
graphs, tables - scale models - five themes of
geography
Image
NEXT
6
SECTION
1
Theme Location
Where is it? Absolute locationexact place
where a geographic feature is found Relative
locationlocation of a place compared to places
around it
Continued . . .
NEXT
7
SECTION
1
continued Theme Location
Absolute Location Earth is divided into two
equal halves, vertically and horizontally Each
vertical and horizontal half is called a
hemisphere An imaginary line, the Equator,
divides north and south halves Another
imaginary line, the Prime Meridian, divides east
and west
Map
Continued . . .
NEXT
8
SECTION
1
continued Theme Location
Latitude Lines Geographers use latitude lines
to locate places north and south Latitudeimagin
ary lines that run parallel to the equator
Map
Longitude Lines Geographers use longitude lines
to mark positions east and west Longitudeimagin
ary lines that go over the poles Where latitude
and longitude lines cross is the absolute
location
Map
Continued . . .
NEXT
9
SECTION
1
continued Theme Location
Relative Location How a place is related to its
surrounding environment
NEXT
10
SECTION
1
Theme Place
What is it Like? Place includes physical
features and cultural characteristics - physical
features include climate, landforms, vegetatio
n - cultural characteristics include dams,
highways, houses
Image
NEXT
11
SECTION
1
Theme Region
How are Places Similar or Different? A region
is an area united by similar characteristics Uni
fying characteristicsphysical, political,
economic, cultural Three types of
regions - formal - functional - perceptual
Continued . . .
NEXT
12
SECTION
1
continued Theme Region
Formal Regions Defined by a limited number of
related characteristics Formal regions of the
world - The United States and Canada - Latin
America - Europe - Russia and the
Republics - Africa - Southwest Asia - South
Asia - East Asia - Southeast Asia, Oceania, and
Antarctica
Continued . . .
NEXT
13
SECTION
1
continued Theme Region
Functional Regions Organized around
interactions and connections between
places Example a city and its suburbs are
connected through human movement
Perceptual Regions Region with characteristics
people perceive in much the same way Example
the American Midwest Sometimes perceptions
differ Does Midwest begin in Ohio or Illinois?
NEXT
14
SECTION
1
Theme Human-Environment Interaction
How Do People Relate to the Physical World? A
relationship exists between people and their
environment People use and change the
environment to meet their needs People adapt to
environmental conditions they cannot
change Often, people in similar environments
adapt in different ways
Image
NEXT
15
SECTION
1
Theme Movement
How Do People, Goods, and Ideas Get from One
Place to Another? Geographers use three types
of distance to analyze movement - linear
distance - time distance - psychological
distance
Image
Linear Distance and Time Distance Linear
distancehow far a person, product, or idea
travels Time distancehow long it takes for
person, product, idea to travel
Continued . . .
NEXT
16
SECTION
1
continued Theme Movement
Psychological Distance Refers to the way people
perceive distance Example unfamiliar places
may seem farther away than familiar ones
NEXT
17
Geographers use two- and three-dimensional
tools to learn about the earth.
Geographers use computer-assisted technology to
study the use of the earths surface.
NEXT
18
SECTION
The Geographers Tools
2
Maps and Globes
Visualizing Earth Oldest known map Babylonian
clay tablet, circa 500 B.C. Maps show locations
of places, landforms, bodies of water
Continued . . .
NEXT
19
SECTION
2
continued Maps and Globes
Two or Three Dimensions Globea
three-dimensional representation (a sphere) of
Earth Mapa two-dimensional graphic
representation of Earths surface Cartographer
(mapmaker) tries to accurately reflect earths
surface Map projectionway of showing Earths
curved surface on a flat map
Interactive
Continued . . .
NEXT
20
SECTION
2
continued Maps and Globes
Types of Maps Three types of maps general
reference, thematic, navigational A
topographic map is one kind of general
reference map Topographic mapshows natural
and man-made features of earth Thematic
mapshows specific data such as climate,
population density A navigation map is used by
sailors, pilots
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21
SECTION
The Geographers Tool
2
The Science of Mapmaking
Surveying Surveyors observe, measure, record
what they see in a specific area Remote
sensing, gathering geographic data from a
distance, includes - aerial photography - satel
lite imaging
Interactive
Continued . . .
NEXT
22
SECTION
2
continued The Science of Mapmaking
Satellites Best known satellites are Landsat
and GOES Landsat is a series of satellites can
scan entire planet in 16 days Geostationary
Operational Environment Satellite
(GOES) - orbits in sync with Earths
rotation - gathers images of atmospheric
conditions
Continued . . .
NEXT
23
SECTION
2
continued The Science of Mapmaking
Geographic Information Systems Geographic
Information Systems (GIS) is a digital geographic
database Combines and displays information from
many sources
Global Positioning System (GPS) Uses series of
24 Navstar satellites to beam information to
Earth Hand-held GPS receivers on Earth display
exact position GPS used by explorers, sailors,
drivers also used to track animals
NEXT
24
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25
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