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Immigration

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Immigration & Urbanization – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Immigration


1
Immigration Urbanization
2
Immigration
  • 1870-1910 20 million immigrants entered the US
  • Added to the labor pool
  • Added to the demand for housing
  • Added to the demand for goods

3
Eastern Southern Europeans
  • About 14 million immigrants from Italy, Greece,
    Poland, Russia, Slavic states
  • Many were Catholic, Orthodox, or Jewish
  • Came because of job and land availability, to
    escape religious persecution, to escape a fixed
    class system, and/or to live in a democracy

4
Ellis Island
  • New York Harbor
  • Used from 1892 to 1954 to process immigrants
  • Immigrants were medically inspected
  • Unhealthy quarantined or sent back to Europe
    (only about 2 were denied entry)
  • Now part of the Statue of Liberty National
    Monument

5
Statue of Liberty (1886)
6
The Know-Nothings
  • The American Party (1849-1860)
  • Nativists
  • Anti-Catholic
  • Opposed immigration
  • Played on prejudices and fears that immigrants
    would take jobs

7
American Protective Association
  • Founded in 1887 by Henry Bowers
  • Opposed Catholicism because Catholics obeyed the
    Pope above all other powers, including the
    government
  • Wanted to limit Catholic immigration, ban
    Catholics from teaching, holding public office
  • Also wanted to make understanding English a
    requisite for citizenship
  • Had faded out by 1900

8
Immigration Act of 1882
  • .50 tax on each immigrant entering US to help
    pay costs of regulating immigration
  • Denied entry to convicts, lunatics, idiots, and
    persons likely to become public charges

9
Asian Immigrants
  • Chinese looking to escape famine, unemployment,
    and violent rebellions
  • Often excluded from regular American society, so
    developed their own in Chinatowns
  • Some limited Japanese immigration

10
Angel Island
  • In use 1910 1940
  • Processed over 1 million immigrants
  • Located in San Francisco Bay
  • 75 of immigrants were detained for at least 2
    weeks, some for up to 2 years!!!!

11
Workingmans Party of California
  • 1870s - 1900
  • Founded by Irish immigrant Denis Kearney
  • Opposed Chinese immigration and use of Chinese
    labor to build railroads
  • The Chinese Must Go!

12
Chinese Exclusion Acts
  • Passed in 1882
  • Banned Chinese immigration for 10 years
  • Chinese already here could not become citizens
  • Renewed in 1892
  • Made permanent in 1902
  • Finally repealed in 1942
  • Led to a decline in Chinese population in US

13
Ethnic neighborhoods
  • Cultural pluralism
  • Immigrants preferred to stick together, form
    neighborhoods where it was safe to speak native
    language, continue ethnic customs, practice their
    religion
  • These neighborhoods led to general distrust of
    immigrants by the native US population

14
Melting Pot or Tossed Salad?
  • Melting pot assimilation of multiple cultures
    into a new, blended American culture
  • Tossed salad many different cultures thrown
    together, but little blending each culture
    stands out

15
Urbanization
  • Between 1870 -1900 US urban population soared
    from 10 million to 30 million
  • NYC 800,000 in 1860, 3.5 million in 1900
  • Chicago 109,000 in 1860, 1.6 million in 1900
  • Immigrants tended to stay in cities
  • Many poor farmers moved to cities for better
    paying jobs
  • Many freed slaves migrated to northern cities to
    seek new opportunities

16
Appeal of Cities
  • More jobs available
  • Electric lighting
  • Running water and sewer
  • Abundance of goods
  • Variety of leisure activities

17
Adult Entertainment
  • Vaudeville Theater collection of acts, including
    dancers, singers, acrobats, comedians, etc.
    (similar to Americas Got Talent but without
    judges)
  • Dance Halls large venues with live bands playing
    dance music
  • Cabarets bars or nightclubs which offered
    musical entertainment
  • Saloons neighborhood bars where working men ate,
    drank, talked politics and discussed current
    events

18
Family Entertainment
  • Museums
  • Libraries
  • Amusement Parks NYCs Coney Island became a
    resort area after Civil War, first attraction
    was a carousel that opened in 1876
  • Spectator sports Boxing, horse racing,
    wrestling, professional baseball

19
Skyscrapers
  • As cities became more crowded, space became more
    valuable
  • Inventions like high-quality steel and the Otis
    elevator made going higher the most practical
    solution
  • Chicago architect Louis Sullivan generally
    credited with pioneering the skyscraper

20
Home Insurance Building
  • Chicago
  • Built in 1885
  • First to have a steel frame
  • 10 stories (138 ft.)
  • 2 floors added later
  • Designed by William LeBaron Jenney (who trained
    Louis Sullivan)
  • Demolished in 1931 because it was too small and
    wasted space!

21
Tallest Modern Buildings
22
Public Parks
23
Frederick Law Olmstead
  • 1822 1903
  • Landscape architect
  • Designed many major urban green-spaces, including
    Central Park in NYC and parks in Chicago,
    Washington DC, and other cities
  • Also designed the grounds at Biltmore Estate in
    Asheville, NC

24
Mass transit
  • Horsecars railroad car pulled along tracks by
    horses
  • Cable cars railroad car pulled along tracks by
    underground cables (San Francisco, 1873)
  • Electric trolley car developed in 1887 by Frank
    J. Sprague, first used in Richmond, VA
  • Elevated railroads Used in Chicago starting in
    1892
  • Subways Boston in 1897, NYC in 1904
  • Major bridges, such as NYCs Brooklyn Bridge
    (1883)

25
Changes in Shopping
  • Bold new forms of advertising products, using
    large, illustrated ads in newspapers magazines
  • Department stores John Wannamakers Grand Depot
    in Philadelphia
  • Chain stores Woolworths (1879)
  • Mail-order catalogs Montgomery Ward, Sears
    Roebuck

26
Upper Class
  • High Society
  • Wealthiest families, primarily industrialists
    like the Rockefellers and Vanderbilts
  • Built palatial houses, clustered in downtown
    districts

27
Middle-Class Gentility
  • Doctors, lawyers, engineers, architects,
    managers, teachers
  • Lived in streetcar suburbs on edges of cities
  • Average salary 1100/year

28
The Working Class
  • 75 of urban population
  • Lived in tenement housing within easy walking
    distance of the industrial district
  • Average salary 445/year

29
Urban problems
  • Violent crime murder rate jumped 400 between
    1880 and 1900 rate today is about ½ the rate of
    US in 1900
  • Pollution especially of drinking water, but also
    of land and air
  • Disease cholera, typhoid
  • Fire Chicago (1871), Boston (1872), Baltimore
    (1904), San Francisco (1906, caused by earthquake)

30
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31
Tenement Buildings
  • Small, extremely crowded apartment buildings
  • Whole families often lived in just one room,
    sometimes with only a single window for air
  • Up to a dozen families might share a single
    bathroom
  • Buildings were unsafe hard to escape in a fire,
    little fresh air and close quarters led to spread
    of disease

32
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33
Jacob Riis
  • 1849 1914
  • Danish immigrant, social reformer, journalist,
    photographer
  • Wrote How the Other Half Lives (1890)
  • Documented horrors of life in the slums
    tenements
  • Blamed alcohol for many of societys ills

34
Jane Addams the Social Gospel
  • 1860 1935
  • Founded Hull House, a settlement house in Chicago
  • First woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize
  • Social Gospel idea that Christians have a
    moral responsibility to fix societys problems
    help the less fortunate

35
Settlement Houses
  • Most famous settlement house Chicagos Hull
    House
  • Middle class settlers moved into working class
    neighborhoods to help provide education, meals,
    childcare, medical care, and general advice to
    immigrants and poor workers
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