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Pharaohs of Egypt

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Pharaohs of Egypt By: Josh Chee, Brandon Lopez, and Brendan Gosse Pharaohs Pharaohs were the kings of Egypt. The word Pharaoh was used by the Greeks and Hebrews. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pharaohs of Egypt


1
Pharaohs of Egypt
  • By Josh Chee, Brandon Lopez, and Brendan Gosse

2
(No Transcript)
3
Pharaohs
  • Pharaohs were the kings of Egypt.
  • The word Pharaoh was used by the Greeks and
    Hebrews.
  • The title Pharaoh originated from the Greek
    language and it is used in the Old Testament.
  • According to Egyptian legend, the first kings of
    Egypt were later some of the most famous gods.
  • All of the Pharaohs we know today existed at the
    end of the Predynastic period.

4
Responsibility Of Pharaohs
  • Pharaohs ruled with absolute power. There were
    few if any challenged against the King.
  • Despite absolute power the Pharaoh was expected
    to rule subject to Maat.
  • Maat was the goddess and symbol of the
    equilibrium of the universe.
  • The Pharaoh was expected to govern according to
    the principles of Maat.
  • Any King that attempted to radically change
    society would be seen as destroying the
    equilibrium that was so important to Egyptian
    tradition.

5
Succession
  • To keep the pure line of succession, a Pharaoh
    passed on the throne to the eldest son born of
    the Principal Queen, or Great Royal Wife.
  • Each king was usually keen to demonstrate to his
    subjects that he was the chosen heir.
  • The Pharaoh owned all of the land, people, and
    possessions in Egypt.
  • Any personal wealth enjoyed by Egyptians people
    was considered a result of the generosity of the
    King.

6
Major Male Pharaohs
  • There were several Pharaohs of Egypt. However, we
    will focus on the main male Pharaohs
  • Menes
  • Tuthmosis III
  • Akenaton
  • Djoser
  • Ramses II
  • Khufu
  • Tutankhamen

7
Menes
  • Founding King of the 1st Dynasty
  • Ruled between 3100-2850 B.C.E
  • First Pharaoh to unify upper and lower Egypt into
    one Kingdom
  • Ancient Egypts form of a civilization began with
    King Menes.
  • He created the city of Memphis because of its
    good location. It would be easy top defend
    against any attacks.
  • During his reign he expanded his kingdom and
    developed commercial trade links.

8
Menes
  • His chief wife was Queen Berenib, although she
    wasnt the mother of his heir Djer.
  • The mother of Djer was Neithotepe, Menes other
    wife.
  • He died at the age of 63.
  • According to legend he was attacked by wild dogs
    or Nile crocodiles at Faiyum.
  • He died leaving behind the legacy of a powerful
    civilization.
  • His tomb lays at Saqqara, the farmed area of
    Memphis.

9
Tuthmosis III
  • The son of Tuthmosis II and Isris
  • When is father died his stepmother, Hatsheput,
    took charge.
  • She was Tuthmosis III co-regent and for 20 years
    he was pushed into the background as she ruled
    Egypt.
  • When she died Tuthmosis III came to the throne.
  • As an act of revenge or retribution, he destroyed
    as many of Hatsheputs statues, monuements and
    buildings.

10
Tuthmosis III
  • He was remembered for is successful military
    capaigns.
  • He had numerous victories against Syria, Libya
    and Nubia.
  • In his lifetime he married several foreign
    princesses, apparently for diplomatic reasons.
  • His chief queen was Hatsheput-Merytre.
  • King Tuthmosis III established Egypt as a
    powerful military strength.
  • King Tuthmosis III died in his 55th year of
    reigning and was buried in the Valley of the
    Kings.

11
Akenaton
  • Original name was Amonhotep IV.
  • Reigned 1350-1334 B.C.E
  • He wanted to change the Egyptian supreme god from
    Amon-Re to Aton.
  • Therefore he changed his name to Akenaton which
    means he who serves Aton
  • He also built a new city called Akhetaton.
  • This was the first attempt at radically changing
    the Egyptian religion.

12
Akenaton
  • His wife was Nefertiti who was known for her
    beauty.
  • Today, Akenaton is remembered for trying to
    introduce monotheism to Egypt.
  • Monotheism means only one godAton.
  • It is not sure how Akenaton died but the text two
    kings, Smenkhkara and Tutankhamun were apparently
    sons-in-law to Akenaton.
  • After his reign Egypt returned back to their old
    Gods.

13
Djoser
  • Djoser reigned for about 19 years.
  • His right hand man, Imhotep, was famous for his
    genius.
  • Imhotep came up with the idea of the step
    pyramid.
  • The pyramids design consisted of six giant steps
    and contained many chambers and secret tunnels.
  • It is believed that during Djosers reign, he
    extended the Egyptian Southern Border all the way
    to the Niles First Cataract.
  • He left behind the legacy of the step pyramid,
    which was the basis of all other pyramids to come.

14
Rames II
  • Went to the throne at the age of 20 and reigned
    for 67 years.
  • This was the second longest reign for any
    Egyptian King.
  • Ramses is remembered for constructing many
    architectural marvels.
  • Constructed more colossal statues than any other
    Egyptian King.
  • Two of his greatest monuments are the two huge
    temples at Abu Simbel.

15
Ramses II
  • Ramses also had many military victories.
  • Not long after the reign of Ramses II, Egypt was
    invaded and eventually fell to the rule of
    foreigners.
  • Ramses not only excelled in architecture but he
    also had a great number of wives.
  • By the end of his life Ramses had over 100
    children!
  • After his death Ramses son, Menataph, became the
    heir to the throne.

16
Khufu
  • Khufu lived from 2589-2566 B.C.E
  • He reigned for around 24 years.
  • Khufu is most remembered for building Great
    Pyramid of Giza.
  • The pyramid originally stood 481 feet tall.
  • Khufu had many sons but the one chosen to be his
    successor was Djedefre.
  • Khufu left behind the legacy of the Great Pyramid
    and even today its still a mystery to how it was
    built.

17
Tutankhamen
  • King Tutankhamen came to the throne at a very
    young age.
  • When his father died, believed to be Akhenaton,
    he became King at age 10.
  • King Tutankhamen helped restore Egypt's old
    beliefs from when his father tried to make Egypt
    a monotheism society.
  • He died suddenly at the young age of 18 by a blow
    to the back of his head.
  • Since his tomb had not yet been made, he was laid
    in a tomb of a member of the nobility.
  • He is famous today because of his tomb found by
    archaeologists. Some say it was the most
    important archaeological find.

18
Bibliography
  • Brier, Bob. PhD. History of ancient Egypt. The
    First Nation in History. The Learning Company.
    2001.
  • Dowling, Mike. The Pharaoh. West Palm Beach
    Florida, 23 Oct. 2004. 18 Oct. 2006
    http//www.mrdowling.com/604-pharaoh.html.
  • Dunn, Jimmy. Egypt Feature Story The Kings
    (Pharaohs) of Ancient Egypt. 1996. 18 Oct. 2006
    http//www.touregypt.net/featurestories/pharaohs.h
    tm.
  • Newman, Garfield. Echoes from the Past. Whitby,
    Ontario McGraw - Hill Ryerson Limited, 2001.
  • Pharaoh." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006.
    Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 18 t. 2006 .
    lthttp//www.britannica.com/eb/article-9059581gt.
  • THE ASTRA CORPORATION LIMITED . Egyptology
    Online Discovering Ancient Egypt. 2001. 18 Oct.
    2006 http//www.egyptologyonline.com/pharaohs.htm.
     

19
Discussion Questions
  1. In your opinion, was it right for the Pharaohs to
    rule with absolute power? Explain.
  2. Do you think Egypt would be so well known today
    if Pharaohs did not exist?
  3. In ancient Egypt all property belonged to the
    Pharaohs, would our society be successful if this
    was true today about the Prime Minister.

20
THE END!!!
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