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Der Blaue Reiter


Wassily Kandinsky Franz Marc Der Blaue Reiter – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Der Blaue Reiter

Der Blaue Reiter
  • Wassily Kandinsky
  • Franz Marc

Der Blaue Reiter
  • In1909 a group of Munich-based artists announced
    their common aim of organising art exhibitions
    in Germany and abroad, and of reinforcing their
    effect by lectures, publications and similar
  • They were known as Die Neue Kunstlervereinigung
    München (New Artists Alliance, Munich) or NKVM.
    Founding members included Alexij von Jawlensky,
    Alexander Kanoldt, Adolf Erbsloh, Marianne
    Werefkin, Wassily Kandinsky and Gabriele Munter.
  • The NKVM hosted three major shows. The first
    featured the founding members, the second
    included French and Russian artists (including
    Picasso, Braque, Derain, Vlaminck, and two future
    Blaue Reiter artists Macke and Marc).
  • There came a rift in the NKVM when in their
    third show they rejected an art work by Kandinsky
    because of the jury deemed it too large for the
    show. Many members argued that it should be
    admitted, but in the end it was not.
  • Kandinsky left the NKVM and in 1911 they held
    their first exhibition (members included
    Kandinsky, Marc, and Munter). Interestingly, Die
    Brucke artists had left the New Artists Session
    in Berlin around the same time.

Der Blaue Reiter - Whats with the name?
  • Some argue that the name was taken from a
    Kandinsky work done in 1905 titled Blue Horseman.
    The horse rider had been inspired by Russian
    folk tales.
  • On the first Blaue Reiter Almanac is an image of
    St. George atop a horse slaying a dragon in the
    forground. It is thought that St. George was
    used as a symbol of the artists spiritual role of
    rescuing innocence from the ravages of
  • The horse rider was an allusion to the Four
    Horsemen of the Apocalypse. Der Blaue Reiter
    artists, especially under the influence of
    Theosophy, saw an apocalypse as the only way that
    a new, non-materialistic epoch will be reached.
    This was in reaction to the decadent bourgeois
    culture that was corrupted because of industrial
    change and exploitation.
  • Lastly, the horse was seen to be a potent symbol
    of elemental forces by both Kandinsky and Marc.

Der Blaue Reiter and philosophical influences.
Theosophy - Drawing from philosophical and
religious backgrounds (Hinduism, Judaism,
Zoroastrianism), it was established by the
Russian Madame Blavatsky in 1875. They believed
in the idea of universal brotherhood the idea
that colour and form can enrich the soul that
people have colour auras (thought forms) that
change colour according to peoples mood that an
apocalypse will bring about a final spiritual
world and that the 21st century will be a time
of paradise on earth.
Psychology - Synaesthesia a belief that some
people have the ability to see colours when they
hear a particular sound/music. Kandinsky wrote,
Various attempts to exploit this power of colour
and apply it to different nervous disordersred
light has an enlivening and stimulating affect.
Freud his theories on automatic drawing, or to
create from the unconscious rather than conscious
part of the mind as a way of tapping into a
universal understanding.
Der Blaue Reiter and philosophical influences.
Darwinism - Der Blaue Reiter artists like
Kandinsky and Marc used animals as symbols in
their works at they saw them as existing in
balance with naturethis aligned well with their
interest in spirituality. Kandinsky used the
horse as a symbol of power and passion whereas
Marc used animals to represent truth, purity, and
The Apocalypse - For Kandinsky, this was going to
bring about a necessary change and bring forth a
new, non-material world. Many had seen science
as something that was advancing too quickly and
bringing too many changes and creating a corrupt
and unbalanced world. Kandinsky wrote, The
collapse of the atom was equatedwith the
collapse of the whole world. Many artists and
liberal thinkers believed that the world was soon
to collapse on itself. Such people included
Kandinsky, Neitzsche, and Wagner. Der Blaue
Reiter saw their task as prophesising this
Wassily Kandinsky (1866 1944)
  • In 1896 (30) he gave up his successful careeer as
    a lawyer (Phd) and economist to become a painter.
    He moved to Munich to study art.
  • One of few expressionists in Germany whose work
    was based on a comprehensive and well founded
    theory. In 1912 he wrote one of Arts most
    influential texts On the Spiritual in Art.
  • His style changed and grew from Art Nouveau
    (Jugendstil), Russian symbolist, Fauvism,
    Post-Impressionism and eventually abstraction.
  • By 1909 his works, while still containing ciphers
    (abbreviated symbols of natural objects), his use
    of colour becomes much more expressive and
  • Works take on unconventional titles and start
    with Impression, Improvisation, or Composition.
  • 1911 an important year, it is thought that this
    was the year that he painted his first true
    abstract oil painting.
  • 1913 space or movement is created by weight, the
    advancing or receding, of colour.
  • 1914 is forced to leave Germany, though he
    returns in 1922 to teach at the Bauhaus.

Riding Couple, 1906-07, oil on canvas,
Colourful Life. 1907 oil on canvas.
  • Kandinskys early work (1896-1908)
  • A Divisionist technique, using unmixed colours in
    juxtaposition (similar to Pointalism, some
    scholars will refer to this application of paint
    as Tesserae).
  • Not strictly systematic.
  • His themes are mingled with his rural Russian
    background and its fairy tales. The style
    alludes to Russian folk art with the use of
    bright colours against a dark background.
  • Art Nouveau influence can be seen.
  • Landscapes based more on psychological symbolism
    than on-site studies of nature.
  • Short vivid brushstrokes give a vibrant, luminous

Claude Monet Haystacks
Kandinsky was deeply impressed with Monets
haystacks. In was around 1905 that he went to a
French Impressionist exhibition in Moscow.
Kandinsky wrote The catalogue told me that it
was a haystack I couldnt tell it from looking.
Not being able to to tell it upset me. I also
considered that the artist had no right to paint
so indistinctlyI had the dull sensation that the
subject was missing. And was amazed and confused
to realize that the picture did not merely fascin
ate but impressed itself indelibly on my memory.
Wassily Kandinsky - Munich-Schwabing with the
Church of St. Ursula. 1908. Oil on cardboard.
68.8 x 49 cm.
Wasily Kandinsky, Blue Mountain, 190809. Oil on
canvas, 41x38 inches.
  • Kandinsky work -1908-1909.
  • Silhouetted flatness of form.
  • Influence of Fauves as during this period
    Kandinsky had travelled to Paris and met Matisse,
    Derain, and Vlaminck as well as Picasso and
    Braque. He was impressed by the Fauves arbitrary
    use of colour and the Expression that they
    captured in their work.
  • Often sharp contrast of light and dark and warm
    and cold.
  • Alternations between different coloured dabs and
    blobs of paint give the paintings a restless

  • Kandinskys Metamorphosis - 1909-1911
  • In Germany, Kandinsky developed his idea of the
    correspondence between a work of Art and the
    viewer, and called it Klang (sound or
  • In his book Spirituality in Art he wrote
  • Colour is the power which directly influences
    the soul. Colour is the keyboard, the eyes are
    the hammers, the soul is the piano with the
    strings. The Artist is the hand which plays,
    touching one key or another, to cause vibrations
    of the soul.

  • Metamorphosis 1909-1911.
  • In this period of artistic development, he began
    to divide his paintings into 3 categories
  • Impressions which still show some
    representational elements.
  • Improvisations which convey spontaneous emotion
  • Compositions which are ultimate works of art,
    created only after a long period of preparations
    and preliminaries.

Kandinsky, Mountain, 1909, Oil on canvas,
Mountain, 1909
Blue Mountain, 190809
Looking at these two works what stylistic
features have changed? List three similarities
and three differences.
Wassily Kandinsky. Picture with an Archer. 1909.
Oil on canvas, 175 x 144 cm .
Picture with an Archer. 1909
Church of St. Ursula, 1908
Looking at these two works what stylistic
features have changed? List three similarities
and three differences.
Wassily Kandinsky -Improvisation 6 (African),
1909. Oil on canvas. 109 x99 cm.
Wassily Kandinsky, Two Riders and Reclining
Figure, 1909-10.
Improvisation 7 1910, Oil on canvas, 131 x 97
  • Kandinskys work -1909-1910.
  • Landscape is still the basis of the subject
    matter though elements are only hinted at as if
    they are a mere pretext for a colourful play of
    glowing contrasts.
  • Shapes are reduced.
  • Loose thick areas of colour are spread broadly
    and generously.
  • Non-Naturalistic.

Wassily Kandinsky
Cubism had demonstrated a means to be liberated
from traditional representation of form.
Had seen that colour didnt have to signify
objects. .has its own spiritual significance.
  • Synaesthesia
  • (K.) Had a neurological disorder known as
  • Defined as sensory stimulation that is perceived
    by a separate sense.
  • Kandinsky exhibited the most common form known as
    coloured hearing. This means that he could hear
    music when he saw colours each colour has its
    musical equivalent.
  • Each indiv. Would hear different musical tones on
    seeing different colours.
  • Example When he saw the colour yellow in which
    he reported hearing the sound of a shrill
  • He wrote of this in his theoretical texts. He
    stated that when you see a bright colour you do
    not associate deep bass sound with it, and
    likewise upon seeing a dark colour a high treble

Kandinsky, "First Abstract Watercolour"1910.
Pencil, watercolour and India ink, 49.6 x 64.8 cm.
  • Breakthrough to the abstract 1910/11-1913
  • The lopsided painting, scholars are in debate
    as to whether this is the first true abstract art
  • Brings in connections between art and music where
    he saw musics free chords and harmonic tones as
    an analogy for abstract art.
  • Early abstract forms still bound in some way to
    nature ie. werent just shapes and colour for
    their own sake.

Kandinsky, Improvisation 19, 1911. Oil on canvas,
Kandinsky, Improvisation 19, 1911. Oil on canvas,
  • The black outlines still suggest the figurative,
    but there is absolutely no connection between
    them and the vibrant field of colour which they

Wassily Kandinsky - Lyrical. 1911. Oil on canvas.
94 x 130 cm.
Composition ll. 1909-1910
Cossacks  1910-11
Cossacks  1910-11
  • Is this work devoid of anything representational?
  • The title of the work suggests that he is
    remembering the events of the 1905 Russian
    Revolution in which the Cossacks were involved.
  • The view is expected to read the painting in
    three levels
  • To see the chaos of colour and lines to represent
    the chaos of the Revolution
  • To begin to see the forms created by colours and
    lines (eg. the hats of the Cossack soldiers,
    their lances, the castle sitting atop the hill)
  • To begin to understand the meaning of the work as
    it was his hope that the viewers would be drawn
    into a conversation with the painting while they
    try to decipher is.

Composition IV, 1911, Oil on canvas, 159 x 250 cm
Composition IV, 1911, Oil on canvas, 159 x 250 cm
  • On the left, violent motion is expressed through
    the profusion of sharp, jagged and entangled
  • On the right, all is calm, with sweeping forms
    and colour harmonies.
  • Cossacks (1910-11) is considered to be the
    preparatory study work for this art work.
  • The dividing lines are actually two lances held
    by red-hatted Cossacks. Next to them, a third,
    white-bearded Cossack leans on his violet sword.
  • They stand before a blue mountain crowned by a
    castle. In the lower left, two boats are
  • Above them, two mounted Cossacks are joined in
    battle, brandishing violet sabers. On the lower
    right, two lovers recline, while above them two
    robed figures observe from the hillside.
  • Kandinsky has reduced representation to
    pictographic signs in order to obtain the
    flexibility to express a higher, more cosmic

Kandinsky, Composition V (The last judgement),
1911, Oil on Canvas, 200x300cm.
Later in 1911, Kandinsky produced Composition V,
a much more abstract work. Several angels
blowing trumpets are included in the upper
portion of the canvas. The strong black line
crossing from right to left can be felt as a
representation of the blowing of the trumpets.
Above this line, the towers of a walled-in city
are visible. Below the line, the thin application
of paint produces a luminescence that affects our
perception of space in that portion of the
canvas. The whiteness conveys a sense of
infinity through the lack of volume and
perspective. Out of this void, the viewer can
sense the rising of the dead.
Kandinskys Colour Theory.
  • Kandinsky felt that each colour had an inherent
    character defined by its relationship to its
    opposing colour. For instance -plus/minus,
    warm/cool, active/passive, female/male and
    believed that these characteristics, on an
    intuitive level and in certain combinations,
    could communicate an emotion or idea to the
  • Kandinskys colour principles
  • Yellow Warm, Convulsive, irritating.
  • Blue Tranquil, Severe, Cold.
  • Red Hot, Passionate, Virile.
  • Green Static, Neutral, Passive.
  • White A silence pregnant with sound.
  • Black Silence of death.

Kandinskys Colour Theory.
Kandinsky, Improvisation 26 (Oars), 1912, Oil on
Canvas, 97x107cm
Kandinsky, Picture with a Black Arch, 1912. Oil
on canvas, 188x196 cm.
Kandinsky, Picture with a Black Arch, 1912. Oil
on canvas, 188x196 cm.
  • Made up of 3 areas of shapes pressing against
    each other.
  • Bottom right corner shape leads to Vermillion at
    centre, opposite a blue shape that has dark lines
    with light greens, whites and orange.
  • Black Arch shape gives weight to the image. Binds
    them together.
  • Black Arch appears as an eruption of energy,
    violent struggle. Red1side. Blue the other.
  • Theme of conflict and struggle.

  • Conflict
  • An aim to capture the turmoil of inner life as
    captured in the conflict of the Music of Mozart
    or Wagner.
  • -evident in the contrast of the red and Blue in
    Black Arch.
  • Colour, line and free flowing form to make up a
    dramatic visual language which expresses the
    antagonism between matter and spirit.
  • Translates the entire sceptical mood of pre WW1
    Europe into an abstract but accessible range of

Kandinsky, Picture with white border, 1913. Oil
on canvas, 140x200cm
Kandinsky, Picture with white border, 1913.
  • Washed out blue figure in middle fighting
  • White line lance directed at a dragon in lower

Kandinsky, Composition VI, 1913, Oil on canvas,
  • Kandinsky saw three centres to this Composition
  • First) The eye is drawn to the pink and white
    vortex in the left centre.
  • Second) The multiple lines representing
    torrential rain carry the focus to the right
    section, where a darker centre of discordant
    forms and stronger rain lines adds to the tumult.
  • Third) The eye slides to the lower centre, where
    a blue form outlined in black cowers below the
    torrents of rain and crashing waves. In this
    work, Kandinsky has pushed further beyond
    representation to the very limits of abstraction.

Composition VII. 1913
Composition VII is the pinnacle of Kandinsky's
pre-World War One artistic achievement. Its
creation involved over thirty preparatory
drawings, watercolours and oil studies. Through
all of the preparatory works and in the final
painting itself, the central motif (an oval form
intersected by an irregular rectangle) is
maintained. This oval seems almost the eye of a
compositional hurricane, surrounded by swirling
masses of colour and form. In Composition VII's
final form, Kandinsky has obliterated almost all
pictorial representation. Art scholars, through
Kandinsky's writings and study of the less
abstract preparatory works, have determined that
Composition VII combines the themes of The
Resurrection, The Last Judgment, The Deluge and
The Garden of Love in an operatic outburst of
pure painting.
Kandinsky, Composition VII, 1913, Oil on Canvas,
Kandinsky, Composition VIII, 1923
Kandinsky, Composition VIII, 1923
  • Apocalyptic emotion of Composition VII replaced
    with geometrical rhythm.
  • Painted ten years later in 1923, Composition VIII
    reflects the influence of Suprematism and
    Constructivism absorbed by Kandinsky while in
    Russia prior to his return to Germany to teach at
    the Bauhaus.
  • Kandinsky has moved from colour to form as the
    dominating compositional element
  • He does however use different colours within the
    forms to energize their geometry.
  • Design seems to be taking place in an undefined
    space. The layered background colours - light
    blue at bottom, light yellow at top and white in
    the middle - define its depth. The forms tend to
    recede and advance within this depth, creating a
    dynamic, push-pull effect.

Rayonism More abstract than either Cubism or
Suprematism Complete abstraction. A very pure
Geometric abstraction. Fine tuned response to
modern feelings.
Russian Folk Tradition -Very strong colourist
tradition. -Mystical outlook. -Orthodox
Church. -Their art had always had an abstract
Political Readiness to embrace the future.
-Highly developed culture.
"Colour is the keyboard, the eyes are the
harmonies, the soul is the piano with many
strings. The artist is the hand that plays,
touching one key or another, to cause vibrations
in the soul." Wassily Kandinsky"There is no
must in art because art is free." Wassily
Why should we not succeed in creating colour
harmonies that correspond to our psychic state.
Wassily Kandinsky
Franz Marc (1880-1916).
  • He studied at the Munich Art Academy and
    travelled to Paris several times where he saw the
    work of Gauguin, Van Gogh, and the
  • He became a member of the New Artists Alliance
    and was introduced to the concept of expressive,
    non-representational colour. He wrote
  • Their logiscla distribution of the plain, the
    mysterious lines of the one and the colour
    harmony of the other seek to create spiritual
    moods which have little to do with the subject
    protrayed but which prepare the ground for a
    new, highly spiritualise aesthetic.
  • With Kandinsky, he founded the almanac "Der Blaue
    Reiter" in 1911 and organized exhibitions with
    this name. He was the groups organiser.
  • He and Auguste Macke began to work on a colour
    theory together after the est. of the Blaue
    Reiter group.
  • After a visit to meet Orphist Robert Delaunay
    (Fr.) he began to create works with a more
    crystalline form.

  • Robert Delaunay, Windows Open Simultaneously (1st
    Part, 3rd Motif), 1912.

Delaunays cubism revolved around an intensive
study of the relationships of complementary
colours and simultaneous colours. where colour
becomes an object of the picture.
The Dead Sparrow, 1905, Oil on wood, 13 x 16.5cm
Marcs colour theories He wrote Blue is the
male prinicple, stern and spiritual. Yellow the
female principle, gentle, cheerful and sensual.
Red is matter, brutal and heavy and always the
colour which must be fought and vanquished by the
other two. If, for example, you mix the serious,
spiritual blue with red, then you augment the
blue to an unbearable mourning, and the
reconciling yellow, the complementary colour to
violet, will be indispensible (the woman as
consoler, not as lover). If you mix read and
yellow, you give the passive and female yellow a
sensual power, for which the cool, spiritual blue
-the man- will again be indispensable, and
certainly blue sets itself immediately and
automatically next to orange the colours love
each other. Blue and orange, a thoroughly
festive chord. But if you now mix blue and
yellow to green, you bring red, the material, the
earth to life. But here I, as a painter, always
feel a difference with green you never put the
eternally material, brutal red to rest, as you do
with the other colour chord (just imagine objects
decorated in green and red). Blue (the heaven)
and yellow (the sun) must always come to the aid
of green again, to subdue the material.
Franz Marc, Dog lying in the snow, 1910/11. Oil
on canvas, 62 x 105cm.
Franz Marc, Dog lying in the snow, 1910/11. Oil
on canvas, 62 x 105cm.
  • 1910 he meets Macke.
  • Snow pure white, hollows between it pure blue.
    Dog, dull yellow.
  • Step by step, I now made the dog pure coloured
    (light yellow) each time the colour became
    purer, the coloured edges around the dog
    disappeared a little more, until finally a pure
    colour relationship was created between the
    yellow, the cold white of the snow and the blue
    within it Furthermore, the blue must not take up
    too much space in relationship to the pure but
    weak yellow if it is to remain complementary (ie.

Franz Marc, Horse in a landscape, 1910. Oil on
canvas, 85 x 112cm.
Franz Marc, Horse in a landscape, 1910. Oil on
canvas, 85 x 112cm.
  • Red horse stands out against a predominantly
    yellow background.
  • His back faces us, seemingly snubbing humanity as
    he surveys and embraces the landscape.
  • The hills in the background repeat the forms of
    the horse as if the same cosmic unity runs
    through both.
  • Colours have changed from actual colours to
    essence. Contrast red/green.

Franz Marc, The Yellow Cow, 1911. oil on canvas,
140 x 190cm.
  • Painting of stark contrasts
  • Brightness of the cow juxtaposed with the black
    of the trees and mountains, and red fury that
    pervades the landscape almost seems to threaten
    the femininity of the cow.
  • Joie de vivre

Franz Marc, The little Yellow Horses, 1912, Oil
on canvas, 66 x 104cm.
Franz Marc, The Little Blue Horses, 1911, Oil on
canvas, 61 x 101cm.
  • Taking stock Franz Marc (so far)
  • Marc never turned to animal paintings as a genre.
    Rather, his horses and other animals are
    substitutes for people in his art. Human
  • For him, they embody everything that is pure,
    true and beautiful. Features which he was
    unable to find in his fellow human beings.

Franz Marc, Tiger, 1912. Oil on canvas, 111 x
111.5 cm
Franz Marc, Tiger, 1912. Oil on canvas, 111 x
111.5 cm
  • Proves his colour associations are not dogmatic,
    as yellow can neither be seen here as female, nor
    as gentle, cheerful or sensual.
  • Soft, hilly landscape has been replaced by sharp
    edged, bizzare angular shapes. Cubist influence.
  • Has Marc here truly expressed the feeling of the
    tiger, or has he instead imposed on it human
  • In 1912 with Macke, visits the studio of Robert
    Delaunay. Sees his Windows series and is
    impressed by them.

Marc, Deer in the Monastery Garden, 1912, Oil on
canvas, 75 x 101 cm.
  • Marc, Deer in the Monastery Garden, 1912, Oil on
    canvas, 75 x 101 cm.
  • Dominated by abstract, in part bizarre forms
    creating almost no impression of spatial depth.
  • Pantheism ie. pantheistic.
  • The spirit of the universe in everything.

  • 1912/13 Marcs views on animals changes
  • Marc no longer employing the animal as means of
    portraying himself.
  • Another instinct led me away from animals
    towards abstraction I found people ugly very
    early on animals seemed to me more beautiful,
    more pure but even in animals I discovered much
    that was unfeeling and ugly, so that my pictures
    instinctively became increasingly more
    schematic, abstract.

Franz Marc, Stables, 1913, Oil on canvas, 73 x
157 cm.
  • 1912/13 Sees in the flesh the work of the
    Futurists for the first time. Is enthralled by
    the capturing of light, illumination and
    atmosphere in their work.
  • Stables is Marcs reaction to the work that the
    Orphists were producing as well as that of the
    the Futurists.
  • The horses are dismembered and abstracted as flat
    shapes parallel to the picture plane.
  • It is argued that Marc sees the stables as a
    metaphor for social decadence and mentions it in
    a letter to Kandinsky shortly after war is
  • I am not angry at this war I am grateful to it
    from the bottom of my heart. There was no other
    avenue to the time of the spirit it was the only
    way of cleansing the stables of Europe.

  • Giacomo Balla Speed of a Motor Car 1913.

Franz Marc, Animal Destinies (The Trees show
their Rings, the Animals their Veins), 1913. Oil
on Canvas, 196 x 266 cm.
Animal Destinies (The Trees show their Rings, the
Animals their Veins)
  • It shows the political and artistic contexts just
    before WWI via the Futurist lines of force,
    Cubist fragmenting of structure, and Orphic
    colour harmonies.
  • The painting is thought to represent the coming
    of conflict and its effect on the natural world
    that Marc had previously considered innocent.
  • Three red shards move from the upper left
    diagonally into the tree which falls in an
    opposing diagonalthis is counter-balanced by the
    diagonal explosion of form from top right to
    lower left.
  • At the time of the art work Marc wrote
  • Today art is moving in a direction of which our
    fathers would never even have dreamed. We stand
    before the new pictures as in a dream and we hear
    the apocalyptic horsemen in the air. There is an
    artistic tension all over Europe.

Franz Marc, Fighting Forms, 1914 Oil on Canvas,
91 x 131cm.
Broken Forms, 1914
Fighting Forms and Broken Forms
  • These two works are a part of a series of four
    works including Happy Forms (destroyed), and
    Playing forms.
  • The works reveal conflicting nature of artists
    inner emotions which can be seen as a battle of
    spiritual forces against the material world.
  • In Fighing Forms the figure on the left can
    perhaps be seen as an eagle (a bird of soaring
    spirit), which is attacking a blue/black
    otherwise undefinable being.
  • In the book of Revelation 813 it says, Then I
    looked and I heard an eagle calling with a loud
    cry as it flew in mid-heaven Woe, woe, woe to
    the inhabitants of earth when the trumpets

Franz Marc - Tyrol (1914)
  • Completed after Marc had visited the Austrian
  • The work began primarily as an abstract
    landscape, which can be identified by the hint of
    a town in the lower centre of the painting. Marc
    had submitted it to the Autumn Salon in 1913 but
    withdrew it to add the Madonna figure in the
    upper centre of the painting, along with a scythe
    that cuts across from the lower right portion of
    the work.
  • The scythe and Madonna on a crescent moon refer
    Christian portrayals of the apocalypse as told in
    the Revelation of St John. The scene is meant to
    symbolise the rebirth of mankind after the
    destruction of corrupt society. Examples of this
    can be seen in work done by Durer around 1500.
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