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The Ratification Debate Chapter 4.2

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Title: The Ratification Debate Chapter 4.2


1
The Ratification Debate Chapter 4.2
2
I. Ratifying Process
  • 9 of thirteen states need to ratify (agree)
  • Ratified at state conventions, not legislatures
  • State legs. Might fear losing power, and vote no.
  • New Hampshire is 9th State to ratify
  • NY and VA dont agree immediately
  • Big, populated states
  • Const. would probably fail w/out them
  • 1789 Constitution goes into effect
  • NC (1788) RI (1790) are last to ratify after
    disagreeing at first.

3
II. Federalists (favor Const.)
  • Favor a strong national government.
  • Argue checks and balances prevent one branch from
    too much power
  • Strong Gov needed to
  • Facilitate interstate and foreign trade
  • National defense
  • Foreign relations (war, treaties)
  • Bill of Rights not needed
  • Const. protected rights (people govern selves)
  • Most states already had basic bill of rights

4
III. Anti-Federalists (oppose Const.)
  • In favor of strong state governments.
  • Believe national gov would take power from
    states.
  • National Bill of Rights is necessary.
  • Forced Federalists to agree this would be
    Congress first task.

5
IV. Federalist Papers
  • Written to win approval on Const. in NY
  • Authors J. Madison, A. Hamilton, John Jay
  • Recognized as the most sophisticated explanation
    of American political system.
  • s 10. 84 are the most important/famous
  • Argued
  • A republic could survive in a territory as big as
    the USA because political factions (group) would
    check each others power.
  • National gov more important than states, but only
    in areas where Const. gives it power.

6
VI. Why the Federalists Won
  • Widespread opinion that Articles of Confederation
    are bad. (Shays Rebellion)
  • Federalist had a plan (Const.)
  • - Anti-Federalists had no plan.
  • Federalists had a national network to talk.
  • - Anti-Feds were scattered state local
    politicians
  • George Washington is a Federalist - He chaired
    the Const. Convention
  • - Wasnt power hungry
  • - Everyone knew him, and knew hed be 1st
    President
  • Federalist Papers

7
VII. Virginias Influence
  • Virginia Declaration of Rights
  • By George Mason
  • Reiterated the notion that basic rights should
    not be violated by governments.
  • Virginia Statute (Law) for Religious Freedom
  • By Thomas Jefferson
  • Outlawed the established church that is, the
    practice of government support for one favorite
    church.
  • Bill of Rights
  • James Madison
  • Consulted the above items when he drafted the
    Bill of Rights.

8
Question
  • What do you think the Bill of Rights should
    protect?

9
  • The Bill of Rights and the Constitution
  • Chapter 4.3

10
I. Bill of Rights
  • First Ten Amendments to the Constitution
  • Took effect in 1791.
  • Protect certain basic rights of all citizens
  • Which means any white male who is old enough (and
    who usually has land).

11
1st Amendment
  • Congress shall make no law respecting an
    establishment of religion, or prohibiting the
    free exercise thereof or abridging the freedom
    of speech, or of the press or the right of the
    people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the
    government for a redress of grievance.

12
2nd Amendment
  • A well regulated militia, being necessary to the
    security of a free state, the right of the people
    to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

13
3rd Amendment
  • No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered
    in any house, without the consent of the owner,
    nor in time of war, but in a manner to be
    prescribed by law.

14
4th Amendment
  • The right of the people to be secure in their
    persons, houses, papers, and effects, against
    unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be
    violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon
    probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation,
    and particularly describing the place to be
    searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

15
5th Amendment
  • No person shall be held to answer for a capital,
    or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a
    presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except
    in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or
    in the militia, when in actual service in time of
    war or public danger nor shall any person be
    subject for the same offense to be twice put in
    jeopardy of life or limb nor shall be compelled
    in any criminal case to be a witness against
    himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or
    property, without due process of law nor shall
    private property be taken for public use, without
    just compensation.

16
6th Amendment
  • In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall
    enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by
    an impartial jury of the state and district
    wherein the crime shall have been committed,
    which district shall have been previously
    ascertained by law, and to be informed of the
    nature and cause of the accusation to be
    confronted with the witnesses against him to
    have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses
    in his favor, and to have the assistance of
    counsel for his defense.

17
7th Amendment
  • In suits at common law, where the value in
    controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the
    right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no
    fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise
    reexamined in any court of the United States,
    than according to the rules of the common law.

18
8th Amendment
  • Excessive bail shall not be required, nor
    excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual
    punishments inflicted.

19
9th Amendment
  • The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain
    rights, shall not be construed to deny or
    disparage others retained by the people.

20
10th Amendment
  • The powers not delegated to the United States by
    the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the
    states, are reserved to the states respectively,
    or to the people.

21
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
22
1st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
23
1st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress.
2nd Right to bear arms (weapons)
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
24
1st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress.
2nd Right to bear arms (weapons)
3rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens homes.
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
25
1st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress.
2nd Right to bear arms (weapons)
3rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens homes.
4th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures.
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
26
1st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress.
2nd Right to bear arms (weapons)
3rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens homes.
4th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures.
5th Grand jury required no self-incrimination no double jeopardy no taking of private property with compensation.
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
27
1st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress.
2nd Right to bear arms (weapons)
3rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens homes.
4th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures.
5th Grand jury required no self-incrimination no double jeopardy no taking of private property with compensation.
6th Right to a fair and swift trial.
7th
8th
9th
10th
28
1st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress.
2nd Right to bear arms (weapons)
3rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens homes.
4th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures.
5th Grand jury required no self-incrimination no double jeopardy no taking of private property with compensation.
6th Right to a fair and swift trial.
7th Right to a jury trial in civil cases in federal courts.
8th
9th
10th
29
1st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress.
2nd Right to bear arms (weapons)
3rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens homes.
4th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures.
5th Grand jury required no self-incrimination no double jeopardy no taking of private property with compensation.
6th Right to a fair and swift trial.
7th Right to a jury trial in civil cases in federal courts.
8th Protects against cruel unusual punishment and excessive bail.
9th
10th
30
1st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress.
2nd Right to bear arms (weapons)
3rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens homes.
4th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures.
5th Grand jury required no self-incrimination no double jeopardy no taking of private property with compensation.
6th Right to a fair and swift trial.
7th Right to a jury trial in civil cases in federal courts.
8th Protects against cruel unusual punishment and excessive bail.
9th Establishes people have rights beyond those stated in the Constitution.
10th
31
1st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress.
2nd Right to bear arms (weapons)
3rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens homes.
4th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures.
5th Grand jury required no self-incrimination no double jeopardy no taking of private property with compensation.
6th Right to a fair and swift trial.
7th Right to a jury trial in civil cases in federal courts.
8th Protects against cruel unusual punishment and excessive bail.
9th Establishes people have rights beyond those stated in the Constitution.
10th All powers not given to feds or denied to the states are held by each state, or the people.
32
of states needing to ratify to make Const law.
Group that opposed the Constitution.
Group that supported the Constitution.
Favored national gov.
Favored state govs.
Wanted Bill of Rights
Did not want Bill of Rights
33
of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine
Group that opposed the Constitution.
Group that supported the Constitution.
Favored national gov.
Favored state govs.
Wanted Bill of Rights
Did not want Bill of Rights
34
of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine
Group that opposed the Constitution. Anti-Federalists
Group that supported the Constitution.
Favored national gov.
Favored state govs.
Wanted Bill of Rights
Did not want Bill of Rights
35
of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine
Group that opposed the Constitution. Anti-Federalists
Group that supported the Constitution. Federalists
Favored national gov.
Favored state govs.
Wanted Bill of Rights
Did not want Bill of Rights
36
of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine
Group that opposed the Constitution. Anti-Federalists
Group that supported the Constitution. Federalists
Favored national gov. Federalists
Favored state govs.
Wanted Bill of Rights
Did not want Bill of Rights
37
of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine
Group that opposed the Constitution. Anti-Federalists
Group that supported the Constitution. Federalists
Favored national gov. Federalists
Favored state govs. Anti-Federalists
Wanted Bill of Rights
Did not want Bill of Rights
38
of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine
Group that opposed the Constitution. Anti-Federalists
Group that supported the Constitution. Federalists
Favored national gov. Federalists
Favored state govs. Anti-Federalists
Wanted Bill of Rights Anti-Federalists
Did not want Bill of Rights
39
of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine
Group that opposed the Constitution. Anti-Federalists
Group that supported the Constitution. Federalists
Favored national gov. Federalists
Favored state govs. Anti-Federalists
Wanted Bill of Rights Anti-Federalists
Did not want Bill of Rights Federalists
40
Authored the Federalist Papers
Most Important Federalist
VA law that protected basic human rights
VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion
He drafted the Bill of Rights
1st Ten Amendments to the Constitution.
2nd Amendment Right
41
Authored the Federalist Papers Madison, Hamilton, Jay
Most Important Federalist
VA law that protected basic human rights
VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion
He drafted the Bill of Rights
1st Ten Amendments to the Constitution.
2nd Amendment Right
42
Authored the Federalist Papers Madison, Hamilton, Jay
Most Important Federalist George Washington
VA law that protected basic human rights
VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion
He drafted the Bill of Rights
1st Ten Amendments to the Constitution.
2nd Amendment Right
43
Authored the Federalist Papers Madison, Hamilton, Jay
Most Important Federalist George Washington
VA law that protected basic human rights VA Declaration of Rights
VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion
He drafted the Bill of Rights
1st Ten Amendments to the Constitution.
2nd Amendment Right
44
Authored the Federalist Papers Madison, Hamilton, Jay
Most Important Federalist George Washington
VA law that protected basic human rights VA Declaration of Rights
VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion VA Statue for Religious Freedom
He drafted the Bill of Rights
1st Ten Amendments to the Constitution.
2nd Amendment Right
45
Authored the Federalist Papers Madison, Hamilton, Jay
Most Important Federalist George Washington
VA law that protected basic human rights VA Declaration of Rights
VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion VA Statue for Religious Freedom
He drafted the Bill of Rights James Madison
1st Ten Amendments to the Constitution.
2nd Amendment Right
46
Authored the Federalist Papers Madison, Hamilton, Jay
Most Important Federalist George Washington
VA law that protected basic human rights VA Declaration of Rights
VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion VA Statue for Religious Freedom
He drafted the Bill of Rights James Madison
1st Ten Amendments to the Constitution. Bill of Rights
2nd Amendment Right
47
Authored the Federalist Papers Madison, Hamilton, Jay
Most Important Federalist George Washington
VA law that protected basic human rights VA Declaration of Rights
VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion VA Statue for Religious Freedom
He drafted the Bill of Rights James Madison
1st Ten Amendments to the Constitution. Bill of Rights
2nd Amendment Right Right to bear arms
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