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The New Imperialism

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The New Imperialism Europeans extend their culture, government and economy. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The New Imperialism


1
The New Imperialism
  • Europeans extend their culture, government and
    economy.

2
A Western-Dominated World
  • Explain the causes of the new imperialism.
  • Identify multiple reasons to explain why
    imperialism was successful.
  • Define the different types of colonial rule.

3
Imperialism
  • Imperialism is the domination by one country of
    the political, economic, or cultural life of
    another country or region
  • Old Imperialism.1500-1800
  • Europeans gaining cultural dominance in the
    Americas (Spanish, British and French colonies)
  • Europeans only gained toeholds in Africa, India
    and China

4
Imperialism
  • New Imperialism.1800s
  • Western powers were stronger politically and
    economically
  • Europeans begin an aggressive expansion
    worldwide, not just in the Americas

5
Causes of the New Imperialism
  • Economic Interests
  • Industrial Revolution created needs for natural
    resources
  • Rubber, manganese, petroleum and palm oil
  • Manufacturers hoped for new markets
  • Colonies offered an outlet for expanding
    population
  • Political and Military Interests
  • Steam powered merchant/naval vessels needed bases
    to take on coal and supplies
  • Nationalism led European powers to compete for
    similar regions
  • Europeans believed ruling a global empire
    increased a nations prestige

6
Causes of the New Imperialism
  • Humanitarian Goals
  • Europeans felt they had a duty to spread what
    they saw as the blessings of western
    civilization
  • Social Darwinism
  • Growing sense in the West of racial superiority
  • European races, they argued, were superior to all
    others and imperial conquest and destruction of
    weaker races were simply natures way of
    improving the human species
  • Survival of the fittest

7
Reasons for Success
  • Weakness of Nonwestern States
  • Older civilizations were in decline (Ottomans,
    Mughal India and Qing China)
  • West Africa was experiencing wars due to effects
    of the slave trade
  • Western Advantages
  • Strong economies, well-organized governments and
    powerful armies/navies
  • Superior technology and medical knowledge
  • Quinine, Maxim machine guns, repeating rifles,
    steam-driven warships

8
Setbacks to Imperialism
  • Resistance
  • Africans and Asians strongly opposed western
    expansion into their lands
  • Nationalism movements rose to expel imperialists
  • Criticism at Home
  • Some Europeans believed colonialism was a tool of
    the rich
  • Argument Westerners were moving toward greater
    democracy at home but imposing undemocratic rule
    on other people

9
Forms of Imperial Rule
  • Imperial rule took many forms.
  • Colonial Rule
  • Direct Rule Sending officials and soldiers to
    administer colony. Impose nations culture on
    their colonies and turn them into provinces
  • Indirect Rule Use local rulers to govern
    colonies. Encourages children of ruling class to
    get imperial nations education creating a new
    westernized generation of leaders and spread
    imperial countrys civilization.

10
Forms of Imperial Rule
  • 2) Protectorates Local rulers left in place but
    were expected to follow advice of European
    advisers on issues such as trade or missionary
    activity.
  • 3) Spheres of Influence An area in which an
    outside power claimed exclusive investment or
    trading privileges.
  • Protectorates cost less to run than a colony.
  • Europeans carved spheres of influence in China,
    the US had a sphere in Latin America

11
Western Dominated World Review
  • The European belief that conquest was a way of
    improving the human species was an example of
  • a) colonization.
  • b) imperialism.
  • c) Social Darwinism.
  • d) nationalism.
  • The United States claimed Latin America as a)
    its colony.
  • b) its sphere of influence.
  • c) its protectorate.
  • d) part of its territory.

12
The Partition of Africa
2
  • What forces were shaping Africa in the early
    1800s?
  • How did European contact with Africa increase?
  • How did Leopold II start a scramble for colonies?
  • How did Africans resist imperialism?

13
Africa in the Early 1800s
2
To understand the impact of European domination,
we must look at Africa in the early 1800s, before
the scramble for colonies began.
WEST AFRICA
NORTH AFRICA
The Asante controlled smaller states, who were
ready to turn to Europeans to help them defeat
their Asante rulers.
Region had close ties to the Muslim world and
remained under the rule of the declining Ottoman
empire.
SOUTH AFRICA
EAST AFRICA
Islam had long influenced the coast, where a
profitable slave trade was carried on.
Zulu aggression caused mass migrations and wars
and created chaos across much of the region.
14
European Contacts Increased
2
  1. From the 1500s through the 1700s, difficult
    geography and disease prevented European traders
    from reaching the interior of Africa.
  2. Medical advances and river steamships changed all
    that in the 1800s.

MISSIONARIES
EXPLORERS
Explorers were fascinated by African geography
but had little understanding of the people they
met. Most famous European explorer was Dr.
Livingstone
Catholic and Protestant missionaries sought to
win people to Christianity. Most took a
paternalistic view of Africans. They urged
Africans to reject their own traditions in favor
of western civilization.
15
2
King Leopold II of Belgium sent explorers to the
Congo River basin to arrange trade treaties with
African leaders.
Scramble for Colonies
King Leopolds activities in the Congo set off a
scramble among other European nations. Before
long, Britain, France, and Germany were pressing
for rival claims to the region.
At the Berlin Conference, European powers agreed
on how they could claim African territory without
fighting amongst themselves.
European powers partitioned almost the entire
African continent.
16
Imperialism in Africa to 1914
2
17
Boer War
2
British clash with Boers.descendents of the
Dutch who had controlled Cape Colony
  • When Britain takes control of Cape Colony in
    1815, the Boers flee north.
  • Late 1800s Boers find gold and diamonds in
    their new republics
  • Conflict develops between British and Boers
  • 1910 British unite Cape Colony and former Boer
    republics
  • New Constitution set up a government run by
    whites and laid the foundation for a system of
    complete racial segregation that would remain in
    force until 1993

18
Boer War
  • What was the main reason the British and Boers
    clashed in Africa?
  • The British coveted the riches the Boers had
    found in their new republics

19
African Resistance
2
Europeans met armed resistance across the
continent.
  • Algerians battled the French for years.
  • The Zulus in southern Africa and the Asante in
    West Africa battled the British.
  • East Africans fought wars against the Germans.
  • When Italy invaded, Ethiopia was prepared.
    Ethiopia was the only nation, aside from Liberia,
    to preserve its independence.

20
Partition of Africa Review
2
  • European missionaries urged Africans to
  • a) reject their own traditions.
  • b) strengthen their ties with the Muslim world.
  • c) seek independence.
  • d) attend the Berlin Conference.
  • Which of the following African nations was able
    to preserve its independence?
  • a) Congo
  • b) Algeria
  • c) Egypt
  • d) Ethiopia

21
European Challenges to the Muslim World
3
  • What were sources of stress in the Muslim world?
  • What problems did the Ottoman empire face?
  • How did Egypt seek to modernize?
  • Why were European powers interested in Iran?

22
What Were Sources of Stress in the Muslim World?
3
  • By the 1700s, all three Muslim empires were in
    decline.
  • In the 1700s and early 1800s, reform movements
    stressed religious piety and strict rules of
    behavior.
  • The old Muslim empires faced western imperialism.

23
The Ottoman Empire
3
By the early 1800s, the Ottoman empire faced
serious challenges.
  • As ideas of nationalism spread from Western
    Europe, internal revolts weakened the multiethnic
    Ottoman empire.
  • European states sought to benefit from the
    weakening of the Ottoman empire by claiming lands
    under Ottoman control.
  • Nationalist tensions triggered a brutal genocide
    of the Armenians, a Christian people in the
    eastern mountains of the empire.

24
Iran and the European Powers
3
Russia wanted to protect its southern frontier
and expand into Central Asia. Britain was
concerned about protecting its interests in
India. For a time, Russia and Britain each set
up their own spheres of influence, Russia in the
north and Britain in the south. The discovery of
oil in the region in the early 1900s heightened
foreign interest in the region. Russia and
Britain persuaded the Iranian government to grant
them concessions, or special economic rights
given to foreign powers.
25
European Challenges to the Muslim World Review
3
  • The Suez Canal linked
  • a) the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean.
  • b) the Red Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
  • c) the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean
  • d) the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
  • Which nations set up spheres of influence in
    Iran?
  • a) Britain and France
  • b) France and the United States
  • c) Britain and Russia
  • d) Russia and Germany

26
The British Take Over India
4
  • What were the causes and effects of the Sepoy
    Rebellion?
  • How did British rule affect India?
  • How did Indians view western culture?
  • What were the origins of Indian nationalism?

27
The Sepoy Rebellion Causes and Effects
4
CAUSES
EFFECTS
  • The British East India Company
  • Undermined and violated Hindu beliefs
  • required sepoys, or Indian soldiers in its
    service, to serve anywhere, including overseas
  • allowing Hindu widows to marry
  • ordered the sepoys to bite off cartridges made of
    animal fat when loading their rifles
  • The sepoys brutally massacred British men, women,
    and children.
  • The British took terrible revenge
  • Both sides were left with a bitter legacy of
    fear, hatred, and mistrust.
  • The British put India directly under British
    rule, sent more troops to India, and taxed
    Indians to pay for the cost of the occupying
    forces.

28
British Colonial Rule
4
After 1858, Parliament set up a system of
colonial rule in India.
  • The British built roads and an impressive
    railroad network.
  • The British flooded India with machine-made
    textiles, ruining Indias once-prosperous
    hand-weaving industry.
  • Britain transformed Indian agriculture.
  • Better health care and increased food production
    led to rapid population growth. Over-population
    led to terrible famines.
  • The British revised the Indian legal system.
  • British rule brought peace and order to the
    countryside.
  • Upper-class Indians sent their sons to British
    schools.

29
Imperialism in India to 1858
4
30
Different Views on Culture
4
During the Age of Imperialism, Indians and
British developed different views of each others
culture.
INDIAN ATTITUDES
BRITISH ATTITUDES
  • Some educated Indians were impressed by British
    power and technology and urged India to follow a
    western model of progress.
  • Other Indians felt the answer to change lay with
    their own Hindu or Muslim cultures.
  • Most British knew little about Indian
    achievements and dismissed Indian culture with
    contempt.
  • A few British admired Indian theology and
    philosophy and respected Indias ancient heritage.

31
Indian Nationalism
4
  • The British believed that western-educated
    Indians would form an elite class which would
    bolster British rule.
  • As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had
    the opposite effect. By the late 1800s,
    western-educated Indians were spearheading a
    nationalist movement.
  • In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian
    National Congress. Its members looked forward to
    eventual self-rule, but supported western-style
    modernization.
  • In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to
    pursue their own goals, including a separate
    Muslim state.

32
British Rule in India Review
4
  • In response to the Sepoy Rebellion, the British
    did all of the following except
  • a) place India directly under British rule.
  • b) send more troops to India.
  • c) give into Indian demands for greater
    self-rule.
  • d) tax Indians to pay for an increased British
    military presence.
  • Which of the following is true of the Indian
    National Congress?
  • a) Its members wanted to establish a separate
    Muslim state.
  • b) Its members favored continued British rule
  • c) Its members supported western-style
    modernization.
  • d) Its members favored immediate overthrow of
    the British.

33
Imperialism in China
  • Since the mid 17th century, Chinese rulers had
    refused to adopt western ways
  • As a result, Chinese technology began to fall
    behind that of the Europeans who will begin to
    challenge the Middle Kingdom

34
The Opium War
  • Desperate to end the drain of British silver into
    Chinese pockets, British merchants began to trade
    opium in China in the late 18th century
  • China tried to halt imports of the highly
    addictive drug
  • In 1839, to keep trade open, the British fought
    with the Chinese in a conflict called THE OPIUM
    WAR
  • Britains superior military and industrial
    strength led to a quick victory

35
The Opium War
36
Treaty of Nanjing
  • In 1842, Britain forced China to agree to the
    harsh terms of the Treaty of Nanjing
  • China had to pay for Britains war costs, open
    ports to British trade and give Britain the
    island of Hong Kong
  • The western powers carved out spheres of
    influence, areas in which an outside power
    claimed exclusive trade privileges including the
    right to build roads, railroads and factories

37
Spheres of Influence
38
Chinese Reaction to Imperialism
  • The Taiping Rebellion- from 1850-1864, angry
    impoverished peasants revolted against Qing
    officials. Millions were killed and China
    suffered.
  • Boxer Rebellion in 1900, a group known as the
    Boxers assaulted foreign communities across
    China. Armies from the west and Japan crushed
    the rebellion and forced the Chinese to give
    foreign powers even more influence in China.

39
The Chinese Revolution
  • In the early 1900s Chinese nationalism grew in
    reaction to the increased western presence in
    China
  • Sun Yat-sen led the movement to create a new
    government and replace the Qing Dynasty

40
Sun Yat-sens Three Goals
  • To end foreign domination
  • To form a representative government
  • To create economic security
  • In 1911, workers, peasants and warlords toppled
    the monarchy. Yat-sen was named president of the
    Chinese Republic.

41
Japan Modernizes
5
How did discontent in Japanese society and the
opening of Japan lead to the Meiji
Restoration? What were the main reforms under
the Meiji? How did Japanese military strength
promote imperialism?
42
Discontent in Tokugawa Japan
5
After the Tokugawa shoguns gained power in 1600,
the reimposed centralized feudalism, closed Japan
to foreigners and forbade Japanese to travel
overseas.
The Japanese had limited trade with the Dutch in
the port of Nagasaki.
  • By the 1800s
  • Shoguns were no longer strong leaders
  • Daimyo suffered financial hardship
  • Samurai were no longer fighters
  • Merchants had no political power
  • Peasants suffered under heavy taxes

43
Opening Up Japan
5
  • July 1853 American Commodore Matthew Perry
    persuades the Japanese give the U.S. trading
    rights
  • Extraterritoriality
  • Most Favored Nation

Japanese resented unequal treaties, found them
humiliating
1867 Discontented daimyo and samurai restored
the 15-year-old emperor to power and moved the
capital to Tokyo.
44
Meiji Restoration
5
Period lasting from 1868 to 1912. Meiji means
enlightened rule. Goal A rich country, a
strong military New leaders set out to study
western ways, adapt them to Japanese needs and
beat westerners at their own game.
45
Reforms under the Meiji
5
  • Strong Central Government based on German system
  • Constitution said all citizens equal before law
  • Gave emperor autocratic power
  • Limited voting rights
  • Ended special privileges of samurai and subjected
    all men to military service
  • Economic Reforms
  • Industrialized using technologies of the west
  • Social Change
  • Ended legal distinctions between classes
  • Opened educational opportunities
  • Women still had secondary roles

Overall, the Meiji Restoration reforms were very
successful. Japan modernized and became a world
power.
46
Growing Military Strength
5
As a small island nation, Japan had few resources
essential to industrial growth. Spurred by
nationalism and imperialism, Japan built an
empire.
  • 1894Sino-Japanese War
  • Though outnumbered, Japan defeated China with
    their modern technology.
  • Japanese Rule Korea
  • 1910 Japan annexes Korea
  • Japan modernizes Korea but profits went to
    Japanese
  • Imposed harsh rule on Koreans
  • Korean rebels created nationalist groups
  • 1904 Russo-Japanese War
  • Japans armies defeated Russia in Manchuria.
  • Japanese navy almost destroyed a Russian fleet
  • 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth Japan gains control
    of Manchuria and Korea

47
Naval Power in the late 1800s
5
Jul. 24, 1894 A party of 50 Sailors and Marines
under Captain George Fielding Elliott, USMC, was
sent from the cruiser USS Baltimore (C 3) to
guard the American legation at Seoul, Korea,
during the Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese had
just landed troops in Korea.
48
Japanese Power in the late 1800s
5
Sino-Japanese War
   Japanese Warships Fire on the Enemy near
Haiyang Island by Mizuno Toshikata, September
1894
Battle of Pung-do, Sinking of the Kowshing  July
25, 1894
49
Japanese Power in the late 1800s
5
Sino-Japanese War Chinese Surrender
After the Fall of Weihaiwei, the Commander of
the Chinese Beiyang Fleet, Admiral Ding Juchang,
Surrenders by Mizuno Toshikata, November 1895
(above, with details). 2000.123 Sharf
Collection, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
50
Southeast Asia and the Pacific
2
  • What impact did European colonization have on
    Southeast Asia?
  • How did imperialism spread to the Philippines and
    other Pacific islands?

51
Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific,
1900
2
52
Colonization of Southeast Asia
2
In their relentless race for raw materials, new
markets, and Christian converts, western
industrial powers gobbled up Southeast Asia.
  • By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of
    Southeast Asia. They
  • introduced modern technology
  • expanded commerce and industry
  • set up new enterprises to mine tin and harvest
    rubber
  • brought in new crops of corn and cassava
  • built harbors and railroads
  • These changes benefited Europeans far more than
    the people of Southeast Asia.

53
Imperial Powers in the Pacific
In the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take
an interest in the islands of the Pacific. In
1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty
from Samoa. Later, the United States, Germany,
and Britain agreed to a triple protectorate over
Samoa. From the mid-1800s, American sugar
growers pressed for power in Hawaii. In 1898, the
United States annexed Hawaii. At the conclusion
of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines was
placed under American control. The United States
promised Filipinos self-rule some time in the
future.
54
Economic Imperialism in Latin America
4
  • What political and economic problems faced new
    Latin American nations?
  • How did Mexico struggle for stability?
  • How did the United States influence Latin America?

55
Political Problems
4
During the 1800s, most Latin American nations
were plagued by revolts, civil war, and
dictatorships.
  • Many problems had their origins in colonial rule,
    as independence barely changed the existing
    social and political hierarchy.
  • With few roads and no traditions of unity, the
    new nations were weakened by regionalism, loyalty
    to a local area.

56
The Economics of Dependence
4
  • Economic dependence occurs when
  • less-developed nations export raw materials and
    commodities to industrial nations and import
    manufactured goods, capital, and technological
    know-how.
  • The relationship is unequal because the more
    developed and wealthier nation can control
    prices and terms of trade.
  • Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made
    Latin America economically dependent on Spain and
    Portugal.
  • After independence, this pattern changed very
    little. The region remained as economically
    dependent as before.

57
The Influence of the United States
4
  • In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe
    Doctrine
  • stated that the American continents were no
    longer open to colonization by any European
    powers.
  • In 1904, the United States issued the Roosevelt
    Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
  • Under this policy, the United States claimed
    international police power in the Western
    Hemisphere.
  • In the next decade, the United States frequently
    intervened militarily in Latin American nations
    to protect American lives and investments.
  • In 1903, the United States backed the Panamanians
    in a revolt against Colombia in order to gain
    land to build the Panama Canal.

58
Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America,
18981917
4
59
Impact of Imperialism
5
  • How did imperialism lead to new economic
    patterns?
  • What was the cultural impact of imperialism?
  • How did political tensions develop as the result
    of imperialism?

60
New Economic Patterns
5
  • A truly global economy emerged, dominated by the
    United States, Britain, France, and Germany.
  • Colonial rulers introduced a money economy that
    replaced the old barter system.
  • Mass-produced goods from the industrialized world
    further disrupted traditional economies.
  • Local economies that had once been
    self-sufficient became dependent on the
    industrial powers.

61
Cultural Impact
5
  • As westerners conquered other lands, they pressed
    subject people to accept modern ways. By this,
    they meant western ideas, government, technology,
    and culture.
  • Many non-westerners, especially in conquered
    lands, came to accept a belief in western
    superiority.
  • The overwhelming successes of the western
    imperialist nations sapped peoples confidence in
    their own leaders and cultures.
  • Western culture spread around the world.

62
New Political Tensions
5
  • By the early 1900s, western-educated elites in
    Africa and Asia were organizing nationalist
    movements to end colonial rule.
  • The competition for imperial power was fueling
    tensions among western nations.

63
The End
64
China and the New Imperialism
5
  • What trade rights did westerners seek in China?
  • How did the Qing dynasty come to an end?

65
The Trade Issue
5
  • Prior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict
    limits on foreign traders.
  • China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting
    more than it imported.
  • Westerners had a trade deficit with China,
    buying more from the Chinese than they sold to
    them.
  • In 1842, Britain made China accept the Treaty of
    Nanjing, the first in a series of unequal
    treaties that forced China to make concessions
    to western powers.
  • -China paid a huge indemnity to Britain.
  • -The British gained the island of Hong
    Kong.
  • -China had to open five ports to foreign
    trade and grant British citizens in China
    extraterritoriality.

66
Internal Problems
5
By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline.
  • Irrigation systems and canals were poorly
    maintained, leading to massive flooding of the
    Huang He valley.
  • The population explosion that had begun a century
    earlier created a terrible hardship for Chinas
    peasants.
  • An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich,
    and widespread official corruption added to the
    peasants burden.
  • The civil service system was rocked by bribery
    scandals.
  • Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the
    Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in
    history.

67
Imperialism in China to 1914
5
68
Fall of the Qing Dynasty
5
As the century ended, anger grew against
foreigners in China.
1) European countries were splitting China into
spheres of influence. 2) Britains opium trade
with China led to the Opium Wars 3) The United
States forced an Open Door Policy which kept
Chinese trade open to ALL nations. In the Boxer
Rebellion, angry Chinese attacked foreigners
across China. In response, western powers and
Japan crushed the Boxers. Defeat at the hands of
foreigners led China to embark on a rush of
reforms.
69
Fall of the Qing Dynasty
5
Chinese nationalists called for a constitutional
monarchy or a republic. When Empress Ci Xi died
in 1908, China slipped into chaos. In 1911, the
Qing dynasty was toppled. Sun Yixian was named
president of the new Chinese republic. Sun
wanted to rebuild China on Three Principles of
the People nationalism, democracy, and
economic security for all Chinese. The time
period from 1911 to 1949 was a period of
instability in China
70
China and the New Imperialism Review
5
  • Which of the following is not true of Chinese
    trade relations with the West?
  • a) Before the 1800s, China enjoyed a trade
    surplus.
  • b) Before the 1800s, China had a trade deficit
    with the West.
  • c) In 1842, China was forced to open up five
    ports to foreign trade.
  • d) Before the 1800s, China strictly limited
    foreign trade.

71
China and the New Imperialism Review
5
  • What happened in the Boxer Rebellion?
  • a) Angry Chinese attacked foreigners in China.
  • b) The Chinese started a war with Japan.
  • c) Western imperialists attacked Chinese
    peasants.
  • d) Chinese peasants rose up against the
    government.
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