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Sun-Earth Relationship

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What is a volcano? Volcano- form when magma inside the earth breaks through the crust. Lava flows and may produce a large, cone-shaped mountain Weathering The ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sun-Earth Relationship


1
Sun-Earth Relationship
2
Weather?
  • Condition of the atmosphere at a given time and
    place

3
Climate?
  • Condition of weather in a geographic region over
    a long period of time

4
Temperature?
  • Measurement of heat

5
Tilt of the Earth
  • Axis- an imaginary line running from the North
    Pole, through the center of the Earth, to the
    South Pole.
  • Located at 23 ½ degrees upon the axis
  • Effects temperature depending upon tilt of the
    Earth towards or away from the sun.

6
Rotation
  • The spinning of the Earth on its axis.
  • 1 rotation 24 hours

7
Revolution
  • Orbit of the Earth around the sun.
  • 365 ¼ days in one year

8
The Seasons
  • Equinoxes- Equal Night 12 hrs. of day/night
  • Neither Pole is pointed toward or away from sun
  • Autumnal Equinox (September 21/22)
  • Vernal Equinox (March 21/22)

9
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10
Cancer and Capricorn
  • 23 ½ degrees North- Tropic of Cancer
  • Northernmost point on Earth to receive direct
    sunlight
  • 23 ½ degrees South- Tropic of Capricorn
  • Southernmost point on Earth to receive direct
    sunlight

11
The Seasons
  • Summer Solstice- North pole is pointed toward the
    sun at 23 ½ degrees North
  • Winter Solstice- South pole is pointed toward the
    sun at 23 ½ degrees South

12
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13
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14
The Poles
  • Each pole receives continuous sunlight for 6
    months of the year
  • When one pole receives sunlight the other
    receives little to no sunlight

15
5 Factors that Affect Climate
  • 1. Latitude
  • 2. Elevation
  • 3. Wind
  • 4. Ocean Currents
  • 5. Landforms

16
Latitude
90 N
High Latitude
60 N
Middle Latitude
30 N
Low Latitude
0
Low Latitude
30 S
Middle Latitude
60 S
High Latitude
90 S
17
Low Latitude
  • Located between 0-30 degrees North/South
  • Called the Tropics
  • Receives sunlight all year
  • Very hot temperatures
  • Lush vegetation
  • Abundant Precipitation

18
Middle Latitude
  • Located between 30-60 degrees North/South
  • Summers Hot, Dry
  • Winters Cold, Rainy
  • Dramatic Seasons

19
High Latitude
  • Located between 60-90 degrees North/South
  • Poles located here
  • Cold Temperatures year round

20
Elevation
  • As air rises it cools and dries
  • Basically
  • As you go up from the ground, the air gets colder
    and drier.

21
Elevation
  • Urban Heat Island- cities or urban areas are
    hotter because
  • 1. Evaporation is less
  • 2. Land surface (concrete) stores heat
  • 3. More fossil fuels add CO2 which stores heat
  • 4. More pollution which stores heat

22
Global Wind Belts
  • What is wind?
  • The horizontal flow of air

23
Types of Wind
  • Prevailing Winds- winds which blow from the same
    direction
  • Doldrums- Windless areas around the equator
  • Westerly- Prevailing winds, in the mid latitudes,
    which blow from the west
  • Easterly- Prevailing winds, in the mid latitudes
    which blow from the east

24
Types of Wind Cond
  • Front- two air masses of widely different
    temperatures and moisture levels meet
  • Polar Front- occurs between 40-60 degrees
    North/South, warm air meets cold air
  • Jet Stream- Fastest westerly wind which moves
    heat and steer weather.

25
Types of Wind Cond
  • Coriolis Effect- causes prevailing winds to blow
    at a diagonal
  • Right in the northern hemisphere
  • Left in the southern hemisphere

26
Global Wind Belt Diagram
90 N
Polars
60 N
Westerlies
30 N
Northeast Tradewinds
Doldrums
0
Southeast Tradewinds
30 S
Easterlies
60 S
Polars
90 S
27
Ocean Currents
  • Water heats/cools more slowly than land
  • Current- A great river of seawater which moves in
    a circular flow
  • Upwelling- cold water from the ocean floor rises
    to the surface

28
Landforms
  • As warm, moist air flows from the water and rises
    up the mountain it begins to cool. The cool air
    then evaporates which causes precipitation. The
    precipitation allows the windward side of the
    mountain to have lush vegetation.
  • As the air pushes over the mountain it dries and
    heats up. This causes the leeward side of the
    mountain to be hot, dry.

29
Rain shadow Effect/ Orographic Uplift
30
Bodies of Water
  • Oceans
  • Covers 70 of Earth
  • 97 of all Earths water
  • Largest is the Pacific Ocean

31
Seas, Gulfs, Bays
  • All Saltwater
  • Usually partly enclosed by land
  • Largest Mediterranean Sea

32
Lakes, Rivers, Streams
  • Lakes- a body of water which is completely
    surrounded by land.
  • Fresh and Salt Water
  • Most were made by glaciers cutting a valley into
    the Earth
  • In Texas, all lakes are man-made
  • Except Lake Caddo on the Texas-Louisiana border

33
Rivers
  • All civilizations begin near water (usually
    river)
  • Mesopotamia- (Fertile Crescent)- the land between
    the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
  • Headwater- beginning of a river (usually a
    mountain)
  • Mouth- end of a river (usually in a larger body
    of water)
  • Groundwater- wells, springs, aquifers

34
Freshwater
  • 3 of Earths water
  • 2 frozen in glaciers and icecaps
    (meltsaltwater)
  • 0.5 found in aquifers- water below the Earths
    surface
  • 0.5 found on the surface

35
Desalinization
  • The process of turning salt water into fresh
    water
  • Boil salt water and use condensation as the fresh
    water
  • Problem expensive, very little freshwater from
    process

36
Planet Earth
  • 93 million miles from sun
  • 8,000 miles in diameter

37
Atmosphere
  • Air which surrounds Earth 19 miles above the
    surface
  • 78 Nitrogen
  • 21 Oxygen
  • 1 other gases

38
Biosphere
  • All life on Earth

39
Hydrosphere
  • All water on Earth
  • Solid- Glaciers, Icebergs
  • Liquid- oceans, rivers, lakes.
  • Gas- Fog
  • a cloud that has come to Earths surface

40
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41
Lithosphere
  • Solid crust of the planet
  • Continents- 7 large landmasses
  • Australia, Asia, Antarctica, Africa, Europe,
    North and South America

42
Europe
North America
Asia
Africa
South America
Australia
Antarctica
The Continents
43
Lithosphere
  • Highest point- Mount Everest
  • Himalaya mountains in South Asia
  • 29,035 feet above sea level (asl)
  • Lowest point- Dead Sea
  • Southwest Asia (Middle East)
  • (-)1,349 feet below sea level (bsl)
  • Deepest point- Mariana Trench
  • Pacific Ocean
  • 38,827 feet

44
Mount Everest
45
Shoreline of the Dead Sea
46
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47
Inside the Earth
  • Crust- Made up of huge, plate-like sections of
    rock
  • Mantle- Hot dense rock
  • Outer Core- melted nickel and iron
  • Inner Core- solid iron and nickel

48
Layers of the Earth
49
Continental Drift
  • Theory that the continents were all once joined
    in a super continent called Pangaea but slowly
    drifted apart

50
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51
Plate Tectonics
  • Movement of plates

52
What happens when plates meet?
53
Converging (Collision) Zone
  • They collide and push slowly against each other
    and form a collision or converging zone.

54
Converging (Collision) Zone
  • If 2 continental plates collide, mountains are
    formed. Example Himalayas
  • If 2 oceanic plates collide, 1 slides under the
    other. Islands often form this way.

55
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56
Subduction
  • Heavier sea plate dives below the lighter
    continental plate
  • The sea plate becomes magma (molten rock)
  • The magma burst to the surface and forms volcanic
    mountains
  • Example- the Andes Mountains in South America

57
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58
Accretion
  • Pieces of the surface come together as the sea
    and the continental plates collide
  • Results in sea mounts- underwater mountains with
    steep sides and sharp peaks.

59
Spreading
  • Sea plates pull apart
  • Result- Rift or Valley on the ocean floor

60
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61
Faults
  • A continental plate slides past or next to
    another continental plate
  • Resulting in an Earthquake

62
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63
What is an Earthquake?
  • A sudden, violent movement of plates along fault
    lines
  • Measured on the Richter Scale
  • 1- lightest
  • 10- epic

64
Ring of Fire
  • Area of volcanic and earthquake activity along
    the rim of the Pacific Ocean

65
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66
What is a volcano?
  • Volcano- form when magma inside the earth breaks
    through the crust. Lava flows and may produce a
    large, cone-shaped mountain

67
Mount Fuji, Japan
68
Weathering
  • The chemical or physical process of breaking down
    rocks
  • Physical weathering- large pieces of rock are
    physically broken off
  • Chemical weathering- changes on the rocks
    chemical makeup causes changes to the rock

69
Physical
Weathering
70
Chemical weathering
71
Erosion
  • Wearing away of the Earths surface by wind,
    water, glaciers

72
Wind Erosion
  • Movement of dust, sand, or soil from one place to
    another

Wind created alcove in Utah
73
Glacial Erosion
  • Wearing away of the Earths surface by moving ice

Baltoro Glacier, Pakistan
74
Water Erosion
  • Wearing away of the Earths surface by flowing
    water

Cliffs cut by waves in South Wales
75
Sediment
  • Small particles of sand and gravel flow through a
    body of water which aids in water erosion

76
Types of Weather
77
Tornado
  • Twisting spirals of wind
  • Occurs in the middle latitudes
  • USA has more than any other country
  • Does not follow a pattern
  • April-June usually between 3-7 pm

78
Tornado Cond
  • Fujita Scale- measurement of the intensity of
    tornado
  • F0- 40 to 70 mph
  • F1- 71 to 112 mph
  • F2- 113 to 157 mph
  • F3- 158-206 mph
  • F4- 207-260 mph
  • F5- 261 mph

79
Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes/Typhoons)
  • Most powerful and destructive force of nature in
    the Atlantic Ocean (Hurricane) or Pacific Ocean
    (Typhoon)
  • Tropical wave
  • Tropical depression
  • Tropical Storm
  • Hurricane (74 mph)

80
Cyclone Cond
  • Produce powerful winds, torrential rains, high
    waves and damaging storm surges
  • Can also produce tornadoes
  • Develop over large bodies of warm water
  • Lose strength once they move onto land
  • Named alphabetically, alternating female/male by
    years.

81
Monsoon
  • Seasonal reversing wind accompanied by seasonal
    changes in precipitation.
  • Rainy phase
  • Drought Phase

82
El Nino
  • Periodic change in the pattern of ocean currents
    and water temperature in the Pacific Ocean
  • Changes in wind currents cause warm water from
    Indonesia to move along the South American Coast
    towards the US coast.

83
Effects of El Nino
  • Precipitation increases along North and South
    America coasts (floods)
  • Precipitation decreases along SE Asia, Australia,
    and East Asia (Drought)
  • Has been linked to Global Warming

84
Greenhouse Effect
  • Earths atmosphere traps heat and filters the
    rays of the sun which help keep the Earth warm.

85
Global Warming
  • The burning of fossil fuels (gasoline, oil,
    coal) causes gases to be emitted into the
    atmosphere which trap and store heat which
    increases the greenhouse effect and causes the
    Earth to warm at a faster rate.

86
Effects of Global Warming
  • Rising sea levels
  • Increased global temperatures
  • Extreme weather events (drought, hurricanes,
    tsunamis)
  • Arctic ice shrinking
  • Greenland ice sheets shrinking/breaking off
  • Dramatic effect on future food supplies
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