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Enlightenment

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Title: Enlightenment


1
Enlightenment Revolution
  • Chapter 6

2
6.1
  • Scientific Revolution

3
Scientific Revolution
  • The scientific revolution was a period when new
    ideas in physics, astronomy, biology, human
    anatomy, chemistry, and other sciences led to a
    rejection of doctrines that had prevailed
    starting in Ancient Greece and continuing through
    the Middle Ages, and laid the foundation of
    MODERN SCIENCE.

4
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5
The Church
6
Knowledge vs. Church
7
Revolution In Science
  • The Church (Old Truth) vs. The Scientists
  • Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Theory (1st Time)

8
Nicolas Copernicus
  • Discovered
  • Heliocentric Theory
  • Solar system
  • Brahe Kepler mathematical proof

9
Galileo Galilei
  • Telescope-maker
  • Starry Messenger (Book)
  • Copernicus Theory
  • Went Against Church teachingsent to inquisition
  • Confessed that Copernicus teaching were false
  • 1992 exoneration

10
Sir Francis Bacon
  • Discovered
  • Empiricism Theory
  • Experiment FIRST THEN Conclusion
  • Significance
  • New Theories Knowledge Process

11
Rene Descartes
  • Believed SCIENTISTS should REJECT old assumptions
    teachings
  • DOUBT BEFORE TRUTH
  • Begin w/nothing, then build
  • I think, therefore I am

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13
Ideas Action Reality Enlightenment
Revolution Modern World
14
Scientific Method
  • Method Is
  • 1 Problem or question
  • 2 Hypothesis
  • 3 Experiment testing
  • 4 Analyze, interpret conclusion
  • SIGNIFICANCE A new process of thinking that led
    to the discovery of new knowledge that has
    MODERNIZED THE WORLD!

15
The Scientific Revolution INSPIRED New Thought
Processes
16
Sir Isaac Newton
  • Discovered
  • Law of Gravity
  • Law of Attraction
  • Laws of Motion
  • Giant Clock Theory
  • God the Clockmaker created then set everything
    into motion
  • Newton Brought everything together

17
Scientific Revolution Spreads
  • New Fields of Science
  • Medicine (vaccinations)
  • Anatomy (systems organs)
  • Chemistry
  • Biology, Physics
  • New instruments
  • telescope (outer space),
  • microscope (Janssen, invisible),
  • thermometer (Fahrenheit Celsius, temperature),
  • barometer (Torricelli, weather)

18
Edward Jenner
  • 1 KILLER into
  • SMALL POX cure!
  • Worlds 1st Vaccination

19
The Scientific Revolution INSPIRED New Medicines
20
QUICK WRITE How did the Scientific Revolution
Change The World?
21
Scientific Revolution Impact
  • New instruments
  • New technology
  • New inventions
  • New thinking process
  • New laws of nature
  • New medicines
  • New human anatomy

22
The Scientific Revolution INSPIRED The
Enlightenment
23
Conclusions
  • Reason order in SCIENCE led to a re-thinking of
    the long held beliefs about the laws of running a
    society in the best way for everyonerights
    liberties
  • THE PEOPLE ARE BEGINNING TO RISE!

24
Check For Understanding
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26
The Enlightenment
  • CH. 6
  • SECTION 2

27
Centers of the Enlightenment
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29
Enlightenment
  • The Enlightenment philosophers admired scientists
    use of reason to understand the natural world.
    These philosophers promote the use of reason to
    understand government, religion, education, and
    economics. They advocate government reform and
    social improvement.

30
  • ???Enlightenment or Absolutism???
  • EEnlightenment, AAbsolutism
  • Progress___ Tradition___ Reason___
  • Blind Faith___ Education___Ignorance___
    Tolerance___ Intolerance___ Reading___
    Illiteracy___ Capitalism___ Mercantilism___
    Trial___ Torture___Freedom___
  • Censorship___ Liberty___ Oppression___ Secular___
    Religious___ The Church____

31
Philosophes Pursued the following
  • Reason
  • Truth discovered through logical thinking
  • Reason was the absence of intolerance, bigotry,
    or prejudice in ones thinking
  • Nature
  • Nature was good reasonable and applied to
    everything
  • Happiness
  • Living by natures laws brings happiness in this
    life, misery in this world to achieve well being
    in the next is unacceptable
  • Progress
  • Society and mankind could be perfected over time
  • Liberty
  • Society could be set free from tyranny

32
  • Enlightenment
  • Progress
  • Reason
  • Education
  • Tolerance
  • Reading
  • Capitalism
  • Trial
  • Freedom
  • Liberty
  • Secular
  • Absolutism (OLD)
  • Tradition
  • Blind Faith
  • Ignorance
  • Intolerance
  • Illiteracy
  • Mercantilism
  • Torture
  • Censorship
  • Oppression
  • Religious

33
The Great Debate
Reason Logic
Traditions and Superstitions
  • rationalism
  • empiricism
  • tolerance
  • skepticism
  • Deism
  • nostalgia for the past
  • organized religions
  • irrationalism
  • Emotionalism
  • Fundamentalism

34
Two Views On Government
  • John Locke
  • Goal of Government
  • Protecting natural rights
  • Natural Rights of life, liberty, property
  • Consent of the people
  • Role of the People
  • People are good
  • Must follow laws, make progress
  • Revolution is right if government fails
  • Thomas Hobbes
  • Goal of Government
  • Keep law order
  • Prevent civil war
  • Role of the People
  • People are bad
  • Self Preservation
  • Must give up rights in exchange for law order
  • The Social Contract
  • Leviathan 1651

35
Voltaire
  • Defended
  • Tolerance, reason, freedom of religion freedom
    of speech
  • Critiques Satire
  • Waged a thinkers war, his weapon was his pen,
    his enemy was intolerance, prejudice
    superstition (Crush the evil thing)
  • Writings
  • Candide (Mocked the laws customs of France)
  • Social reformer
  • I may disagree with what you say but I will
    defend to the death your right to say it.
    -Voltaire

36
Montesquieu
  • Greatest Idea
  • Separation of Powers
  • 3 Branches of Rule
  • Best way to protect Liberty
  • Checks balances
  • "government should be set up so that no man need
    be afraid of another.
  • Writings
  • On the Spirit of Laws
  • Persian Letters
  • Social Commentator
  • Power should be
  • a check to power.

37
Rousseau
  • Great IDEA (Problem)
  • People are good, and society is corrupt
  • Civilization has corrupted man and destroyed
    freedom equality
  • Great Idea (Solution)
  • General Will (The Social Contract)
  • Consent of the governed
  • Direct democracy
  • Obedience to the will of all
  • No titles of nobility
  • Ideas shaped the French Revolution
  • Man is born free and everywhere he is in
    chains. -Rousseau

38
Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Legacy (Feminist)
  • Womens Rights Activist
  • Women not inferior to men
  • Education for all women
  • Equality for all women
  • Doctors not just nurses
  • Writings
  • A Vindication of the Rights of Women
  • Mother of Mary Shelley
  • Author of Frankenstein

39
Cesare Beccaria
  • REFORM Justice system
  • Laws for ORDER, not avenging CRIME
  • CRITICIZED Torturing witnesses, unfair trials,
    cruel unusual punishment
  • DESIRED speedy trial, torture out, punishment
    fitting the crime, no death penalty

40
Legacy of the Enlightenment
  • 1. Challenged long-held beliefs and discovered
    the need to reform
  • 2. Discovered a belief in progress
  • 3. Secular outlook non-religious, separation of
    Church State, no more superstition fear
  • 4. Importance of the individual- individualism
    (self guidance responsibility)

41
Check For Understanding
42
The Enlightenment Enlightenment Ideas Spread
  • CH. 6
  • SECTION 3

43
Salons
44
Salons
  • Social gatherings for writers, philosophers, and
    artists to discuss news ideas
  • Turned into an Institution of the Enlightenment

45
The Enlightenment Spreads
  • Encyclopedia
  • Denis Diderot (Editor)
  • 28 volumes
  • 25 years to produce
  • On many topics
  • Essays from Philosophes
  • Controversial Collection
  • Excommunication
  • Attack on public morals
  • Denis Diderot

46
Encyclopedia To change the way of thinking!
  • Essays written about (28 volumes)
  • Evils of Slavery slave trading
  • Attacked divine right theory, absolutism
  • Freedom of speech natural rights
  • The need for Education for everyone
  • "All things must be examined, debated,
    investigated without exception and without regard
    for anyone's feelings." - Denis Diderot
    explaining the goal of the Encyclopedia

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48
The Challenge of New Ideas
  • Paris, France
  • The New Athens Heart of Enlightenment
  • Ideas debated, Pamphlets were distributed
  • Ideas spread everywhere in Europe
  • Books, Encyclopedias, salons, Enlightened Despots
  • Government Church
  • Sacred duty to defend Gods Old Order
  • Censorship (The Index, Inquisition)
  • Burned books, imprisoned writers
  • Secret books (Candide Persian Letters)
  • Disguised their ideas in fiction, aliases

49
Enlightened Despots Leaders who used their power
to bring about political social change called
reforms.
  • Frederick the Great (Prussia)
  • First servant of the state
  • Assisted peasants religious freedom
  • Joseph II (Austria)
  • The Peasants Emperor
  • Abolished serfdom
  • Religious freedom
  • Abolished censorship
  • Sold Church property to build hospitals
  • Catherine the Great (Russia)
  • Criticized the institution of serfdom
  • Fought the enemies of Superstition, fanaticism,
    ignorance trickeryAdded Black Sea Poland
    (International power)

50
Enlightenment Art, Literature Music
  • The Novel
  • Fictional stories
  • Classical Music
  • Structured form
  • Ballets Operas
  • Baroque
  • grand, ornate style
  • Neoclassical- (replaced Baroque)
  • order balance, elegance, personal art
    Greeks/Romans

51
The Novel
  • Mid 1700s
  • Novels are long works of prose fiction
  • Stories about their own times
  • Middle class readers
  • This new style became very popular
  • Robinson Crusoe
  • Pamela

52
New Trends In Music
  • Ballets Operas
  • Plays set to music
  • Classical Music
  • Structured ordered music
  • Symphony

53
5 Greatest Classical Musicians
  • HANDEL (1685-1759)
  • STYLE Operas, oratorios concertos
  • FAMOUS PIECES Messiah (Centerpiece of Christmas
    Easter)
  • PERSONAL Died very wealthy, unmarried
  • HAYDN (1732-1809)
  • STYLE Father of the symphony the string
    quartet
  • FAMOUS PIECES The Creation
  • PERSONAL Court musician
  • BACH (1685-1750)
  • STYLE Complex beautiful religious works for
    organ choirs (Organist/Violin)
  • FAMOUS PIECES Toccata and Fugue in D minor
  • PERSONAL Supreme composer of the Baroque style
  • MOZART (1756-1791)
  • STYLE Playful, serious, uplifting somber
  • FAMOUS PIECES Magic Flute Don Giovanni
    Marriage of Figaro
  • PERSONAL Worlds 1st Music Superstar
  •  
  • BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)
  • STYLE Large orchestras, pianist
  • FAMOUS PIECES 5th 9th Symphony
  • PERSONAL Deaf before age 30, bridged classical
    into romanticism

54
Enlightenment Legacy
  • Enlightenment Music Classical
  • Enlightenment Art Neoclassical/Baroque
  • Enlightenment Entertainment Operas, Ballets
    Novels, Symphonies
  • Enlightenment Hobby Reading
  • Enlightenment Readings Encyclopedia, Novels,
    Essays, Letters
  • Enlightenment Religion Deism
  • Enlightenment Church/Institution Salons

55
Enlightenment Legacy
  • Enlightenment Government Republic/Democracy/Const
    itutional Monarchy
  • Enlightenment Economics Capitalism
  • Enlightenment Ideology Progress, Reason, REFORM,
    Education, Freedom
  • Enlightenment Heroes Philosophes
    Revolutionaries
  • Enlightenment Enemies Superstition, Ignorance,
    Intolerance, Tyranny

56
The Enlightenment INSPIRED The American Revolution
57
Check For Understanding
58
The American Revolution Birth of the American
Republic
  • CH. 6
  • SECTION 4

59
1775 American Revolution
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62
The 13 English Colonies
  • 1750s Part of Britains growing empire
  • Mercantilist policies applied
  • Many religions ethnicities
  • Did their own thing, felt they were still English
    citizens
  • Wanted a destiny apart from England

63
Reasons For Revolution
  • French Indian War 1763 (HUGE DEBT)
  • England felt colonists should help pay for the
    war (taxes)
  • Unpopular Taxes Trade Restrictions
  • Stamp Act- on all printed matter (Repealed in
    1766)
  • Townshend Act-on everyday items
  • Intolerable Act-punishment for T-Party
  • Navigation Acts- Americans could only sell to
    Britain
  • American Response No taxation without
    representation!

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65
American Revolution Events
  • The American Revolution
  • 1770 Boston Massacre 1773 Boston Tea Party
  • 1774 1st Continental Congress (John Adams)
  • Economic boycott petitioned the King
    w/grievances
  • 1775 Lexington Concord (Shots Heard Around The
    World)
  • 1775 2nd Continental Congress
  • Continental Army 1775 (George Washington)
  • Declaration of Independence 1776,
  • Battle of Saratoga 1777 (Turning Point)
  • British Surrender at Yorktown 1781
  • Articles of Confederation 1781, Constitution 1787

66
Declaring Independence
  • 1776, 2nd Continental Congress decided to declare
    independence
  • Thomas Jefferson wrote the document
  • Emphasizing
  • Popular sovereignty
  • Listed Grievances
  • A New Government
  • Protection of rights

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War for Independence
  • Continental Army vs. British Redcoats (Loyalists)
  • General George Washington Minutemen (Patriots)
  • Began _at_ 1775 Lexington Concord, 2 ½ years
    fighting
  • Guerrilla Fighting Tactics (Hit Run/Home field)
  • Turning Point (Saratoga, 1777)
  • British surrender _at_ Yorktown in 1781
  • Reasons for victory
  • Defending homeland, British overconfidence, time
    was on Americas side, Foreign (French) allies,
    taxes (too expensive to continue)
  • Treaty of Paris 1783

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70
CONSTITUTION SIGNING
71
America Creates a Republic The Making Of A New
Government
  • 1781 Articles of Confederation (Ineffective)
  • Republic, States System w/weak national
    government (fear of government interference)
  • Only one branch, Congress, ruled the land
  • 1787 Constitution (Brought everything together)
  • Federal System Created (power divided between
    national state government)
  • Three Branches, separation of powers w/checks
    balances set up
  • 1791 Bill of Rights (Reason, Reform Progress)
  • 1st 10 amendments, guaranteeing natural rights

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The Bill of Rights
  • A summary list of the rights deemed most
    important to a people
  • 1st Ten Amendments of the U.S. Constitution
  • Demanded by the Anti-federalists to ratify
  • Enlightenment Ideas into practice

74
Amendments To The Constitution
  • 13th ???
  • 15th, 19th,26th ???
  • 18th 21st ???
  • (Reason, Reform Progress)

75
U.S. Constitution
76
Enlightenment Ideas and the Constitution
77
Democratic Rights Values Making life worth
living.
  • Life
  • Liberty
  • Property
  • Right to food
  • Right to work
  • Right to education
  • Freedom of Speech
  • Freedom Press
  • Freedom of Religion
  • The right to bear arms
  • The right to assemble
  • Equality before Law
  • Trial by jury of peers
  • Innocent until proven guilty
  • Right to Vote

78
American Revolution Legacy
  • 1st nation to REVOLUTION
  • Its possible to overthrow the government!
  • 1787 U.S. Constitution
  • Rule of Law
  • Federal Republic
  • National State Governments

79
The American Revolution INSPIRED The French
Revolution
80
Check For Understanding
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