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Today: a series of developments in the mid-fifteenth century

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Today: a series of developments in the mid-fifteenth century 1492 Muslim Granada falls and Jews expelled from Spain 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella send an Italian sailor ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Today: a series of developments in the mid-fifteenth century


1
Today a series of developments in the
mid-fifteenth century
2
Be thinking about. . .
  • To what extent was this event both rooted in
    local geographies and yet influential far beyond
    that space?

3
Be thinking about. . .
  • To what extent was this event both rooted in
    local geographies and yet influential far beyond
    that space?
  • To what extent does this development reflect
    continuity with the past?

4
Be thinking about. . .
  • To what extent was this event both rooted in
    local geographies and yet influential far beyond
    that space?
  • To what extent does this development reflect
    continuity with the past?
  • How feasible is it to separate political and
    religious factors in these circumstances?

5
1. The Emergence of Printing (c. 1450)
6
Fust, Gutenberg, Schoeffer . . . Invention of
movable type a process
7
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8
Pressure Frame
9
First Printed Documents include
  • Poem on the Last Judgment
  • Astronomical Calendar
  • Papal indulgence for fighting the Turks
  • Gutenberg bible

10
Gutenberg Bible (c.1455) early print mimics
manuscripts!
11
Mainz Catholicon (1460)
  • Printed without help of reed, stylus or pen but
    by the marvelous concord, proportion and harmony
    of punches and types. . .

12
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13
Printing 1450 - 1500
  • By the beginning of the sixteenth century, more
    than 6 million books had been printed, with the
    average edition running between 200 to 1,000
    copies.
  • In 1500, about 35,000 books were published each
    year in Europe, and a century later the number
    had jumped to between 150,000 and 200,000 books.

14
Pope Alexander VI (1501)
  • The art of printing is very useful insofar as
    it furthers the circulation of useful and tested
    books but it can be very harmful if it is
    permitted to widen the influence of pernicious
    works. It will therefore be necessary to
    maintain full control over the printers so that
    they may be prevented from bringing into print
    writings which are antagonistic to the Catholic
    faith or which are likely to cause trouble to
    believers.

15
What were the historical consequences of printing
technology?
  • New pedagogical possibilities
  • Expansion of literacy
  • Standardization of languages
  • Stimulated scholarship
  • Enabled propaganda, etc.
  • (Some criticized it as cheap and vulgar)

16
2. Single-Point Perspective
17
Filippo Brunelleschis innovation at the
Baptistry (c.1424)
18
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19
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20
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21
3. New critical perspectives on texts and history
22
Lorenzo Valla (1406-1457)
  • How does one prove a forgery?

23
Lorenzo Valla (1406-1457)
  • How does one prove a forgery?
  • Incorrect language and terminology
  • Errors of fact
  • Incompatible characters
  • Behavior anomalies
  • Lack of supporting evidence
  • Contradiction by historical records
  • Reason to suspect fraud
  • Etc.

24
4. The Fall of Constantinople (1453)
25
5. Portuguese Exploration (Henry the Navigator,
1395 1460)
26
Consequences of Ottoman expansion for European
trade?
27
Portuguese exploration by 1500
28
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29
The Slave Trade in Africa (Existing slave trade
routes by 1400)
30
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31
Portuguese round the tip of Africa to meet up
with eastern trade routes
32
6. 1469 marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and
Isabella of Castile
33
1478 founding of the Spanish Inquisition
34
1492 Muslim Granada falls and Jews expelled from
Spain
35
1492 Ferdinand and Isabella send an Italian
sailor to find a new route to India
36
  • Maps of Spanish exploration

37
The Atlantic Trading Triangle
38
Rethinking Late-Medieval Europe Decline? Bridge?
Transition? Recovery and reconnaissance?
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