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THE CREATIVE FIELD OF CITIES (in cognitive-cultural capitalism)

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THE CREATIVE FIELD OF CITIES (in cognitive-cultural capitalism) Allen J. Scott, University of California, Los Angeles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE CREATIVE FIELD OF CITIES (in cognitive-cultural capitalism)


1
THE CREATIVE FIELD OF CITIES (in
cognitive-cultural capitalism)
  • Allen J. Scott,
  • University of California,
  • Los Angeles

2
STRUCTURES OF PRODUCTION AND URBAN FORMS
  • 1. The factory system The classical
    manufacturing town.
  • 2. Fordist mass production The great industrial
    metropolis.
  • 3. Post-fordism, new economy, cognitive
    capitalism, cognitive-cultural economy The
    creative city.

3
THE COGNITIVE-CULTURAL ECONOMY
  • NEW DIVISION OF LABOR Levy and Murnane
    (2004)
  • Deroutinization of labor processes.
  • 1. Digital technologies
  • 2. High levels of scientific/technical labor
  • 3. Human intermediation of services
  • 4. Symbolic outputs
  • 5. Aestheticization of commodities
  • 6. (Ernst) Engels law

4
Specific forms of cognitive-cultural production
and work
  • Scientific and technological research
  • Neoliberal technomanagement
  • Innovation-oriented production (plus integration
    of conception and execution)
  • Sorting and diffusion of information
  • Personal services
  • Commodification of experiences
  • Etc., etc.

5
BUT ALSO
  • Deroutinized low-wage work
  • Small-batch assembly
  • Flexible machine operation (e.g. sewing machine,
    vehicle, word processing)
  • Security and maintenance
  • Hotel and restaurant trades
  • Janitorial work
  • Childcare
  • Widening divide

6
Some attempts to map out social stratification in
the new economy
  • Bell Post-industrial society
  • Gouldner The new class
  • Reich Symbolic workers in the information
    economy
  • Sklair Transnational capitalist class
  • Castells Network society
  • Florida The creative class

7
Some theorizations of the cognitive-cultural order
  • Managerial discourse flexibility, fast
    capitalism, human capital, empathy, creativity,
    adaptability, etc.
  • Urban policy discourse consumer city (Glaeser),
    entertainment machine (Clark), creative city
    (Florida, Landry).

8
  • TOWARD -- AND BEYOND THE
  • CREATIVE CITY

9
Driving forces of urban growth in the era of the
cognitive-cultural economy
  1. Networks of specialized but complementary
    producers
  2. Local labor markets skills, socialization
  3. The creative field learning and innovation, i.e.
    creativity is always mobilized in concrete ways
    (textiles industry, car industry, film industry)
  4. Regional institutions and social infrastructures
    of the creative economy from protection of
    intellectual property rights (e.g. aoc) to social
    networking

10
Regional convergence is a locational strategy by
means of which producers and workers transform
latent benefits into concrete competitive
advantages
  • Increasing returns to scale
  • Agglomeration economies
  • Monopoly powers of place (product differentiation
    and branding Chamberlinian competition)

11
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12
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13
A new balance between work, life, and leisure in
the city
  1. Interpenetration of upgraded production space and
    gentrified social space
  2. Proliferation of cultural/entertainment
    facilities (Clark Entertainment machine)
  3. City of the spectacle
  4. Iconic architecture and recycling of the built
    environment Bilbao Guggenheim,
    Westergasfabriek, Petronas Towers, London
    Docklands.

14
The Florida formula for achieving the creative
city
  • Attract the creative class by
  • Investing in amenities
  • Encouraging tolerance, openness and diversity
  • Warm winters are allegedly an added attraction

15
  • However, we must also take the following points
    into consideration
  • Highly qualified workers seek relevant forms of
    work (mobile but not footloose)
  • The complex production machinery of the city
  • The spiral of cumulative of causation in city
    growth

16
The diachronic dimension Silicon Valley
  • 1. 1950s Fruit growing
  • 2. Initial planting of high-technology seed.
  • 3. Disintegration, spin off.
  • 4. In-migration of semiconductor engineers
  • (NOT undifferentiated creative class)
  • 5. Growth of market and defense spending
  • 6. Cumulative causation

17
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18
The synchronic dimension Hollywood
19
the furniture industry
20
the recorded music industry
21
REPRISE THE POLICY PROBLEM
  1. Bottom up
  2. Harvest external economies (networks, labor
    markets, innovation)
  3. Institution-building in the interests of regional
    coordination internalizing externalities.
  4. Sustain overall milieu, i.e. creative field.

22
The Global Dimension
23
The dark side of the dialectic
  • Sweatshops
  • Underclass
  • Immigrant, often undocumented, labor
  • Social segmentation
  • Widening divide

24
  • The decline of community
  • The withdrawal of public services
  • The retreat of the public sphere

25
Beyond the creative city and the creative class
tasks ahead
  • From the neoliberal city to the social democratic
    city
  • i.e. Prosperity and growth, PLUS citizenship,
    solidarity, sociability, political community
  • From the creative city of possessive
    individualism, sharp inequalities, and consumer
    capitalism toward the convivial city
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