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Portable LADDERS


Portable LADDERS Corporate Health & Safety 2011 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Portable LADDERS

Portable LADDERS
  • Corporate Health Safety 2011

  • Introduction REX
  • Figures
  • Main causes of accidents
  • Ladders types and components
  • Portable ladders safety rules
  • Work the right way / the wrong way
  • Find the errors !
  • Questions

Person slipped whilst descending ladder at the
point of extension transition Employee did not
hold on to ladder "rungs"
February 2010 Loss Time Injury tibia fractured
and ankle badly sprained The worker falls from
the ladder 6 feet high
The victim climbed on a single side ladder (3
meter in length), set up on an elevated platform
Two of his colleagues held/supported the single
side ladder while he was trying to open the
scrubber window. At that time wrench/spanner
slipped out of his hand and due to inertia he
fell over the hand railing all the way to the
October 2010 1 fatality The worker falls from the
ladder 8 m high
While getting down a ladder holding a fire
extinguisher in his hand, the victim slipped on
the ladders step and fell on the floor
June 2010 Loss Time Injury The worker falls from
the ladder 2 m high
The victim was performing an exchange of a
lamp He slipped off the ladder
February 2010 Loss Time Injury Fractured
ankle The worker falls from the ladder 1.8 m high
When he started to descend the ladder he couldnt
hold on to the handrail all the way. In his left
hand he was holding the grease pump by means of
the tube and he was wearing gloves soaked with
grease. He suddenly slipped and fell.
November 2009 Wrist fractured The worker falls
from the ladder 1.8 m high
The injured climbed up a six step ladder that was
standing against the tundish to inspect the
refractory insulation On his way down he lost his
concentration and balance and fell from the
second rung of the ladder
January 2009 Loss Time Injury Radius
fractured The worker falls from 50 cm
The victim had to replace a fused bulb. He took
an extension of a stepladder and put it against
heating pipes, which were inclined and he started
mounting the ladder. When he felt the ladder was
moving, he jumped off and fell on the floor.
November 2008 Fatality
Whilst going up the ladder, which was put up
shaky, the ladder moved and as a result the
victim lost his balance and fell down onto the
concrete floor.
September 2007 Fatality The victim falls from 4
m height
  • Falls from heights are a safety problem in
    industry and at home.
  • According to statistics released in 2009 by the
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, falls from
    ladders in all industries accounted
  • for over 16 of fatalities
  • more than 100,000 non-fatal incidents overall
  • Other research reveals that
  • over 15 of fatal accidents occurred from
    relatively low heights of 10 feet or less
  • 53 percent occurred from 11 to 30 feet heights
  • According to the American Academy of Orthopedic
  • more than 500,000 people a year are treated for
    ladder-related injuries in the U.S.
  • out of these 500,000 injuries approximately 300
    people in the U.S. die from ladder related
    injuries annually

Main causes of accidents
Use of a defective ladder
This home made ladder was used in one of our
sites Thats forbidden!
Main causes of accidents
Use of a defective ladder
Those pictures have been taken in some of our
sites during safety audits Ladders with damaged
feet must be withdrawn from service and repaired
or destroyed
Main causes of accidents
Use of a defective ladder
Main causes of accidents
Use of a defective or inappropriate ladder
Too short! Inappropriate length
Main causes of accidents
Unsafe positions of the worker on the ladder
Main causes of accidents
Ladder set up with improper angle
Main causes of accidents
Ladder is not held, tied off or secured
People dont wear or use properly their safety
Main causes of accidents
Ladder is not held, tied off or secured
Main causes of accidents
Loss of balance when working on a ladder or
holding tools
Main causes of accidents
3m / 10 feet at least
Ladders users must be trained
  • Employers must provide a training program to
    reach employees using ladders.
  • The training must enable each employee to
    recognize hazards related to ladders.
  • This training must be conducted by a competent
  • Most ladder accidents are the result of careless
    or improper ladder usage
  • Make sure all the ladders are compliant and in a
    good shape and train the users should help to
    decrease or better avoid incidents

Ladders types components
Single ladder
Portable Ladders types components
Platform step ladder
Portable Ladders types components
Extension Ladder
Portable Ladders safety rules
  • ArcelorMittal Companies will, as a minimum,
    follow the prevailing local legislations for
    elevated work where there is a risk of falling.
    Where the following internal rules are more
    demanding, then they will apply
  • Before using a ladder, always determine if there
    is no more adapter and safer way to reach another
  • If you cannot work safely from a ladder, you must
    find an alternative way to do the work
  • Do not use homemade ladders
  • Never use a ladder when under the influence of
    alcohol, on drugs or medication

1. Ladder SelectionOnly use the proper ladder
for the job you have to perform
  • Maximum weight capacity
  • Never load a portable ladder beyond 150 kg/330
    lbs (users weight and the material used).
  • Sufficient length
  • Use the proper size ladder for the job. The side
    rails must extend at least 3 rungs or 3 feet / 1
    m above the upper landing surface.
  • Ladders must not be tied or fastened together to
    create longer sections unless they are specially
    designed for such use.
  • Never splice or tie two short ladders together to
    make a long section. In that case you should use
    an extension ladder.

1. Ladder SelectionAlways consider the
electrical hazard
  • Never use metal ladders nor metal tools around
    exposed electrical wiring
  • Even wet or dirty wood of fiberglass ladders can
    conduct electricity so keep all ladders and tools
    at least 10 feet / 3 m away from live overhead
    power lines and other overhead obstructions

2. Ladder InspectionAlways check a ladder
before using it
  • Never use a damaged ladder
  • ladders with structural defects (such as broken
    or missing rungs, cleats or steps broken or split
    rails, corroded components)
  • all hardware and fitting must be properly and
    securely attached
  • movable parts must be tested to make sure they
    operate without binding or without too much free
  • slip resistant feet must be checked for wear
  • metal and fiberglass ladders must be bend nor
    show any sign of breaks
  • wooden ladders must not have splits nor cracks in
    the wood.
  • Defective ladders must immediately be marked
    defective or tagged with
  • DANGER - do not use
  • or similar language and withdrawn from service

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3. Ladder setting upStability
  • Use ladders only on stable and level surfaces and
    secured at the foot to prevent accidental
  • Do not allow ladders to lean sideways
  • Do not try to make a ladder reach farther by
    setting it on boxes, barrels, bricks, blocks or
    other unstable bases
  • Never use a ladder on a scaffold platform. If you
    need to reach higher, the scaffold should be
  • The sections of an extension ladder must overlap
    enough to retain the strength of the ladder
  • Dont use portable ladders as part of a platform
  • Do not use ladders on slippery surfaces unless
    secured or provided with slip-resistant feet to
    prevent accidental movement.

3. Ladder setting upStability
  • The top of a non-supporting ladder must be placed
    with the two rails supported equally unless it is
    equipped with a single support attachment
  • Never rest a ladder on any of its rungs
  • A ladder should be secured against sideways
    movement at the top or held by another worker
    whenever it is being used

3. Ladder setting upSpecific rules for
  • A step ladder must be completely open
  • Step ladders without support bar can only be
    acceded till the 3rd highest step (the 2 upper
    steps enable to lean on)
  • Ensure that only 1 person is on the stepladder at
    any given time
  • Never use a stepladder as a non-supporting ladder
    leaning against a wall

3. Ladder setting upSecuring the Environment
  • Secure ladders placed in areas such as
    passageways, doorways or driveways, or where they
    can be displaced by workplace activities or
    traffic to prevent accidental movement
  • Erect warning, signs or barricades to keep
    traffic or activity away from the ladder
  • If it is not possible, have someone hold and
    guard the bottom of the ladder
  • Keep the area around the top and the bottom of
    the ladder clear of debris, tools and other

3. Ladder setting upSetting Up Angle
  • The technically proper angle for a
    non-self-supporting ladder is about 75 degrees
    above horizontal.
  • This means that the base should be set out
    one-fourth of the ladder's height to its top
    support point.
  • E.g. if a ladder is to be supported at a point
    20 feet off the ground, its base should be set 5
    feet out from the wall.
  • (20 feet divided by 4 5 feet)

3. Ladder setting upSetting Up Angle
  • 2 other easy ways to check the angle of the set
    up ladder
  • Someone stand in front of the ladder shoes
    touching the rails. If the angle is correct its
    possible to hold the rang at the height of the
    shoulders stretching out the arms
  • The elbow test is also a simple way to check the
    angle of a ladder

4. Ladder using
  • A mean of access
  • A ladder is not a work station and should only be
    used to reach another level. It cant be used to
    bridge a height difference of gt 5 meters.
  • The worker must always keep 3 points contact with
    the ladder when going up or down.
  • Performing a work on a portable ladder is only
    authorized under very precise conditions

4. Ladder using
  • Working on a portable ladder
  • Working on a ladder is allowed only under the
    following cumulative conditions
  • The risk assessment performed shows only minor
    risks. The work environment that brings hard
    conditions should be taken into account (e.g.
    high temperature) as well as the fact the worker
    should hold heavy and/or bulky tools or objects .
  • Its a minor extend task (service and inspection,
    measuring and calibration, changing of lights,
    attaching / detaching slings, setting anchor
  • Its a short-term work. The frequency this work
    have to be performed must also be taken into
  • The use of alternative equipments as a man lift
    or a scaffold is not appropriated (e.g. Due to
    narrowed conditions).

4. Ladder using
  • A risk assessment must always be performed prior
    the work to check whether other alternative tools
    (e.g. scaffolds, mobile platforms) than a ladder
    are available and more appropriate to carry out
    the task safely, or to determine countermeasures
    on risk elimination when using a portable ladder
  • When working at 1,8 meters (6 feet) or above out
    of a working platform protected against falling,
    you must wear fall protection equipment and have
    a suitable tie off point except for tasks
    performed on a ladder in the conditions described
  • Where law is more demanding than it will apply.

4. Ladder using
  • Wherever possible use rolling platform ladders or
    telescopic scaffold towers as alternative to
    ladders (with side protection and stabilizers)

4. Ladder using
  • Always check for stability and support before
  • Keep the steps and rungs of ladders free of
    grease, oil, wet paint, mud, snow, ice, paper and
    other slippery materials. Also clean such debris
    off your shoes before climbing a ladder.
  • Always face a ladder when climbing up or down and
    maintain 3 points contact.
  • Use one step at the time.
  • Grasp the rungs of the ladder, not the side
    rails. The rungs are easier to hold onto in case
    your foot slips.
  • Do not use a ladder by 2 or more persons at the
    same time.

4. Ladder using
  • Never carry heavy or bulky loads up a ladder that
    could cause loss or balance and falling.
  • Do not lean too far to one side. Overreaching is
    probably the most common cause of falls from
    ladders. A good rule is to always keep your belt
    buckle inside the rails of a ladder.
  • Do not try to move a ladder while you are on it
    by rocking, jogging or pushing it away from a
    supporting wall. Do not move a ladder while a
    person is still on it.
  • Extend an extension ladder only from the ground
    when there is nobody on it.

Find the errors!
Find the errors!
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Find the errors!
Find the errors!
  • At what conditions is it possible to work on a
    ladder (4 conditions)?
  • There is no safer and more adapted way to perform
    the work
  • It is a short time work
  • It is a minor extend work
  • The worker on the ladder has at least one free
    hand to grasp the ladder when going up and down
  • The risk assessment concludes the level of risks
    is low
  • The ladder is made off wood
  • What is the proper angle for setting up a
    non-self-supporting ladder?
  • 40
  • 45
  • 75

  • How long must side rails extend at least above
    the upper landing surface?
  • 3 feet / 1 m / 3 rungs
  • 6 feet / 1,8 m / 5 rungs
  • 7 feet / 2 m / 6 rungs
  • Is it allowed to use home made portable ladders?
  • How many points contact do I always have to keep
    with the ladder when going up and down?
  • 4 points (2 feet 2 hands)
  • 3 points (2 feet 1 hand)
  • 3 points (1 foot 2 hands)

  • When do ladders must be inspected?
  • Before each use
  • Periodically
  • What kind of ladder it is forbidden to use
    around exposed electrical
  • wiring?
  • A. Wooden ladders
  • B. Fiberglass ladders
  • C. Aluminum ladders

  • What distance do I always have to keep with live
    overhead power lines and other overhead
  • 3 feet / 1 m
  • 10 feet / 3 m
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