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PSYC 1000

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PSYC 1000 Lecture 48 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PSYC 1000


1
PSYC 1000
  • Lecture 48

2
Personality
  • Humans have a fascination for trying to describe
    and understand individual differences
  • Precedes psychology as a formal discipline
  • Astrology, palmistry etc.
  • However, many of the concepts that we have
    covered in this course have assumed that humans
    behave and think similarly (e.g. learning,
    memory, perception)

3
Personality
  • Complex set of psychological qualities that
    influence an individuals characteristic patterns
    of behaviour across different situations and
    over time
  • Theories of personality used to both understand
    and predict behaviour
  • Approaches classify people according to types or
    traits of personality
  • Does inconsistent behaviour unstable
    personality?
  • Consistency paradox

4
The Trait Perspective
  • Exploring Traits
  • Characteristic pattern of behavior Disposition
    to feel and act, as assessed by self-report
    inventories and peer reports
  • Old idea Ancient Greek physician Galen
    (C.130-200 A.D.) thought personality reflected
    four humors (fluids)
  • Yellow Bile bad temper, irritability (Choleric)
  • Black Bile gloomy, pessimistic (Melancholic)
  • Phlegm sluggish, non-excitable (Phlegmatic)
  • Blood cheerful, passionate (Sanguine)
  • Other discredited ideas
  • E.g., Sheldon Ectomorph, Mesomorph, Endomorph

5
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  • Based on Jungs personality types (right)
  • Popular in Education, Business,
  • Empirical evidence does not (yet?) warrant
    extensive use
  • Eysenck Two-Factor Model
  • Personality measure (more later)
  • Factor Analysis identified two dimensions
  • Extraversion - Introversion
  • Emotional Stability - Instability
  • Perhaps related to frontal lobe and other brain
    function

6
Structure of Personality Traits
  • Hans and Sybil Eysenck used two primary
    personality factors as axes for describing
    personality variation

7
  • Biology and Personality
  • Brain Processes
  • Extroverts may seek stimulation because normal
    brain arousal is low e.g., frontal lobes
    involved in behavior inhibition less active in
    extraverts
  • Stimulation seeking
  • Ritalin is a stimulant that is prescribed for
    individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity
    disorder (ADHD)
  • Genes and personality
  • Genetic aspects of early temperament
  • Heritability of some personality traits high
  • Behavioural genetics shows stronger correlation
    for MZ twins vs. DZ twins on personality
    characteristics
  • Animals and personality
  • Selective breeding for certain traits (e.g. Labs
    are friendly dogs.

8
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9
Assessing Traits
  • Personality Inventory
  • Questionnaire people respond true-false or
    agree-disagree to items designed to measure wide
    range of feelings and behaviors
  • Used to assess selected personality traits
  • Empirically Derived Test
  • Test developed by testing pool of items and
    selecting those that discriminate between groups
  • Based on normative data
  • e.g., Inmates vs. Non-inmates, Schizophrenics vs.
    Non-schizophrenics,
  • Such as MMPI

10
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    (MMPI)
  • Most widely researched and clinically used of all
    personality tests
  • Originally developed to identify emotional
    disorders
  • i.e., discriminate different groups
  • Still considered its most appropriate use
  • Now used for many other screening purposes

11
  • MMPI
  • Over 500 statements, indicate True or False for
    you
  • Validity scales
  • Lie, Frequency, Omissions, Consistency
  • 10 clinical scales
  • Depression, Anxiety, Psychopathic deviant,
  • Numerous supplementary and content scales
  • Different facets of Schizophrenia, Alcohol Abuse,
  • Empirically derived scales
  • Also measures 5-Factor model (later)
  • More rational approach to test construction

12
Assessing Traits MMPI-2
13
Assessing Traits
  • Rational Test Construction
  • Define personality trait of interest
  • Generate items designed to assess that trait
  • Positively and negatively worded to avoid
    response bias
  • Administer to large samples along with other
    measures (e.g., existing scales, measures of
    response bias, different traits)
  • Assess internal consistency
  • Assess validity predictive, discriminative,
    construct

14
  • Psychopathy defined as constellation of
    affective, interpersonal, and behavioral
    characteristics including egocentricity
    impulsivity irresponsibility shallow emotions
    lack of empathy, guilt, or remorse pathological
    lying manipulativeness and persistent violation
    of social norms and expectations
  • Sample Items?
  • () If I feel like doing something, I do it.
  • (-) I dont like to hurt other peoples
    feelings.
  • Generally better assessed by clinical interview
  • Can be manipulated by lying.

15
Structure of Traits
  • Big Five Personality Factors
  • Based on factor analysis of words related to
    personality, of personality inventory items,
  • 5 factors
  • McCrea and Costa (1986) Emotional Stability,
    Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness,
    Openness
  • Evaluation
  • Reliability Traits stable in adulthood
  • Validity predict marital satisfaction, work
    habits,
  • About 50 of variation due to heredity
  • Appear to apply across cultures, with modest
    changes

16
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17
Validity of Five Factor Model
  • School and Job Performance
  • Conscientiousness and Openness predict school
    performance
  • Conscientiousness predicts general job
    performance
  • Extraversion predicts success in sales and
    management
  • Openness associated with creative performance
  • Physical and Psychological Well-being
  • High Conscientiousness better health and
    longevity
  • Low Agreeableness / High Neuroticism health risk
    factors
  • Low Agreeableness / Conscientiousness predict
    juvenile delinquency
  • Neuroticism / Low Conscientiousness predict
    internalizing disorders
  • Neuroticism related to vulnerability and
    depression
  • Other
  • Agreeableness associated with helping others and
    donating to charity
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