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Organization and Management of Learning Environment


Title: Classroom Management Author: Debbie Jones Last modified by: Tera Created Date: 4/3/2009 7:15:28 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Organization and Management of Learning Environment

Organization and Management of Learning
  • Southeast Alabama Regional Inservice Center
  • Troy University

Alabama Quality Teaching Standards
  • Page 1 of handout
  • Standard 2
  • Teaching and Learning (Organization and
    Management of Learning Environment)

  • 2.1 Designs a classroom organization and
    management system built upon age-appropriate
    expectations and research-based strategies
  • 2.2 Creates a climate that promotes fairness and
  • 2.3 Creates a safe, orderly, and stimulating
    learning environment that nurtures motivation and
    engagement of learners

  • Provided on a CD
  • Easily modified for personal use

  • Elizabeth Breaux
  • Lee Canter
  • Geoff Colvin
  • Robert J. Marzano
  • Ruby K. Payne
  • Arthur L. Robin
  • Julia G. Thompson
  • Sharon K. Weiss
  • Todd Whitaker
  • Harry Wong

Just a Few Reminders
  • State law requires local boards of education to
    have a student discipline policy.
  • Teachers must be familiar with and follow school
    board policy on student discipline.
  • Teachers must review the school student code of
  • Board policy supersedes school policy.
  • Whenever possible, administer discipline in
    private, out of the view and hearing of others.
  • If you are not following board policy, the board
    will not be able to support your actions.

Unresolved Classroom Management Issue
  • Find a partner.
  • Share the issue.
  • Listen to a possible solution.
  • Reverse roles.
  • Please, do not begin yet wait for the procedures
    on the next slide.

Procedure for Selecting a Partner
  • Thirty (30) seconds to select and decide who will
    share first
  • Earliest birthday of the year will share first
    Example The person with an April birthday will
    share before the person with an October birthday
  • Same birthday month? Use the day
  • Same month and day, flip a coin
  • Unable to find a partner, join another group
  • Wait for the signal to begin selecting your
    partner (on next slide)

Find a Partner
  • Turn to page 4 of your handout packet, and follow
    the directions for Select a Partner
  • Thirty seconds
  • Find a partner
  • Decide who will share first
  • In the first blank, write your partners name
  • In the second blank, write who will share first
  • Wait for next slide. Do not begin your discussion

  • First person has one minute to share a classroom
    management issue
  • Second person has one minute to offer a
  • Initial at the bottom of page 4 when finished
  • Begin now

Second Partner
  • One minute to share
  • One minute for partner to offer suggestions
  • Begin now

Who Will Share?
  • Share the classroom management issue
  • Share the solution

Index Card
  • Briefly write the unsolved issue
  • No complete sentences
  • Two minutes

Mental Trip Back in Time
  • Back to the beginning of a school year
  • Back to the week before school begins
  • Back to the time you are in your classroom
    preparing for the new school year

Tell Me
  • What are you doing?
  • What are you thinking?

Fast Forward
  • Professional development days
  • Two days before the students arrive

Tell Me
  • What are you doing?
  • What are you thinking?

Your Actions Send a Message
  • During the first two weeks of school, students
    receive unspoken messages from their teacher.
  • These messages are based on the decisions you
    make and the actions you take.
  • Which message are you sending?
  • I am overwhelmed with a list of skills to
    cover and document.
  • I will not allow any one student or group of
    students to interfere with the instruction of

I Hope
  • Students receive the second unspoken message
  • Proactive, assertive, and in control

But How?
  • Expectations and consequences
  • No need to be harsh
  • Follow through with consequences
  • Phone calls to parents
  • Caring, fair, and have self-control

Marzano (2003)
  • Virtually all of this research points to the
    beginning of the school year as the linchpin for
    effective classroom management.
  • Even if the research were not so clear, common
    sense dictates that devoting the first few days
    of the year, the semester, or the quarter to
    classroom management has the potential to ward
    off many future problems. (p. 93)

Your Focus
  • First two weeks
  • Primary student goals should be classroom
    management skills
  • Secondary student goals should be academic skills

Just to Clarify
  • Teachers Continue with
  • Preparation of lessons
  • Assessment of students
  • Instruction of academic skills
  • Note Lesson plans should include specific
    activities for teaching classroom management

For Two Weeks
  • Classroom management will take priority
  • Academic goals should be secondary

Two Choices
  • Take care of the majority of management issues at
    the beginning of the year.
  • Allow management issues to interrupt instruction
    throughout the year.

  • Consistent
  • Organize procedures
  • Need a reward
  • Sign a contract
  • In transition
  • Stay in touch
  • Timer
  • Everyone works together
  • Negative consequences
  • Teacher/Student relationships
  • Page 6 of Handout

  • Why is consistency important in a classroom?

Predictable Environment
  • Thompson (1998)
  • Consistent classroom management allows a teacher
    to create a predictable environment where
    students know what to expect and thus can make
    choices based on established rules, boundaries,
    and consequences. (p. 323)

What is Insanity?
  • Insanity doing the same thing over and over
    again and expecting different results.
  • -Albert Einstein

Hard to Do?
  • Why is consistency the hardest skill for most
    teachers to implement?

Not in Control of
  • last minute requests from administrators.
  • events that happen with students at home.
  • unexpected situations in our personal lives.

We Are in Control of
  • Our response
  • Our choices
  • Our behavior

We May Choose to
  • Whine
  • Take our frustrations out on the students
  • Manage with class

Stay Consistent
  • Consistent
  • Organize procedures

Organize Procedures
  • Why is it important for teachers to have
    procedures for how to and when to?

Opening Activity
  • Asked to share a classroom management issue
  • Procedures?
  • Procedures easy to follow?
  • Predict problems that might arise and provide a

Emmer, Evertson, and Worsham (2003)
  • It is just not possible for a teacher to conduct
    instruction or for students to work productively
    if they have no guidelines for how to behave or
    when to move about the room, or if they
    frequently interrupt the teacher and one another.
    Furthermore, inefficient procedures and the
    absence of routines for common aspects of
    classroom life, such as taking and reporting
    attendance, participating in discussions, turning
    in materials, or checking work, can waste large
    amounts of time and cause students attention and
    interest to wane. (Marzano p.17)

Marzano (2003)
  • 38 decrease in disruptions with the
    implementation of rules and procedures.

Good Line Manners
  • Keep your hands down beside you.
  • Look straight ahead.
  • Stay behind the person in front of you.
  • Stay quiet.
  • Walk.

Sharpen Pencils
  • One person at a time
  • When the timer is on.
  • Before the 8 oclock bell.
  • During snack.
  • During seat work.

Wash Hands and Get Water
  • One person at a time
  • When the timer is on.
  • Before the 8 oclock bell.
  • During snack.
  • During seat work.

Bully Report
  • My Name ______________________
  • Date ___________________________
  • Person who bothered me ____________________
  • This is what happened ______________________
  • _________________________________________
  • Witness _____________________________

Student Jobs
  • Put trash cans in the hall
  • Empty the pencil sharpeners
  • Erase the board
  • Girls bathroom monitor
  • Boys bathroom monitor
  • Girls soap
  • Boys soap
  • Girls paper towels
  • Boys paper towels
  • Turn computer on
  • Advance the power point

Student Jobs Continued
  • Snack drinks from lunchroom
  • Turn of lights and close door/ lunch
  • Change the date
  • Boys test monitor
  • Girls test monitor
  • Boys reading log
  • Girls reading log
  • Bird seed
  • Pass out papers/homework/assignments

Student Jobs Continued
  • Timer in the mornings
  • Note about paper towels
  • Make sure all the chairs are up
  • Put paper in the printer
  • Put marbles in the jar
  • Change marble number on the board
  • Pick up paper in the afternoon
  • Check board work in the morning

Student Jobs Continued
  • Apples off the tree
  • Put clothespins back in the morning
  • Straighten book bags in the morning
  • Lock the door at 800 AM
  • Nurse
  • Collect papers/homework/assignment
  • Reading log sheets
  • Take notes to the office
  • Take assignments to ISS

Procedures for Entering the Classroom
  • Walk to your assigned seat.
  • Complete the warm-up.
  • Remain quiet, with no communication.
  • Wait for instructions.

Procedures for Changing Classes
  • Walk to the next class.
  • Line up against the wall.
  • Stay in single file.
  • Enter the room when directed.

Beginning of Class
  • Everyday, the directions for the day will be on
    the upper right hand corner of the board.
  • The steps are numbered in the order they should
    be completed.
  • Ask questions as I go over the directions.
  • Begin with number one after the review..

Procedures before Standardized Testing
  • Use the restroom you will not be allowed to
    leave the room during testing.
  • Blow your nose.
  • Have a tissue on your desk.
  • Take off your shoes, if you like.
  • Enjoy a peppermint, if you like.

Procedures during Standardized Testing
  • Work only on the section assigned by your
  • General questions will be answered, but your
    teacher may not answer questions about specific
    items on the test.
  • Stay at your desk during testing. However, if you
    need to vomit, get to a trash can quickly.
  • If your pencil point breaks, raise your hand.
    Your teacher will bring you another one.
  • If another tissue is needed, raise your hand.
    Your teacher will bring one.
  • If additional scratch paper is needed, raise your
    hand. Your teacher will bring one.

Procedures during a Standardized Test, Continued
  • Read very carefully. Make sure you understand
    what the item is asking you to do.
  • There are answers on the test designed to trick
    people who work in a hurry. Take your time.
  • If you do not know the answer, skip that item and
    come back to it later. When skipping an item in
    your test booklet, make sure to skip it on the
    answer document also. Making yourself a note on
    the scratch paper may help you remember.
  • From time to time, double check to make sure the
    question and the space on your answer document
    are the same.

Procedures after Completing a Standardized Test
  • Sit quietly so that you do not disturb your
  • Check over your work.
  • Make sure your answer circles are filled in
  • Erase any marks hanging out of the bubble
  • Erase all stray marks.
  • Do not look at any other part of the test.
  • Place your answer document inside the front cover
    of your test booklet.
  • You may lay your head down, or you may draw on
    your scratch paper. After this session, scratch
    paper will be collected and shredded.

Students Leaving the Room
  • Sign the folder with your name and the time you
    are leaving. Ask the time keeper to initial next
    to the time.
  • Complete a hall pass.
  • Look at the amount of time allowed for your
    leaving the room.
  • Restroom four minutes
  • Office five minutes
  • Locker three minutes
  • Mark the time when you return. Ask the time
    keeper to initial next to the time.

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Student Passes Gas?
  • Its better to let it out and be ashamed
  • than to hold it in and be in pain.

Your Turn
  • Think about a situation that needs a procedure.
  • Look at handout page 7.
  • Prepare a set of procedures for that activity.
  • Five minutes

New Academic Skill
  • Introduce
  • Practice
  • Independent work
  • Assessment

New Procedures Elizabeth Breaux (2007)
  • Teach, Practice, and Implement
  • Teach The teacher must literally teach the
    students exactly how a particular procedure is to
    be done.
  • Practice the teacher must allow the students to
    try the procedure themselves.
  • Implementation The teacher begins the consistent
    implementation of what has been taught and
    practiced. (p.24)

  • Consistent
  • Organize procedures
  • Need a reward

Need a Reward
  • Why do teachers need to provide rewards?

  • Individuals
  • Small groups
  • The whole class

Disciplinary InterventionsMarzano (2003)
  • To illustrate, a meta-analysis by Scott Stage
    and David Qurioz (1997) included 99 studies, 200
    experimental comparisons, and more than 5,000
    students. Their overall finding was that, in
    general, disciplinary interventions resulted in a
    decrease in disruptive behavior among almost 80
    percent of the subjects in the studies they
    analyzed. (p. 28)

Positive Reinforcements
  • According to meta-analysis by Marzano(2003)
  • When using positive reinforcements as a
    disciplinary intervention
  • Thirty-one percent decrease in disruptions (p.29)

Find Positive Rewards
  • Handout pages 8 and 9, Rewards That Dont Cost
    Much Money
  • Circle at least ten (10) rewards you might use
  • List rewards and requirements on page 10 of the
    handout packet
  • Five minutes

Will You Share?
  • Share other positive reinforcement ideas.
  • Write on the clipboard using just a few words.
  • Ideas will be shared before the close of the

Just to Clarify
  • There are times when punishment is warranted and
    must be applied, especially for repeat offenders,
    defiance, or disregard for safety.
  • However, once a reward is earned, do not take it
    away as punishment. Find something else for

  • Consistent
  • Organize procedures
  • Need a reward
  • Sign a contract

Sign a Contract
  • Why/When is it helpful to use a contract?

Basic Parts of a Contract
  • Persons involved
  • Positive behaviors expected (Lee Canter suggests
    that educators focus on no more than five
    behaviors at a time)
  • Consequences
  • Signatures

Keep in Mind
  • It has taken many years for the behaviors to be
  • Your efforts may not show up immediately.
  • Celebrate any small change.

Behavior Plan for Student
  • These are the behaviors that Student needs to
  • These are the rewards Student will receive.
  • These are the consequences for Student.

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Contract for Increasing Commitment
  • This is what I can do to be more successful
  • This is my plan for making more of an effort to
    be more successful
  • This is what might keep me from making my plan a
  • This is what I can do to stay away for those
    things that keep me from being successful
  • These are other people at school who can help me
    be successful
  • These are fair consequences that I should face if
    my plan does not work

Simple Contract
  • Identify behavior.
  • Provide the student with three (more or less)
    numbered craft sticks.
  • Collect one stick each time the behavior is
  • Provide a negative consequence if behavior is
    exhibited again that day (that period or that

  • Consistent
  • Organize procedures
  • Need a reward
  • Sign a contract
  • In transition

In Transition
  • Why do behavior problems often happen during

Solve Transition Problems
  • Group work
  • Partner with a person sitting beside you
  • Thirty seconds
  • Offer suggestions

  • 1. A teacher is walking with her students to
    lunch. She is a smart teacher and knows to walk
    at the end of the line to keep all of the
    students in view. However, when the front of the
    line turns the corner, the first two students in
    line engage in a fist fight.

  • 2. A teacher is conducting beginning of the
    class duties of taking roll and collecting
    homework assignments. He knows to have a bell
    ringer activity on the board for students to
    complete as soon as they enter the classroom.
    The teacher notices that very few students are
    completing the assigned work, and the majority of
    students are both talking and walking around the

  • 3. During dismissal, the teacher suddenly
    remembers a few important steps that should have
    been included in the homework assignment. Since
    this teacher wants her students to be successful,
    she tells them about these steps. The next day,
    only four of the students in the class have that
    information included in that assignment.

  • 4. When the teacher begins class, there are
    constant interruptions because students need
    supplies such as pencil, paper, sharpened
    pencil, completed homework assignment, a text
    book, or a dictionary. This teacher had already
    allowed time for students to prepare for the
    class while he was speaking briefly with the
    teacher next door.

  • Consistent
  • Organize procedures
  • Need a reward
  • Sign a contract
  • In transition
  • Stay in touch

  • Why is it important to stay in touch with parents?

Working with Parents
  • Take the first step
  • Have a specific request in mind
  • Contact the parent after a little time has passed
    (avoid a tone of anger)
  • Allow parents to present their point of view
    (everyone deserves the right to be heard)
  • Ask for parents thoughts (help you see their
  • Return parent calls promptly
  • Send a (delivery confirmation) letter in the mail
  • Document, document, document

Meeting with Parents
  • First, state the facts (out of the first 20 days
    of school, Student has not had math homework on
    10 different days)
  • Next, let the parent know that this is not
    typical of a student this age or at this grade
  • Finally, present the request (In order for
    Student to be successful, he/she will need to

Parents Need to Feel Successful
  • If you make a point of helping parents feel
    successful about their children, you will find
    them more willing to work successfully with you.
  • Thompson (1998) (p 105)

  • Consistent
  • Organize procedures
  • Need a reward
  • Sign a contract
  • In transition
  • Stay in touch
  • Timer

  • How could a timer help a teacher stay consistent?
  • How has it been used today?
  • Name specific activities when you might use a

  • Consistent
  • Organize procedures
  • Need a reward
  • Sign a contract
  • In transition
  • Stay in touch
  • Timer
  • Everyone works together

Everyone Works Together
  • Why is it important for everyone in the class to
    work together?
  • Together Everyone Accomplishes More. (Team)

Conflict Resolution
  • Provide procedures so students may solve problems
    instead of the teacher solving the problems.
  • Assign a student mediator.
  • Find a time for solving the problem, but do not
    let it interrupt instruction.

  • Consistent
  • Organize procedures
  • Need a reward
  • Sign a contract
  • In transition
  • Stay in touch
  • Timer
  • Everyone works together
  • Negative consequences

Negative Consequences
  • Why are negative consequences necessary?

Just Some Thoughts
  • Natural consequences
  • Feel uncomfortable or inconvenienced
  • Loss of privileges, time-out, conduct cuts,
    restitution, or after-school detention
  • Management without making a break in the lesson
  • Time-out (co-worker)
  • Ask others for help

Marzano (2003)
  • To illustrate, a meta-analysis by Scott Stage and
    David Qurioz (1997) included 99 studies, 200
    experimental comparisons, and more than 5,000
    students. Their overall finding was that, in
    general, disciplinary interventions resulted in a
    decrease in disruptive behavior among almost 80
    percent of the subjects in the studies they
    analyzed. (p. 28)

Decrease in Disruptions
  • Twenty-eight percent when punishment is used
  • Thirty-three percent when both a reward and
    punishment are used
  • Marzano (p. 29)

Suggested Negative Consequences
  • Take away break time for the same amount of time
    that the class is talking
  • Have parent spend a couple of hours in the
  • Silent lunch/sit near the teacher
  • Lose free play on Friday
  • Detain student in the classroom for one minute
    after other students leave (no excuse for
    tardiness in another class)
  • No treasure chest or ice cream on Friday
  • Remove the students from the room if disruptive
    child will not leave
  • Exclusion from a fun learning activity (time in
    another teachers room)
  • Isolation during lunch
  • Community service-clean up in the classroom

Negative Consequences Continued
  • Communicate with other faculty and staff members,
    especially if the student is involved in a club,
    extracurricular activities, or a sport
  • Take away time from the students favorite
  • Detention (break, before school. after school)
  • Community service (Clean up classroom or other
    area of the school)
  • Apology to offended party
  • Isolation during class
  • Character education
  • Disciplinary essay about the negative behavior
    (requires student and parent signature)
  • Loss of computer privileges
  • Think sheet (on slide ahead)


Friday Information Sheet
  • Each Friday, you will complete this sheet with
    information learned during the week. Students
    who do not get a second warning are exempt from
    this assignment and may sit beside a friend and
    talk quietly. Re-write the information below as
    a paragraph. This is a graded assignment.
  • One fact I learned this week is
  • ________________________________________________
  • A second fact I learned this week is
  • _________________________________________________
  • A third fact I learned this week is
  • ________________________________________________
  • Name _________________________ Date _______


Additional Negative Consequence Think Sheet
  • What I Did Wrong
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • What I Should Have Done
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • I Need Help With
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • Name _________________ Date _________________

Will You Share?
  • Share other negative consequences
  • Write on the clipboard
  • Just a few words
  • Read before the close of the workshop

  • Consistent
  • Organize procedures
  • Need a reward
  • Sign a contract
  • In transition
  • Stay in touch
  • Timer
  • Everyone works together
  • Negative consequences
  • Teacher/Student relationships

Teacher/Student Relationship
  • Why is the relationship between a teacher and a
    student important?

Marzano (2003)
  • Public school teachers must deal with all of
    Americas children with the exception of
    incarcerated teens and children and teens in
    mental hospitals. These students enter the
    classroom with a staggering array of serious
    issues in their lives. (p. 45)

Issues Facing Students Marzano (p. 45)
  • Homelessness 12 million people are homeless
  • Depression 5 of youth between 9 and 17 years old
    are depressed, and only a minority are treated
  • Suicide Among youth 15 to 19 years old, suicide
    is responsible for more deaths than any disease.
    Suicide is the 4th leading cause of death for 10
    14 year olds.
  • Violence A majority of violent and aggressive
    students who have been suspended or expelled have
    identifiable substance abuse or mental health
    disorders. More than 56 percent of youth who are
    victims of violence, report the emotional and
    physical assault occurred in school. Twenty
    percent of all children have diagnosable
    developmental, behavioral, and/or emotional
    problems that increase their risk of becoming
    victims and/or perpetrators of violence.

Issues Facing Students, Continued
  • Eating disorders Fifteen to 18 percent of high
    school students manifest bulimic symptoms.
  • Alcoholism Twenty percent of children in the
    United States grow up in alcoholic families.
  • Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder
    Three to seven percent of school-age children
    experience ADHD disorder. Approximately 50
    percent of the 1.6 million elementary school-aged
    children with ADHD also have learning disorders.
  • Sexual orientation Six percent of students
    describe themselves as homosexual or bisexual,
    and 13 percent are uncertain about their sexual
    orientation. Homosexual and bisexual students
    have higher than average rates of mental health
    problems and eating disorders They are also
    concerned about sexual victimization.

Issues Facing Students, Continued
  • Incarcerated parents Ten million young people
    have had a mother a father or both behind bars at
    some point in their lives.
  • Poverty Approximately 15.7 million children live
    in households with incomes below the poverty
    line. Almost 50 percent of all children in
    mother-only families are impoverished.
  • Sexual and physical abuse In 1993, 1.55 million
    children were reported as maltreated, and another
    1.22 million were in imminent danger.

  • This is where there is an emphasis on class as
    opposed to room management.
  • Students deserve to be treated with respect and
  • We need to teach students the social skills that
    they are not getting at home.

  • Arguing with a student
  • Using sarcasm to control behavior
  • Administering punishment in front of the class
  • Punishing the whole class due to the behavior of
    a few students

Power Struggle Student and Teacher Lose
  • Use nonverbal cues eye contact, proximity, or
    hand gestures.
  • Avoid raising your voice.
  • Do not negotiate.
  • Be consistent.
  • Deal privately with situations.
  • Take a little time. You know I am pretty upset
    right now. I think it is best if we deal with
    this later.

Review of Managing a Room with Class
  • Create routines and procedures for the day-to-day
    operation of class and enforce them.
  • Post your class rules and teach them to students.
  • Enforce class rules for all students every day.
  • Dont threaten students. When you tell them
    something, mean what you say.
  • Be prepared and organized so that you will find
    it easier to make those tough quick decisions
    each day.

  • Prevent discipline problems from starting or
    getting out of hand.
  • Hold everyone accountable for the same high
    standards for behavior and academic performance.
    See page 12 for suggested accommodations of
    academic work, if needed.
  • Listen carefully to your students, but dont be a
    pushover for too many excuses. Thompson (1998
    p. 324)
  • Intervene early when students are having
  • Use class time well. Keep all students engaged
    in meaningful work from the start of class until
    the end of class.

Special SituationsMarzano (2003)
  • School may be the only place where the needs of
    many of these children facing extreme challenges
    are addressed. In studies by Jere Brophy
    (Brophy, 1996 and Brophy McCaslin, 1994)
    teachers who were most effective classroom
    managers tended to employ different strategies
    with different types of students. (p. 48)

Special Thanks
  • Kathy D. Robinson, MS, LAPC
  • Auburn University

Teachers Should Request Help
  • Non-Compliance
  • Disruptive Behavior Disorders
  • Bullying

  • Resisting directions
  • Not minding
  • Oppositional behavior
  • Defiance

Managing Non-Compliance
  • Short (20 minutes) video presentation
  • Geoff Colvin

Why do students choose non-compliance?
  • get their own way and get to do what they want to
  • get out of doing something they do not wish to
  • become engaged in a power struggle with the

Establishing Compliance and Correcting
  • List of the Basic Steps
  • Maintain the flow of instruction.
  • Present request.
  • Offer consequence for non-compliance.
  • Allow time for processing.

Maintain the Flow of Instruction
  • The actions by the teacher communicate that
    non-compliance receives as little attention as
  • Instruction is the primary focus for both the
    teacher and the students.

Present Request
  • Secure the attention of the non-compliant
  • Present the request in clear and easy to
    understand language.
  • Allow sufficient time for the student to process
    what is required.

A Choice Has Been Made
  • The student now is held accountable.
  • Compliance will earn a brief acknowledgement
    while instruction continues.
  • Non-compliance will result in a negative
    consequence while instruction continues.

Correcting Non-Compliance
  • Acknowledge the choice briefly.
  • Continue with instruction.
  • Deliver the consequence.
  • Use a calm and matter of fact manner.

Review of Strategies for Maintaining Cooperation
and Correcting Non-Compliance
  • Maintain the flow of instruction for the class.
  • Secure attention before making a request in a
    respectful manner.
  • Clearly specify the request.
  • Allow time for the student to process the
  • If the request is fulfilled, provide
    reinforcement immediately.
  • If the request is not fulfilled, present the
    choices of fulfilling the original request or
    facing a small negative consequence.
  • Allow time for the student to process the
  • Follow through based on the students choice.
  • Maintain the flow of instruction for the class.

Disruptive Behavior Disorders
  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder
  • Conduct Disorder
  • ADHD
  • Bullying

Oppositional Defiance Disorder
  • There is a pattern of negativistic, hostile, and
    defiant behavior lasting for six (6) months or
    more with at least four (4) of the following
  • Looses temper
  • Argues with adults
  • Actively defies
  • Refuses to comply or accept punishment
  • Angry and resentful
  • Blames others for his/her mistakes
  • Vindictive or spiteful
  • Appears unaffected by what the teacher does or

How to Handle an ODD Student
  • If possible, ignore behavior.
  • Follow up with consequences.
  • Keep routines and consistency.
  • Provide choices.
  • Agree with the child and move on.
  • Present the behavior in a positive form.
  • Avoid lectures, reasons, and explanations.

Conduct Disorder
  • Repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior
    that violates the basic rights of others.
  • Children and adolescents with this disorder have
    great difficulty following rules and behaving in
    a socially acceptable way.

Diagnostic Criteria for Conduct Disorder
  • Physical harm to people and animals
  • Destruction of property
  • Deceitfulness or theft
  • Serious violations of rules

Conduct Disorder and the Family
  • Parents of children with conduct disorder are
    often blamed as poor disciplinarians or bad
    parents. As a result, these parents may be
    reluctant to engage with schools or other
  • There is a strong correlation between children
    diagnosed with conduct disorder and a significant
    level of family dysfunction, poor parenting
    practices, an overemphasis on coercion and
    hostile communication patterns, verbal and
    physical aggression and a history of
  • Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • The essential feature is a persistent pattern of
    inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity that
    is more frequently displayed and more severe than
    is typically observed in individuals at the same
    level of development.

  • Has a hard time keeping their mind on one thing
  • May get bored with a task after only a few
  • May give effortless automatic attention to
    activities and things they enjoy
  • Has difficulty focusing attention on organizing
    and completing a task

  • People who are hyperactive always seem to be in
  • They cant sit still.
  • These children squirm in their seat or roam
    around the room.
  • They might wiggle their feet, touch everything,
    or noisily tap their pencil.
  • Hyperactive teens and adults may feel intensely

  • Unable to think before acting
  • Hard to wait for things
  • Hard to wait for turn in a game
  • May grab a toy or hit others when angry

  • Bullying involves negative and repetitive
    actions, either physical or verbal, that have
    hostile intent by the bully.
  • Olweus, 1973,1993

Distinct Features of Bullying
  • Harassment of the victim occurs over time
  • Intent behind the harassment is either mentally
    or physically harmful to the victim (Intentional)
  • Imbalance of power is evident (Power)
  • R. I. P.
  • Flynt Collins, 2008

Types of Bullying
  • Verbal bullying including derogatory comments and
    bad names
  • Bullying through social exclusion or isolation
  • Physical bullying such as hitting, kicking,
    shoving and spitting
  • Bullying through lies and false rumors

Types of Bullying Continued
  • Having money or other things taken or damaged by
    students who bully
  • Being threatened or being forced to do things by
    students who bully
  • Racial bullying
  • Sexual bullying
  • Cyber bullying (via cell phone or internet)

Students Bully
  • Strong need for power and (negative) dominance
  • Find satisfaction in causing injury and suffering
    to other students
  • Are often rewarded in some way for their behavior
    with material or psychological rewards

Gender Differences in Bullying
  • Most studies find that boys bully more than
  • Boys report being bullied by boys girls report
    being bullied by boys and girls.
  • Boys are more likely than girls to be physically
    bullied by their peers.
  • Girls are more likely to be bullied through
    rumor-spreading, sexual comments, social

Statistics on Bullying
  • Approximately 3 in 10 children are affected as a
    bully, a victim or both. (National Institute of
    Child Health and Human Development, 2001)
  • It is estimated that 30 percent of teens in the
    U.S. were involved in bullying in some form or
    fashion. (The National Youth Violence Prevention
    Resource, 2006)
  • As many as 1 in 7 students has reported being the
    victim of bullying. (Substance Abuse and Mental
    Health Services Administration, 2006)
  • Approximately 25 of elementary and high school
    students report being bullied at least once per
    week. (National Center for Education Statistics,
  • A nationwide survey highlighted by the Centers
    for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found
    that 6.6 percent of students in grades 9-12 had
    missed at least one day of school during the 30
    days preceding the survey because they felt
    unsafe at school or on their way to or from
    school. (2001)

Effects of Bullying
  • Victim
  • Depression
  • Low self-esteem
  • Health problems
  • Poor grades
  • Suicidal thoughts
  • Homicidal thoughts
  • Bully
  • Get into frequent fights
  • Steal and vandalize property
  • Drink alcohol and smoke
  • Report poor grades
  • Perceive a negative climate at school
  • Carry a weapon

Effects of Bullying
  • Observer
  • Fearful
  • Powerless to act
  • Guilty for not acting
  • Tempted to participate
  • The School
  • Develops an environment of fear and disrespect
  • Students have difficulty learning
  • Students feel insecure
  • Students dislike school
  • Students perceive that teachers and staff have
    little control

How Do You Spot a Victim of Bullying?
  • Primary Signs
  • Repeatedly teased, name calling, threatened
  • Made fun of
  • Picked on, pushed, hit
  • Involved in fights in which they are defenseless
  • Books/money taken or damaged
  • Physical signs
  • Secondary Signs
  • Alone and excluded from peer groups
  • Chosen last for team games
  • May stay close to teacher
  • Difficultly speaking in class
  • Appears distressed
  • School work deteriorates

PreventionArnette, J. L., Walsleben, M. C.
(1998). Combating fear and restoring safety in
schools. Washington, DC Office of Juvenile
Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S.
Department of Justice.
  • Rules against bullying that are publicized,
    posted school-wide, and accompanied by consistent
  • Student and adult mentors who assist victims to
    build self-esteem and to foster mutual
    understanding of and appreciation for differences
    in others
  • A "buddy system" that pairs students with a
    particular friend or an older student who is
    aware of the buddy's class schedule and is
    available if help is needed
  • An on-campus parents' center to recruit parents
    to participate in the educational process,
    volunteer, and assist in school projects and

PreventionArnette, J. L., Walsleben, M. C.
(1998). Combating fear and restoring safety in
schools. Washington, DC Office of Juvenile
Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S.
Department of Justice.
  • Parenting and anger management classes for adults
  • Behavior contracts signed by students and
    parents, and written behavior codes for students,
    teachers, and staff members
  • Discipline policies that emphasize positive
    behaviors rather than punishments for wrong
  • Training for all adult supervisors in cafeterias,
    playgrounds, or other "hot spots" where bullying
    is known to occur
  • Classroom and school-wide activities designed to
    build self-esteem (for those who are bullied) by
    spotlighting special talents, hobbies, interests,
    and abilities of all students

InterventionsThe Olweus Bullying Prevention
Program core elements for school-level
interventions in this program include
  • Assessing school needs and goals by using an
    anonymous questionnaire to poll the student body
    on the nature and extent of bullying problems
  • Forming a bullying prevention coordinating
  • Providing in-service days for teachers to review
    findings of the questionnaire, discuss the
    problem, and plan the prevention efforts
  • Holding school-wide events to launch the program
    and incorporating anti-bullying themes and
    activities into the curriculum

Interventions(The Olweus Bullying Prevention
Program, continued)
  • Increasing supervision in areas that are known
    "hotspots" for bullying, including the cafeteria
    and playground
  • Developing school-wide rules and consistent
    consequences for violations against bullying
  • Developing a system to reinforce positive
  • Holding staff discussion groups to enhance
    understanding and motivation
  • Involving parents in school activities
  • Ensuring that both parents and schools are aware
    of available resources in the community
  • Make sure bystanders know they have more power
    than the bully

  • Stop Bullying Now! Information, Prevention, Tips,
    and Games.
  • It's My Life . Friends . Bullies PBS Kids GO!
  • - Violence Prevention Topics
  • http//
  • Pathways Courses - The ABCs of Bullying

Whos Watching Alabama?
  • On-line safety
  • http//
  • Will come to your school and present a program
    for your students
  • Troy University

Review of Special Situations
  • Different behavior disorders require different
  • Know when to ask for help
  • Consistency will help with behavior modification
  • Celebrate any small changes in behavior
  • Whenever possible, maintain the flow of
  • Know ahead of time how you will manage the
    behavior when it happens

One More Area That Affects Student Behavior
  • Society is divided into three economic classes
  • Poverty
  • Middle Class
  • Wealthy

Students Living in PovertyRuby K. Payne, Ph. D.
  • Individuals bring with them the hidden rules of
    the class in which he/she was raised.
  • Schools and businesses operate from middle-class
    norms and use the hidden rules of the middle
  • Students living in poverty do not have the skills
    to self-regulate their behavior.
  • We can neither excuse students nor scold them for
    not knowing as educators we must teach them and
    provide support, insistence, and expectations.

The Wealthy Class Values Connections
  • Political
  • Financial
  • Social

The Middle Class Values
  • Work
  • Achievement
  • Material Security

Families in Generational Poverty Value
  • Relationships
  • Entertainment
  • Survival
  • Earlier we discussed the importance of
    student/teacher and parent/teacher relationships.
    If a relationship is established first, it is
    more likely that discipline (when needed) will be

Behaviors Related to PovertyPayne (2003)
  • Laughs when disciplined.
  • Argues loudly with the teacher.
  • Angry response.
  • Inappropriate or vulgar comments.
  • Physically fights.
  • Hands always on someone else.
  • Cannot follow directions.
  • Extremely disorganized.
  • Only completed part of a task.
  • Disrespectful to the teacher.
  • Cheats or steals.
  • Constantly talks. (pp. 103-104)

Laughs When Disciplined
  • A way to save face in a matriarchal poverty.
  • Intervention
  • Understand the reason for the behavior.
  • Tell the student three or four other behaviors
    that would be more appropriate.

Argues Loudly with the Teacher
  • Poverty is participatory, and the culture has a
    distrust of authority.
  • Sees the system as inherently dishonest and
  • Intervention
  • Dont argue with the student.
  • Have them complete a set of questions that
    identify the behavior, give a reason for the
    behavior, list at least four other actions that
    could have been used, and tell what he/she will
    do next time.

Angry Response
  • Anger is based on fear (loss of face).
  • Intervention
  • Respond in the adult voice.
  • When the student cools down, discuss other
    responses that could be used.

Inappropriate or Vulgar Comments
  • They rely on casual register (language of a type
    that is appropriate to a social situation or used
    for communicating with a particular set of
    people), may not know formal register.
  • Intervention
  • Make students generate or teach students other
    phases that could be used to say the same thing.

Physically Fights
  • Necessary to survive in poverty.
  • Only know the language of survival.
  • Does not have language or belief system to use
    conflict resolution.
  • Sees himself as less than a man if he does not
  • Intervention
  • Stress that fighting is unacceptable in school.
  • Examine other options the student could live with
    at school.

Hands Always on Someone Else
  • Poverty has a heavy reliance on nonverbal data
    and touch.
  • Intervention
  • Allow them to draw or doodle.
  • Have them hold their hands behind their backs
    when in line or standing.
  • Give them as much to do with their hands as is
    possible in a constructive way.

Cannot Follow Directions
  • Little procedural memory used in poverty.
  • Sequence is not used or valued.
  • Intervention
  • Write steps on the board.
  • Have them practice procedural self-talk.
  • Have them write at the top of the paper the steps
    needed to finish the task.

Extremely Disorganized
  • Lack of planning, scheduling or prioritizing
  • Not taught in poverty.
  • Also, probably does not have a place to put
    things at home so they can be found.
  • Intervention
  • Teach a simple color-coded method of organization
    in the classroom.
  • Use the five-finger method for memory at the end
    of the day.
  • Make students give a plan for their own

Only Completed Part of a Task
  • No procedural self-talk.
  • Does not see the whole task.
  • Intervention
  • Write on the board all the parts of the task.
  • Make student check off each part when finished.

Disrespectful to the Teacher
  • Has lack of respect for authority and the system.
  • May not know any adults worthy of respect.
  • Intervention
  • Tell students that approach is not a choice.
  • Have students either generate other options.
  • Give students alternative verbal phrases.

Cheats or Steals
  • Indicative of weak support system, weak role
    models/emotional resources.
  • May indicate extreme financial need.
  • May indicate no instruction/guidance during
    formative years.
  • Intervention
  • Use metaphor story to find the reason or need the
    cheating met.
  • Address the reason or need.
  • Stress that the behavior is illegal and not a
    choice at school.

Constantly Talks
  • Poverty is very participatory.
  • Intervention
  • Make students write all questions and responses
    on a note card two days a week.
  • Tell students they get five comments a day.
  • Build participatory activities into the lesson.

To Review
  • Schools operate using the hidden rules of the
    middle class.
  • We may need to teach the hidden rules to students
    who are living in generational poverty.
  • Education provides an opportunity for students to
    move out of poverty.
  • Behaviors are learned over a period of time, so
    it will take time to change behaviors.
  • Students need to learn there are behavior
    expectations at home and behavior expectations
    that may be different at school.

Workshop Review
  • Stay consistent
  • Firm but fair
  • Stay consistent
  • Have procedures prepared
  • Stay consistent
  • Have a plan for disruptive behavior
  • Stay consistent

  • Rewards
  • Consequences
  • Situations from index cards

  • Breaux, Elizabeth. (2007) How to Reach Teach
    all Students. Larchmont Eye on Education.
  • Canter, Lee. (1976) Assertive Discipline A Take
    Charge Approach for Todays Educator. Los
    Angeles Lee Canter and Associates.
  • Canter, Lee and Marlene Canter. (1991) Parents on
    Your Side. Santa Monica Lee Canter and
  • Charney, Ruth Sidney. (1998) Teaching Children to
    Care, Management in the Responsive Classroom.
    Greenfield Northeast Foundation for Children.

References Continued
  • Colvin, Geoff. (2004) Managing Non-Compliance.
    Video. Eugene Iris Media Inc.
  • Levy, Ray. Reinforcing Small Changes in
    Behavior. A Parents Guide
    to Helping Kids with Learning Difficulties.
  • Marzano, Robert J. (2003) Classroom Management
    that Works. Alexandra Association for
    Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Payne, Ruby K. (2003) A Framework for
    Understanding Poverty. Highlands aha! Process,
  • Robin, Arthur L. and Sharon K. Weiss. (1997)
    Managing Oppositional Youth. Video. Plantation
    Specialty Press.
  • Thompson, Julia G. (1998) Discipline Survival
    Kit for the Secondary Teacher. San Francisco
  • Wong, Harry K. and Rosemary T. Wong. (2001) The
    First Days of School. Mountain View Harry K.
    Wong Publications.

  • Brophy, J. E., (1996) Teaching problem students.
    New York Guilford.
  • Brophy, J. E., McCaslin, N. (1992) Teachers
    reports of how they perceive and cope with
    problem students. Elementary School Journal, 93,
  • Emmer, El T., Evertson, C. M., Worsham, M. E.
    (2003). Classroom management for secondary
    teachers (6th ed.) Boston Allyn Bacon.
  • Stage, S. A. Quiroz, D. R. (1997). A
    meta-analysis of interventions to decrease
    disruptive classroom behavior in public education
    settings. School Psychology Review, 26, 333 368
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