Understanding the Special Education Process - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Understanding the Special Education Process PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 68da77-YzRjY


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Understanding the Special Education Process


* DREDF/FCSN – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:16
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 67
Provided by: AnnMcDon9
Learn more at: http://dredf.org


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Understanding the Special Education Process

Behavior Support for Students with Disabilities
  • Unique alliance of people with disabilities and
    parents of children with disabilities.
  • National law and policy center dedicated to
    protecting and advancing disability civil and
    human rights.
  • VISION a just world where all people live full
    and independent lives free of discrimination.
  • Disability rights are civil rights.
  • Information is power! Children with disabilities
    who have consistent, knowledgeable advocates are
    most likely to receive appropriate services

  • DREDF Children Family Advocacy
  • Parent Training and Information (PTI) Center
    for Alameda, Contra Costa Yolo.
  • Foster Youth Resources for Education (FYRE)
    for Alameda County.
  • Class Action legal cases - systemic abuse.
  • Educate legislators and policy makers on
    issues (such as IDEA, ADA) affecting the rights
    of people with disabilities.

Course Objectives
  • All behavior serves a function.All behavior is
  • 6 Core Principles of Special Education (IDEA)
  • Cycle of Special Education.
  • Skills in advocating.
  • Options when parents schools disagree.

Some Laws That protect students with
  • No Child Left Behind / 2002
  • Federal Education Law.
  • ALL students with a focus on under-served
  • School accountability. Increase school
  • Highly-qualified teachers and paraprofessionals.
  • Ability to change school or obtain remediation if
    school fails to meet Adequate Yearly Progress

  • Family Educational Rights Privacy Act
  • Federal Education Privacy Law.
  • ALL students.
  • Right to inspect and review any and all
    records the district keeps. Timeline in CA
    5 days
  • Right to request correction of records.
  • Right to consent to disclosure of personally
    identifiable information contained in education

  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act / 1973
  • Federal Anti-Discrimination Law.
  • Protects ALL PEOPLE with a disability that
    impairs one or more major life activities (such
    as learning).
  • Prohibits discrimination in ANY program that
    receives Federal .
  • Provides Accommodations to remove discriminatory
  • 504 Plan removes barriers to learning and
    educational opportunity.

  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act /
  • Federal Education Law.
  • Student must fit at least 1 of 13 categories of
    disability, AND
  • ALSO needs specialized support and instruction to
    benefit from education.
  • Provides an IEP special education plan -
    specialized instruction- supportive related
  • IEP must be individualized to meet a students
    unique needs.

CA Hughes Bill
  • California Education Law.
  • Protects students with disabilities whose
    behavior is serious or pervasively
  • Student must have an IEP.
  • Requires a type of Functional Behavioral
    Assessment (FBA) called a Functional Analysis
    Assessment (FAA)
  • Requires a Behavioral Intervention Case Manager
  • Requires a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

Relationship of Protective Laws
IDEA-eligible students are protected
by ALL these laws just
discussed. A Student with an
IEP may also need accommodations
to prevent discrimination.
ALL students
504 eligible
IDEA eligible
IDEA 6 Core Principles
  1. Appropriate Evaluation/Assessment
  2. Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
  3. Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
  4. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
  5. Parent (and student if appropriate) participation
    in the decision-making process
  6. Procedural Safeguards

Cycle of Special Education
Reason for Concern / Dx
Review IEP annually, or if requested
Request Assessment
Assessment Plan within 15 days
Appropriate Placement determined
Informed consent 15 days for parent
questions (if needed)
PLOP, Goals, Individualized Instruction and
Services determined
Assessment 60 days to complete
IEP Meeting within the 60 days
Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) To
determine - Function of behavior - Need for
specialized support
Behavior is Information
  • Parent (or others) WRITE to request assessment.
    DREDF has sample letters to request FBA or FAA
  • Comprehensively assess in all areas of suspected
  • There is logic behind the behaviors of children.
    Our challenge is to understand its context.
  • TIP If initial assessment, alsoask also for
    504 assessment.Saves precious time.

GOAL Changing Behavior
Teach or re-teach the behavior
Provide Meaningful Incentives
Provide Meaningful Consequences
MEANINGFUL having significance, meaning or
purpose in the childs life (from the childs
MODELS for Behavior
If the MODEL for developing power resides in the
powerful if what we learn about how to behave
is by observing those who have power over us
then those in power MUST assume responsibility
for modeling appropriate behaviors.
TOOLS for Success
The child HAS a challenge. What we must
do? Give the child the tools to be
successful! IF NOT, interventions are like
Band-Aids on a dam that will burst eventually.
unhappy discouraged frustrated
concern empathy
support encouragehelp
  • Teach academic skills
  • Teach behavioral skills
  • Same strategies as for other skills
  • Individualization (504, IEP, BIP)
  • Positive behaviors expected and taught
  • Positive behaviors reinforced
  • Negative behaviors receive instructive

IDEA the IEP Team will
In the case of a child whose behavior impedes
the child's learning or that of others, consider
the use of positive behavioral interventions and
supports, and other strategies to address that
behavior -- IDEA 2004 statute
What are POSITIVE Behavior Interventions?
  • An approach to supporting positive behavior
  • Childrens behavior can change if adults
  • teach the behaviors we expect to see
  • model those behaviors
  • consistently recognize and reward the behaviors
    we want to see, when they occur
  • consistently enforce meaningful and instructive
    consequences for behaviors we want to eliminate

Behaviors are governed by consequences
Behaviors that result in desirable consequences
for the child are likely to be retained or
Behaviors that do not result in desirable
consequences are discarded or weakened
BEHAVIOR what do we know?
Behaviors serve a FUNCTION and are based on a
NEED. We want to substitute solutions
(replacement behaviors). We DONT want to shame
or blame the child for trying to meet that need.
  • Classroom environment - seating - noise
    level - disruptions
  • Child-specific condition - medication -
    allergies - sickness - anxiety - fatigue
  • Setting events - peer issue - teacher
    interaction - new person(s)
  • Instruction/curriculum - work too hard -
    work too easy - transitions - directions
    - assignment - no choices

BEHAVIOR what do we know?
Challenging behaviors serve a FUNCTION
  • To get something (power, attention,
    approval, sensory input)
  • To avoid (escape) something (teachers, class
    work, a situation)
  • To have control

The FUNCTION of a behavior is not the
problem.NEW behaviors that are taught should
serve the same function!
BEHAVIOR what do we know?
Challenging behaviors have multiple
causes. More than one need is often met through
one behavior.
Peer attention
Teacher attention
Behavior Billy hits
BEHAVIOR what do we know?
  • Just stopping a behavior does not lead to desired
  • If you stop swearing, you will have a job.
  • Finishing work will get you a friend
  • If we do not teach children what to do instead of
    what they are doing, they will continue to do
    what they doAND GET BETTER AT IT!

Problem behaviors are not moral failings of a
child but are expressing and communicating a need
of the child. Until we understand the need
through effective assessment, the solution will
not be evident.
A antecedent
The consequence of a behavior affects whether it
happens again
B behavior
C consequence
  • We can manipulate antecedents in the environment
  • gt Increase positive behavior
  • lt Reduce misbehavior

A antecedent
A cause, course, or event that influences the
development of a behavior or behaviors
  • Size of an environment
  • Number of people in it
  • Specific event, time of day, etc.

B behavior
What one does in response to the event, cause or
condition. Behavior ( or -) fulfills a
specific need for a child.
Antecedent The work is too hard.
(I dont want to do it) Behavior I
throw my chair.
What happens as a result of a behavior that
affects whether it is likely to happen again.
If the consequence of a behavior meets a need,
the behavior is likely to be repeated.
C consequence
Antecedent The work is too hard. Behavior
I throw my chair. Consequence The teacher
gets angry. Im sent to the office and do not do
the work.
Did the behavior meet a need? What can we
predict about this behavior?
Teach the behavior you expect
  • Begin with simple rules (2-5)
  • For example Be respectful of others
  • Describe what the rules mean in specific terms
  • Respect means speaking in a medium voice
  • Respect means hands/feet to yourself
  • Provide instruction about what to do instead
  • State your expectations for behavior
  • Provide examples of expected behavior
  • Provide alternative ways to understand

Teach the behavior you expect
  • Discuss and model the expected behaviors
  • At home and in the actual locations
  • Re-teach regularly
  • Be sure the expectation is positive
  • Once you have finished your chores, you may go
    to Marys house.
  • NOT You cannot go to Marys house until the
    chores are finished

Teach children to self-manage behavior
  • Homework, school work, and chores
  • Time management
  • Define and teach routines the child will use
  • Provide a checklist of activities that child can
    mark off as completed
  • Begin on time (other tasks out of the way)
  • Have materials ready
  • Stay with the task until completed

Teach children to self-manage behavior
  • Homework, school work, and chores
  • Attitude
  • Be respectful (demonstrate!)
  • Have materials ready for the work being
  • Ask for help when needed

Provide meaningful positive incentives
  • Teaching is not always enough to change behavior
    over the long haul.
  • Children need to be recognized and rewarded WHEN
    they are meeting the expectations established.
  • POSITIVE RECOGNITION(rewards, other
    reinforcements, praise) must occur more
    frequently than NEGATIVE RECOGNITIONAt least a
    4 to 1 ratio!!!!!!
  • TIP 10 pennies in your pocket

Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) because
  • We need to collect data on why a child has
    challenging behaviors.
  • Challenging behaviors generally occur in
    relationships between the child and the
  • IEPs should include behavior goals andpositive
    behavior interventions.
  • 504 Plans should include positive behavior
  • Positive behavioral interventions should be based
    on Functional Behavioral Assessment.

Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) because
  • Education decisions are to be driven by data,
    not opinion or belief systems.

Wheres the DATA ?!!!
Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) when
  • A childs behaviors do not respond to the
    interventions used with all students, or
  • The team cannot provide data that supports why
    inappropriate behaviors occur, or
  • A child is repeatedly disciplined for behaviors
    that do not improve, then
  • The team should request an FBA as part of
    initial or ongoing evaluation.

IDEA A child who is removed from his/her
educational placement shall
  • Continue to receive services to participate in
    the general curriculum and work on meeting IEP
    goals, and
  • Receive an FBA, behavior interventions and
    modifications to address the behavior violation
    so that it does not recur.
    -from IDEA 2004 statute

Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
  • NOT a list of misbehaviors, but an effort to
    determine why a behavior occurs.
  • helps the team to understand the purpose that a
    behavior serves for a child
  • guides decision-making
  • leads to intervention strategies
  • required for removals beyond 10 days
  • useful when behaviors have not responded to
    standard interventions

Functional Analysis Assessment (FAA)
  • Functional Analysis Assessment (FAA) is a type of
    Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA).
  • FAA is a highly prescribed process of data
    collection and analysis that is used to develop
    Positive Behavioral Intervention Plans (BIP).
  • The California law commonly known as the Hughes
    Bill, requires use of FAA to address serious
    behavior challenges.

Functional Analysis Assessment (FAA)
  • in the California Education Code is behavior that
  • Assaultive
  • Self injurious
  • The cause of serious property damage, or
  • Other pervasive maladaptive behavior

Functional Analysis Assessment (FAA)
  • FAA must be supervised or conducted by a
    certified Behavior Intervention Case Manager
  • The BICM must be authorized by the local Special
    Education Local Plan Area (SELPA)
  • The BICM must regularly review progress of the
    Positive Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP) at
    intervals specified in the plan.

Behavioral Assessment Typical steps
  1. Identify the behavior of concern.
  2. Where does it occur and not occur?
  3. Antecedents (what happens beforehand)?
  4. Is there a consistent pattern? Is it
  5. What does the student get from it? (the
  6. Possible reasons for the behavior? (hypothesis)
  7. What replacement behaviors can be taught to
    the child that serve the same function?

Why POSITIVE interventions?
  • Required in IDEA
  • Builds positive relationships
  • Encourages new behaviors
  • Reinforces skills (maintenance)
  • Increases self-satisfaction and optimism among
    youth, parents, and teachers

Why POSITIVE interventions?
  • Teaching by itself does not change behavior
  • Behaviors take time to become habits
  • Children need positive reinforcement over time
  • Must be used more frequently than punishment

MEANINGFUL consequences
  • Help change and maintain behavior across time
  • Consequences must
  • Be clearly stated and communicated
  • Be logical bear a relationship to the behavior
  • Apply universally to all

Building the IEP
  • Do the goals address
  • academic support?
  • mental health needs?
  • behavioral needs?
  • Does the child need
  • an FBA? an FAA?
  • related services?
  • a behavior intervention plan (BIP) or Behavior
    Support Plan (BSP)?
  • a crisis plan?

Behavior Intervention
BIP, PBI, BSP, etc. A plan by any name should
be positive and instructive, based on FBA and
  • Effective re-teaching of the expected behavior
  • Rewards and consequences that are personally
    meaningful to a child (no two plans are alike)
  • Opportunities to self-manage behaviors
  • Positive behaviors are not maintained over time
    only with mood rings and stickers
  • Self-management skills facilitate pro-social
  • Self-management skills lead to generalization

Intervention Considerations
  • Are changes needed in the classroom? (seating
    arrangement, instructional approach, grouping,
  • Will replacement behaviors be specifically taught
    and reinforced?
  • Do replacement behaviors serve the same function
    as the problem behaviors?
  • Is child able to perform desired replacement
  • Will child receive as much reinforcement from
    using replacement behaviors as from using problem
  • Will new behaviors be reinforced across
    environments? Will parents, teachers and others
    use similar reinforcement systems?

Interventions Often Used
  • Planned ignoring of certain inappropriate
  • Preventive cueing
  • Proximity control
  • Touch control light, nonaggressive physical
  • Nonverbal warnings e.g. cue cards.
  • Positive phrasing let child know exactly what
    behavior is expected, not just what not expected

Interventions Often Used
  • Use I messages
  • Behavioral shaping reinforce behavior that is
    close to the desired behavior then raise the bar
  • Encourage youth to ask for help
  • Find opportunities for child to be of service
  • Discipline privately
  • Humor to help child save face in tense
  • Provide advance notice of change in activities
  • Teach youth self-monitoring of own behavior

IEP Goals Whats wrong?
  • Example 1Marie will decrease her anger and
    violation of school rules.
  • REWRITE!Provided with positive behavior support
    (PBS), strategies, and training as specified in
    her Behavior Support Plan (BSP), Marie will ask
    for a break, remove herself from environments in
    which it is difficult for her to maintain self
    control of her behavior, and cool down in the
    safe room provided, as measured by data
    collection of staff observation, and disciplinary
    actions initiated compared to the previous year.

IEP Goals Whats wrong?
  • Example 2Jessica will participate
    appropriately in group.
  • REWRITE!GOAL In 9 of 10 opportunities, Jessica
    will participate appropriately and cooperatively
    and will remain with the group and contribute to
    the project as measured by teacher observation
    data collection.Objective 1) When prompted,
    Jessica will make positive statements about other
    students in her class on at least 9 of 10
    trials.Objective 2) When assigned to a small
    group to work on a project, Jessica will remain
    with the group, will make only positive
    statements to other group members, and make
    positive suggestions to contribute to the project
    work on 9 of 10 trials

The Teacher is Key to implementing support
  • Be sure to consider if
  • Teacher needs training to implement BSP or BIP
  • Teacher needs additional support, collaborative
    or an aide in the classroom
  • IF SO, these supports should be documented in
    the IEP.

Prohibited Interventions
  • Techniques public and non-public schools MAY
    NOT use by law
  • Any action likely to cause harm or excessive
    emotional trauma, including verbal abuse
  • Releasing noxious, toxic or unpleasant substances
    near students face
  • Any intervention that deprives the student of one
    or more of his/her senses.
  • Denial of sleep, food, water, shelter, physical
    comfort or access to bathroom facilities

Prohibited Interventions
  • Techniques public and non-public schools MAY
    NOT use by law (continued)
  • Physical restraint that immobilizes all four
    extremities, including prone containment except
    by trained personnel in an emergency intervention
  • Locked seclusion except in an emergency when used
    by facility licensed or permitted by state law
  • Any intervention that leaves student without
    adequate supervision

Behavioral Emergencies
  • When student behavior results in emergency
    intervention, the school MUST file an Behavioral
    Emergency Report describing the intervention and
    any injuries that occurred
  • Parent/caregiver must be notified of any
    emergency intervention or serious property damage
    within one day
  • If student has a BIP or BSP but this is first
    time behavior or BIP/BSP intervention is
    ineffective, IEP team must convene to determine
    if plan needs to be modified (continued)

Behavioral Emergencies
  • (continued)
  • If student does not have a BIP/BSP, school
    administrator must schedule an IEP meeting
    within two days to determine if interim behavior
    plan needed.
  • NOTE team must document reasons if no interim
    plan is developed or no assessment conducted.

Discipline for students with IEPs
  • If a student who has an IEP is suspended for 10
    days within the school year, the school MUST
    conduct a Manifestation Determination Hearing
    (MDH) to determine if the behavior causing the
    suspension is a manifestation of the students
  • If YES the school MUST conduct an FBA or FAA if
    not done yet, or modify the BIP, rather than
    change the students placement.

NOTE MDH is required in cases in which
student does not yet have an IEP but parent or
teacher has requested an assessment (parents
request MUST be in writing).
Family Participation Get involved! Be a Leader!
  • THE FAMILY PARTICIPATION FUNDprovides assistance
    for family members to attend and participate in
    POLICY-MAKING MEETINGS related to special
  • Families can receive up to 1000 a year!
  • More information can be found in your training
    packets or online at http//cafec.org/family-par

PLEASE Fill out your EVALUATIONS before you
leave. PLEASE Consider providing
tax-deductible donations to DREDF so that other
families can benefit from our FREE
services! Thank you!!
Resource Links
"Eek! My Child with a Disability Keeps Getting
Suspended" http//disabilityrightsca.org/pubs/5464
01.htm or http//disabilityrightsca.org/pubs/54640
1.pdf"Yikes! My Child with a Disability is
Being Considered for Expulsion"
http//disabilityrightsca.org/pubs/546301.htm or
Howey "What you need to know about IDEA 2004
IEPs for children with Behavior
ial.factors.htmLegal Services for Children
(LSC) Suspension/Expulsion Manual
Resource Links
DOWNLOAD DREDF Training Materials
nings.shtml www.dredf.org/publications/publication
s.shtml www.dredf.org/special_education/special_ed
_resources.shtml Info-to-go TRANSITION from
Early Intervention to PreK and from PreK to
Kindergarten www.dredf.org/special_education/tra
DREDF www.dredf.org CARS
www.carsplus.org/links.php CDE Special
Education www.cde.ca.gov/sp/se CDE
Home www.cde.ca.gov CDE/PENT (Behavior) www.pen
t.ca.gov Disability Rights CA (DRC) www.disabilit
yrightsca.org PACER www.pacer.org www.taallian
ce.org NICHCY www.nichcy.org/ OSEP
www.osepideasthatwork.org Wrights
Law www.wrightslaw.com
Resource Books
Education Rights Responsibilities (SERR)
.htm A Composite of Laws CA Dept. of Ed order
form www.cde.ca.gov/sp/se/ds/documents/colordrfrm
.doc Other CDE Publications www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/
rc Negotiating the Special Education Maze
Winifred Anderson, et. al. The Complete IEP
Guide Nolo Press Lawrence M. Siegel Special
Education Law www.wrightslaw.com GOALS From
Gobbledygook to Clearly Written Annual IEP Goals
Writing Measurable IEP Goals and Objectives
Barbara D. Bateman ADVOCACY From Emotions to
Advocacy www.wrightslaw.com
Parent Training Information (PTI) Center for
Alameda, Contra Costa and Yolo counties. Technical
assistance and training to parents/guardians of
students with disabilities 0-22, and to
professionals who serve these students and their
families. Contact DREDF with concerns
questions Phone 510.644.2555 Toll Free
800.348.4232 Fax 510.841.8645 Email iephelp_at_
dredf.org Website www.dredf.org
About PowerShow.com