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Human Development

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Human Development REPRODUCTION: Reproductive Systems Fertilization Pregnancy Child Birth – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Development


1
Human Development
  • REPRODUCTION
  • Reproductive Systems
  • Fertilization
  • Pregnancy
  • Child Birth

2
The Human Reproductive System
  • Reproduction is the process by which living
    organisms produce others of their own kind.
  • Human life results from the union of two cells
    one from the male and one from the female.
  • These cells are produced by structures in the
    male and female reproductive systems and merge in
    the female during sexual intercourse
  • The human reproductive system consists of body
    organs and structures that make it possible to
    produce young.

3
The Male Reproductive System
  • The function of the male reproductive system is
    to produce sperm and transmit them to the female
    reproductive system.
  • Sperm are the male reproductive cells. They are
    first produced during puberty which begins in
    boys between 10-12.

4
The Male Reproductive System
5
The Female Reproductive System
  • The female reproductive system has four main
    functions
  • It produces the hormones estrogen and
    progesterone
  • It stores and releases female reproductive cells,
    called eggs or ova
  • It allows fertilization to take place.
  • It nourishes and protects the developing child
    until it is able to survive outside the females
    body.

6
Parts of the Female Reproductive System
7
The Menstrual Cycle
  • Ovulation (the releasing of an egg from the
    ovaries)
  • may start as soon as a girl reaches puberty.
    Generally, this is between the ages of 8-12
    although some girls can ovulate for the first
    time, also known as menarche, as early as 8 or as
    late as 16. After Ovulation,
  • If fertilization occurs, the lining of the
    Uterus, also known as the Endometrium, will
    develop further and nourish the fertilized egg.
  • If fertilization does not occur, which is what
    usually happens, the Uterine lining and un-used
    egg dissolve and mix with a small amount of
    blood. The body sheds the lining through the
    vagina. This is known as menstruation

8
The Menstrual Cycle (contd.)
Menstrual flow stops after about 5 days.
Ovulation A mature egg is released from the
ovary into a fallopian tube.
If fertilization has not occurred, the uterine
lining begins to break down.
Menstrual flow begins.
Fertilization is most likely to occur during
these days.
9
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10
Sexual Intercourse Act of Reproduction
  • The act of reproduction in humans is when the
    male inserts their penis into the womens vagina.
    Upon climax, semen is ejaculated into the
    women. The Semen contains 4 things
  • Fluid from 3 different organs in the male
    reproductive system and the Sperm produced in the
    Testicles.

11
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12
Fertilization
  • Sperm entering the vagina travel through the
    uterus to the fallopian tubes. Fertilization
    takes place in a fallopian tube when a male sperm
    cell and a female egg cell unite.

13
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14
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15
Fertilization
  • The fertilized egg then moves through the
    fallopian tube to the uterus, where it becomes
    implanted.
  • In the uterus, the fertilized egg gradually grows
    and develops.

16
Fertilization and implantation on the Uterus Wall
17
Fertilization/implantation including cell division
18
Now were pregnant!
  • At the moment the fertilized egg also known as a
    blastocyst, implants into the uterus, the women
    is officially, not just technically pregnant.
  • Common Signs of pregnancy include
  • -missed period or abnormally short/light
    period
  • -breast tenderness or fullness
  • -nausea or vomiting
  • -changes in appetite including cravings
  • -frequent urination
  • -un-explained fatigue
  • -Gas

19
Decisions Decisions Decisions
  • Once a girl/woman finds out she is pregnant..she
    is faced with a major decision with 3 possible
    outcomes
  • Have the baby 1) alone or 2) with
    partner?
  • Place baby up for adoption 1) closed secret
    adoption
  • 2) Open
    mother selected adoption
  • ( note in some states, babys can be placed
    into temporary foster care instead of adoption
    until the mother gets on her feet)
  • 3) Abortion In the US most abortions are
    performed during the first 14 weeks.. n the
    state of PA,, the law states, except as provided
    in subsection (b), no person shall perform or
    induce an abortion upon another person when the
    gestational age of the unborn child is 24 or more
    weeks which means that unless it involves health
    complications to the mother or fetus, an abortion
    must be done by the 24th week (during the 6th
    month or sooner)
  • For the purposes of this lesson, you are not
    getting an abortion so..

20
Development After Fertilization
  • The human body begins as a single fertilized cell
    known as a zygote. The fertilized cell starts to
    divide into a number of cells and is called a
    blastocyst . Then, it implants itself into the
    uterus lining and begins to build structures of
    the body. It is then referred to as an embryo.
  • After the eighth week, the embryo is called a
    fetus and looks like a baby (for the most part)
    but is very tiny.
  • From the moment of fertilization until birth, the
    cells develop into tissues, organs, and body
    systems.

21
The Developing Fetus
6 Months Length 12 ½ inches Weight 1 ½
pounds Behavior kicks, hears sounds
Fertilization The union of the sperm cell with an
egg cell forms an embryo
9 Months Length 1820 inches Weight 79
pounds Behavior eyes open, fingers can grasp,
body organs and systems can work on their own
3 Months Length 3 inches Weight 1
ounce Behavior begins to move
22
Full term pregnancy orientations of the baby
23
Full term pregnancy orientations of the baby
24
OTHER STUFF TO KNOW AND CONSIDER?
25
Length of pregnancy?

Most people say 9 months but in reality, its
10. A pregnancy lasts 40 weeks. Pregnancies
are divided into 3 trimesters of about 13 weeks
each (give or take)
26
What happens to the placenta?
  • Medical benefits
  • consumption
  • saving it
  • Cultural and Spiritual practices

27
Care During Pregnancy
  • DO
  • Eat healthful foods.
  • Have regular checkups.
  • Beware of infections.
  • DONT
  • Smoke or use tobacco.
  • Drink alcohol.
  • Take any unnecessary drugs.

28
Heredity
  • Certain traits are traits you have inherited from
    your parents.
  • Structures within cells influence heredity.
  • Chromosomes are threadlike structures that carry
    the codes for inherited traits.
  • Each chromosome is divided into thousands of
    small parts called genes
  • Children inherit genes for each trait from each
    parent.

29
Heredity (contd.)
Egg cell
Embryo
Sperm cell
Sperm cell
23 chromosomes
46 chromosomes
23 chromosomes
30
Sex Gender
22 of the 23 pairs of chromosomes are numbered.
The 22nd is lettered either XX or XY. Recall
that ½ of your chromosomes come from your mom and
½ from your dad. Eggs are always X and Sperm can
be either X or Y. IF an X sperm fertilizes an
egg, it will be a girl. If a Y sperm fertilizes
an Egg, it will USUALLY, be a boy XY boy
XX Girl
31
Sex Gender
However, if a Y chromosome fertilizes and egg,
during the 1st trimester, a chemical is secreted
that must travel around the developing embryo and
reach the gonads (reproductive organs BEFORE they
actually become reproductive organs) If the
chemical reaches the gonads, the embryo will grow
the parts of the male reproductive system. If
the chemical does not reach the gonads, the
developing embryo will become a girl
32
Genetic problems at birth?
  • Genetic problems can cause serious disorders.
    Down syndrome, for example, is a genetic disorder
    in which a persons cells have 47 chromosomes
    instead of 46.
  • Such disorders can affect physical or mental
    development, or both.
  • Genetic disorders may be mild or severe a few
    are fatal.

33
Care During Pregnancy
Again.it is EXTREMELY IMPORTANT to eat healthy
and avoid drugs and get regular check ups while
pregnant!!! Your babys entire future can be
effected by what you do!
34
  • Post Pregnancy care
  • Breast Feeding? Formula?
  • Milk?
  • Foods? When to start cereal?
  • Check Ups?
  • Vaccines?
  • Sleeping schedule? Fixing bad habits before
    they begin
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