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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

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Title: THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Author: Administrator Last modified by: Pressley Diane Created Date: 2/19/2009 3:57:23 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION


1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
2
INTRODUCTION
  • During the Middle Ages natural philosophers as
    medieval scientists were known, did not make
    observations of the natural world. They relied on
    a few ancient authorities especially Aristotle
    for their scientific knowledge. A number of
    changes in the 15th and 16th centuries caused
    them to abandon their old views and develop new
    ones.

3
THE BIG QUESTION
  • How did the Scientific Revolution change peoples
    view of the natural world?

4
NEW DEVELOPMENTS
  • Newly discovered Greek works by Ptolemy,
    Archimedes, and Plato
  • The printing press helped spread new ideas
  • The invention of the telescope, microscope, and
    other measuring instruments
  • New developments in mathematic

5
Two Types of Scientific Thinking
  • Inductive reasoning
  • Proceeding from the particular to the general
  • Ex. Every time I eat oranges I get sick,
    therefore I get sick because I eat oranges.
  • Deductive reasoning
  • Working from the general toward the specific
  • Ex. All oranges are fruits fruit grows on trees,
    therefore all oranges grow on trees

6
A New Scientific Philosophy
  • Rationalism
  • The belief that reason is the chief source of
    knowledge

7
ROOTS OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • can be found in the Renaissance with the works of
    Copernicus, Galileo and other scientists
  • Rejected traditional authority and church
    teachings in favor or direct observation of
    nature
  • Scientific method people observed nature, made
    hypotheses about relationships, and then tested
    through experiments.

8
OPPOSING THEORIES
GEOCENTRIC THEORY (Ptolemaic)
  • This system places the Earth at the center of the
    universe. The Earth is fixed at the center of
    concentric spheres, one inside the other, in
    which the heavenly bodies rotate around the earth.

9
HELIOCENTRIC THEORY (COPERNICAN)
  • This theory places the sun (not the earth) at
    the center of the universe, with planets
    revolving around the sun. The moon, however,
    revolves around the earth, and the earth rotates
    on its axis.

10
Galileo Galilei
  • Italian astronomer
  • Widely used telescopes and conducted tests on the
    motion of objects to find general principles of
    physics
  • His idea was that the planets were composed of
    material substance
  • Wrote The Starry Messenger

11
Nicholas Copernicus
  • Polish astronomer
  • Idea was that the sun was the center of the
    universe, and the moon revolved around earth
  • Wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

12
Johannes Kepler
  • German astronomer, scientist, and mathematician
  • Idea was that the orbits of planets were not
    circular, but elliptical
  • Was able to prove this mathematically

13
Sir Isaac Newton
  • English scientist and mathematician, and the most
    influential thinker of the
  • Scientific Revolution
  • laws of gravity and motion
  • Wrote Principia Mathematica
  • (connected the speed of falling
  • objects on Earth to the movement
  • of planets.
  • Led to hope that the universe acted according to
    certain fixed and fundamental laws

14
William Harvey
  • Scientist and physician
  • He wrote a book called On the motion of the
    Heart and Blood published in 1628.
  • He showed that the heart was the beginning point
    in the circulatory system, not the liver. He
    discovered that the same blood flows in both
    veins and arteries, and most important, that
    blood makes a complete circuit as it passes
    through the body.

15
Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
  • Irish Chemist (sometimes knows as the Father of
    Chemistry)
  • Conducted controlled experiments on gases at
    different temperatures and pressures.
  • Pioneered work on the properties of gasses, which
    led to Boyles law.
  • The law states that the volume of a gas varies
    with the pressure exerted on it.
  • Distinguished mixtures from compounds

16
Francis Bacon
  • English philosopher
  • Invented the scientific method
  • He wanted science to benefit industry,
    agriculture, and trade.
  • He was more concerned with practical matters than
    pure science.
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