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Chapter 5: Affective aspects


Chapter 5: Affective aspects Adapted by Kathy Egea for cois12036 (dailup download) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 5: Affective aspects

Chapter 5 Affective aspects
Adapted by Kathy Egea for cois12036 (dailup
  • Affective interfaces
  • Expressive interfaces
  • User frustration
  • Persuasive technologies
  • Anthropomorphism
  • Interface agents
  • interactive physical toys
  • Conceptual models

Affective aspects
  • HCI has traditionally been about designing
    efficient and effective systems
  • Now more about how to design interactive systems
    that make people respond in certain ways
  • e.g. to be happy, to be trusting, to learn, to
    be motivated

Expressive interfaces
  • Colour, icons, sounds, graphical elements and
    animations are used to make the look and feel
    of an interface appealing
  • Conveys an emotional state
  • In turn this can affect the usability of an
  • People are prepared to put up with certain
    aspects of an interface (e.g. slow download rate)
    if the end result is appealing and aesthetic

User-created expressiveness
  • Users have created a range of emoticons -
    compensate for lack of expressiveness in text
  • Happy )
  • Sad lt
  • Sick X
  • Mad gt
  • Very angry gt-(
  • Also use of icons and shorthand in texting and
    instant messaging has emotional connotations,
  • I 12 CU 2NITE

  • (1) Look at page 185, Figure 5.3
  • Would you use any of these?
  • What for?
  • (2) Compare the two interfaces on pages 186/187.
  • Which one do you prefer?

Marcus study (p.186-187)
  • Marcus proposed interfaces for different user
  • P.186 - designed for white American females
  • prefer a more detailed presentation,
    curvilinear shapes and the absence of some of the
    more brutal terms ... favored by male software
  • P.187 - designed for European adult male
  • suave prose, a restrained treatment of
    information density, and a classical approach to
    font selection

Teasley study
  • Later Teasley et al (1994) found this not to be
  • the European dialog box (p. 187) was preferred by
    all and was considered most appropriate for all
  • round dialog box (p.186) was strongly disliked by
  • Read more in activity 5.1, page 186-188.

Friendly interfaces
  • 1990a use of friendly agents at the interface
  • At home with Bob (Microsoft) (p.189)
  • aim to make users feel more at ease and
  • 3D metaphors based on familiar places (e.g.
    living rooms)
  • Agents in the guise of pets (e.g. bunny, dog)
    were included to talk to the user

Friendly interfaces
  • Clippy (Microsoft windows 98)
  • Why was Clippy disliked by so many?
  • Was it annoying,distracting, patronising or
  • What sort of user liked Clippy?

Poor design
  • Interfaces when poorly designed make users feel
  • stupid, feel insulted and threatened
  • List some of the frustrations that you may have
    when using a computer

User frustration
  • Many causes
  • When an application doesnt work properly or
  • When a system doesnt do what the user wants it
    to do
  • When a users expectations are not met
  • When a system does not provide sufficient
    information to enable the user to know what to do
  • When error messages pop up that are vague, obtuse
    or condemning
  • When the appearance of an interface is garish,
    noisy, gimmicky or patronizing
  • When a system requires users to carry out too
    many steps to perform a task, only to discover a
    mistake was made earlier and they need to start
    all over again

Activity 5.2
  • Page 190
  • Provide specific examples for each of the
    previous slide with an interactive device
  • Phone, VCR, vending machine, printer, digital
    camera, computer

  • Amusing to the designer but not the user, e.g.,
  • Clicking on a link to a website only to discover
    that it is still under construction

Error messages
  • The application Word Wonder has unexpectedly
    quit due to a type 2 error.
  • Why not instead
  • the application has expectedly quit due to poor
    coding in the operating system

Error messages
  • Shneidermans guidelines for error messages
  • Avoid using
  • terms like FATAL, INVALID, BAD
  • Audio warnings
  • UPPERCASE and long code numbers
  • And
  • Messages should be precise rather than vague
  • Provide context-sensitive help
  • See page 192, BOX 5.1

Website error messages
More helpful error message
  • The requested page /helpme is not available on
    the web server.
  • If you followed a link or bookmark to get to this
    page, please let us know, so that we can fix the
    problem. Please include the URL of the referring
    page as well as the URL of the missing page.
  • Otherwise check that you have typed the address
    of the web page correctly.

Activity 5.3
  • Look at the BOLD statements (p.192-193)
  • Imagine a specific context where these errors may
  • Rewrite the common error messages to usable,
    useful and friendly language

Other Frustrations
  • Waiting
  • Upgrading software
  • Appearance
  • Overloaded with graphics and text
  • Flashing animations
  • Over-use of sound effects
  • Excessive of features
  • Poorly designed input devices

Dealing with user frustration
  • Helpful tips help user get to the next step
  • Should computers say theyre sorry?
  • Reeves and Naas (1996) agree
  • emulate human etiquette
  • Would users be as forgiving of computers saying
    sorry as people are of each other when saying
  • How sincere would they think the computer was
    being? For example, after a system crash
  • Im really sorry I crashed. Ill try not to do
    it again
  • How else should computers communicate with users?

Persuasive technologies
  • Technologies deliberately designed to change
    peoples attitudes and behaviours
  • Fogg (2003) coined the phrase
  • techniques
  • Pop-up ads, warning messages, reminders, prompts,
    personalized messages, recommendations, Amazon
  • Digital pets see figure 5.9, p.196
  • Waterbot water monitoring system
  • Question is technology able to change people
    and their behaviours?

Nintendos Pocket Pikachu (p.196)
  • Changing bad habits and improving well being
  • Designed to motivate children into being more
    physically active on a consistent basis
  • The owner of the digital pet that lives in the
    device is required to walk, run, or jump
  • If owner does not exercise the virtual pet
    becomes unhappy and eventually dies

Activity 5.4, p.197
  • Which method is more pervasive for giving up

Deceptive technology
  • Internet fraud
  • Email letters
  • Phishing (fishing) scams

Phishing and trust
  • Web used to deceive people into parting with
    personal details
  • e.g. paypal, ebay and won the lottery letters
  • Allows Internet fraudsters to access their bank
    accounts and draw money from them
  • Many vulnerable people fall for it
  • The art of deception is centuries old but
    internet allows ever more ingenious ways to
    trick people

  • Attributing human-like qualities to inanimate
    objects (e.g. cars, computers)
  • Well known phenomenon in advertising
  • Dancing butter, drinks, breakfast cereals
  • Much exploited in human-computer interaction
  • Make user experience more enjoyable, more
    motivating, make people feel at ease, reduce
  • Used particularly with children and
    games/learning programs

Which do you prefer?
  • 1. As a welcome message
  • Hello Chris! Nice to see you again. Welcome
    back. Now what were we doing last time? Oh yes,
    exercise 5. Lets start again.
  • User 24, commence exercise 5.

Which do you prefer?
  • 2. Feedback when get something wrong
  • Now Chris, thats not right. You can do better
    than that.Try again.
  • Incorrect. Try again.
  • Is there a difference as to what you prefer
    depending on type of message? Why?

Evidence to support anthropomorphism
  • Reeves and Naas (1996) found that computers that
    flatter and praise users in education software
    programs -gt positive impact on them
  • Your question makes an important and useful
    distinction. Great job!
  • Students were more willing to continue with
    exercises with this kind of feedback

Criticism of anthropomorphism
  • Deceptive, make people feel anxious, inferior or
  • People tend not to like screen characters that
    wave their fingers at the user say
  • Now Chris, thats not right. You can do better
    than that.Try again.
  • Many prefer the more impersonal
  • Incorrect. Try again.
  • Studies have shown that personalized feedback is
    considered to be less honest and makes users feel
    less responsible for their actions (e.g.
    Quintanar, 1982)

Virtual characters
  • Increasingly appearing on our screens
  • Web agents, characters in videogames, learning
    companions, wizards, pets, newsreaders, popstars
  • Provides a persona that is welcoming, has
    personality and makes user feel involved with them

  • Lead people into false sense of belief, enticing
    them to confide personal secrets with chatterbots
    (e.g. Alice)
  • Annoying and frustrating
  • e.g. Clippy
  • Not trustworthy
  • virtual shop assistants?

Rea - real estate agent (p.206)
  • Rea present an apartment for sale
  • Human-like body
  • Uses gesture, non-verbal communication (facial
    expressions, winks) while talking
  • Sophisticated AI techniques used to enable this
    form of interaction

Conversation with Rea
  • Mike approaches screen and Rea turns to face him
    and says
  • Hello. How can I help you?
  • Mike Im looking to buy a place near MIT.
  • Rea nods, indicating she is following.
  • Rea I have a house to show you. (picture of a
    house appears on the screen)
  • Rea it is in Somerville.
  • Mike Tell me about it.
  • Rea looks up and away while she plans what to
  • Rea Its big.
  • Rea makes an expansive gesture with her hands.
  • Mike brings his hands up as if to speak, so Rea
    does not continue, waiting for him to speak.
  • Mike Tell me more about it.
  • Rea Sure thing. It has a nice garden...
  • Would you buy a house from her?

Virtual agents
  • What do the virtual agents do?
  • Do they elicit an emotional response in you?
  • Do you trust them?
  • What is the style of interaction?
  • What facial expression do they have?
  • Are they believable, pushy, helpful?
  • Would it be different if they were male? If so,

Virtual pets
  • (for images view pages 203-205)
  • Silas the dog (Blumberg, 1996)
  • Autonomous pet with internal states
  • Able to respond to external events

Virtual learning companions
  • Play a collaborative role at the interface
  • Often cartoon-like
  • e.g., Herman the bug (Lester et al, 1997)
  • Flies into plants and explains things on-the-fly
    and gives advice to students

What makes an agent believable?
  • Believability refers to the extent to which users
    come to believe an agents intentions and
  • Appearance is very important
  • Are simple cartoon-like characters or more
    realistic characters, resembling the human form
    more believable?
  • Behaviour is very important
  • How an agent moves, gestures and refers to
    objects on the screen
  • Exaggeration of facial expressions and gestures
    to show underlying emotions (c.f. animation

Emotional design model
  • Norman (2004), Figure 5.18, page 208
  • Explains how emotions and behaviour are
    determined by different levels of the brain
  • Visceral - automatic response (triggered by
    emotional response)
  • Behavioural brain processes (routine
    operations talking, driving)
  • Reflective think about activity

Claims from model
  • Our emotional (also known as affective) state
    changes how we think when
  • anxious, frightened or angry
  • we focus narrowly and body responds by tensing
    muscles and sweating
  • more likely to be less tolerant
  • happy
  • we are less focused and the body relaxes
  • more likely to overlook minor problems and be
    more creative

  • Should we, therefore, create products that adapt
    according to peoples different emotional states?
  • When people are feeling angry should an interface
    be more attentive and informative than when they
    are happy?
  • Is Norman right?
  • designers can get away with more for products
    intended to be used during leisure time than
    those designed for serious tasks (see Activity
    5.5, page 209)

Pleasure model (Jordon 2000)
  • Considering design in terms of pleasure, using a
  • Framework
  • (i) physio-pleasure- touch, feel,..
  • (eg sleek mobile device)
  • (ii) socio-pleasure the people connection
  • (eg Showing digital photos to friends)
  • (iii) psycho-pleasure - emotional/cognitive
  • (eg when software is easy to use and to do
  • (iv) ideo-pleasure - personal values
  • (eg buying a hybrid car for environmental

Technology as Experience
  • McCarthy and Wright (2004) framework of the user
  • how the interface is felt by the user
  • Made up of 4 core threads
  • 1. Sensual
  • level of absorption with technology (flow)
  • (computer games, chatting)

Technology as Experience
  • 2. Emotional
  • stem from interaction or desire
  • (want buy sleek mobile but maybe too expensive)
  • 3. Compositional
  • making sense of the interaction
  • (shopping online, sequence of actions to achieve
    a purchase)
  • 4. Spatio-temporal
  • relationship of space and time
  • (part of our language own space, standing still)

Technology as Experience
  • Threads help designers think and talk about
  • Concrete examples of technology and experience of
    use of the technology
  • Eg buying clothes online
  • Fear or joy of buying new outfit
  • Time and place where it is purchased
  • Tensions of how to engage with anonymous website
  • Value judgements between cost and spending
  • Internal dialogue for clothes chosen size,
    look, matching items

  • Use the threads (sensual, emotional,
    compositional, spatio-temporal) to buy either
  • MP3 player or new plasma TV
  • Read case study 5.1, page 213 for more design of
    technology situations

Key points
  • Affective aspects are concerned with how
    interactive systems make people respond in
    emotional ways
  • Well-designed interfaces can elicit good feelings
    in users
  • Expressive interfaces can provide reassuring
  • Badly designed interfaces make people angry and
  • Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human
    qualities to objects
  • An increasingly popular form of anthropomorphism
    is to create agents and other virtual characters
    as part of an interface
  • Models of affect provide a way of conceptualizing
    emotional and pleasurable aspects of interaction