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SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS

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SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS DIAGNOSIS OF HIV Blood test to check for HIV antibodies 2 6 weeks after suspected infection. Follow-up test is recommended 10 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS


1
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS
2
  • DEFINITION
  • are infections that are transmitted by direct
    contact with the genital organs.

3
  • Until the 1980s syphilis and gonorrhoea were the
    best known and most serious of the STIs.
  • Gonorrhoea been around since ancient times
  • Syphilis since about 1493 from Americas via
    Captain Columbus.
  • HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS HIV
  • is now considered the most dangerous STI

4
  • The number of STIs in developed countries were
    declining as people became more educated about
    safe-sex practices
  • BUT
  • There has been a gradual increase of STIs in
    recent years.
  • - In USA STIs are the most prevalent
    communicable diseases after the common cold.
  • No vaccine available.
  • Cannot buildup resistance or immunity to STIs.

5
GONNORRHOEA
6
GONORRHOEA
  • The clap
  • Mainly affects the mucus membranes of the
    excretory and reproductive systems, the rectum
    and occasionally the eyes.
  • Caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoea
  • Transmitted during sexual intercourse
  • Discharge of pus is the source of transmission

7
GONORRHOEA
  • Affects both males and females
  • Symptoms 2 10 days after infection
  • Females might not have symptoms
  • Males bacterium enters the urethra
  • Burning sensation in penis
  • Extreme pain on urination
  • Lack of treatment can lead to spread of
    infection to other organs
  • Cause
    sterility
  • Arthritis
  • Heart
    problems

8
  • Females bacterium enters the vagina and
    spreads to urethra and cervix
  • Usually no pain
  • Pus discharge usually thought of
    as normal vaginal discharge
  • Lack of treatment can lead to spread of
    infection to other organs
  • Spread to oviducts
  • Spread to abdominal
    membranes
  • Cause sterility
  • .

9
  • Treatment Antibiotics
  • Some strains of the disease are resistant to some
    antibiotics
  •  
  • Development of a vaccine is the goal of medical
    authorities

10
SYPHILIS
11
SYPHILIS
  • The Pox
  • Named after a shepherd who had the disease.
  • Caused by the spiral shaped bacterium
    Treponema pallidum
  • Transmitted during sexual contact

12
  • Affects both males and females in the same ways
  • Symptoms 10 days to 10 weeks after infection
  • 3 stages of disease
  •  
  • Primary bacterium enters the body through a
    break in the skin.
  • Small sores on the sex organs
    heals in 3-8 weeks

13
  • Secondary usually starts a few weeks after
    primary stage
  • Can be delayed up to 12
    months
  • Skin rashs, sore or
    ulcerated mouths, disorders of the bones
  •  
  • This stage lasts for up to 2 years after
    infection

14
  • Tertiary
  • latent period where there are no symptoms for
    many years.
  •  
  • Lack of treatment can lead to spread of
    infection to other organs, nervous system,
  • Insanity, physical incapacity, can transfer
    across the placenta and infect the foetus.

15
SYPHILIS
  • Treatment Antibiotics
  • Some strains of the disease are
    resistant to some antibiotics
  • Pregnant women are tested for STIs.
  • Pregnant women are given antibiotics if they have
    syphilis this will provide treatment to the
    foetus as well as the woman.

16
Hepatitis B
  • Highly infectious viral disease .
  • Spread through the transmission of body fluid.
  • - usually transmitted in infected blood but also
    in other body fluids.
  • HEPATITIS inflammation of the liver.
  • Over 90 of persons infected with HIV also have
    Hepatitis B.

17
Hepatitis B
  • Symptoms
  • Flu-like symptoms including
  • Fatigue, fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and
    muscle aches, skin may be yellow (jaundice).
  • Liver failure can occur Liver transplant would
    be necessary.

18
Hepatitis B
  • Treatment
  • No cure is available for hepatitis B.
  • - can be given medication to manage the disease
  • Prophylaxis series of 3 injections

19
LESSON 2
20
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS
  • - HIV
  • The Human Immunodeficiency virus causes
    progressive damage to the bodys immune system.

21
ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME
  • - AIDS
  • The destruction of the immune system which
    leaves a person susceptible to infection by other
    microorganisms and to some forms of cancer.
  •  
  • AIDS is a fatal disease NO CURE.

22
hiv
  • HIV is a retro virus
  • contains an RNA core
  • HIV infects white blood cells T-lymphocytes and
    uses them to produce more of the virus.
  • HIV virus attaches itself to a cell with a
    surface molecule called a cluster designation 4
    (CD4).
  • This is how the HIV virus fuses with a human
    cell.

23
  • The process of infection destroys the
    T-lymphocytes until there are not enough of them
    left in the body to protect it from infection.

24
STAGES OF INFECTION
  • Persons infected with HIV are classified into
    categories depending on the stage of the disease
    and their symptoms.
  • Category A
  • Category B
  • Category C

25
CATEGORY A - hiv
  • Newly infected individuals develop HIV within 2
    weeks of exposure to the virus.
  • Called seroconversion
  •  
  • Symptoms similar to glandular fever
  • Severe lack of energy
  • Fevers
  • Headache
  • Continual dry cough
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Painful muscles and joints
  • Symptoms finish after 3 14 days
  •  

26
CATEGORY A - hiv
  • Asymptomatic stage for a period of up to 10
    years there are no symptoms
  •  
  • However the person is highly infectious.

27
CATEGORY B - hiv
  • Several months to several years after infection
    the person will progress to category B.
  • T-lymphocyte count drops considerably
  • Development of illness called Persistent
    generalised lymphadenopathy (AIDS related
    complex).

28
CATEGORY B - hiv
  • Symptoms
  • Swelling in the neck, armpits, groin
  • Diarrhoea
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss over 5 kg for no apparent reason
  • Continual dry cough
  • Unexplained bleeding
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nervous system impairment
  • Inability to think clearly
  • Loss of memory/judgement

29
CATEGORY C - HIV
  • Most people in this category have developed AIDS.
  • Have various serious conditions including
  • Pneumonia
  • Cancers
  • Brain disorders
  • Some people infected with HIV do not progress to
    this stage

30
SPREAD OF HIV
  • has spread rapidly around the world
  • Virus does not survive long outside of the human
    body.
  • Infected body fluids must be passed directly into
    a persons bloodstream

31
SPREAD OF HIV
  • Body fluids that are able to carry enough HIV to
    be infectious
  • Blood
  • Seminal fluid
  • Vaginal and cervical fluids
  • Breast milk
  • Even though HIV is found in other body fluids it
    is not in large enough quantities to be
    infectious

32
  • HIV can be spread by
  • Unprotected sexual intercourse
  • Sharing of needles
  • From infected mother to embryo/child
  • Breastfeeding
  • Unscreened blood transfusions

33
PREVENTATIVE MEASURES
  • Dont have sexual intercourse
  • Dont inject drugs
  • Only have protected sex
  • No sharing any objects that have been
    contaminated by human blood
  • Do not let cuts or sores come into contact with
    human blood

34
DIAGNOSIS OF HIV
  • Blood test to check for HIV antibodies 2 6
    weeks after suspected infection.
  • Follow-up test is recommended 10 12 weeks after
    first test if it is negative to be sure that no
    antibodies have developed.
  •  
  • VIRAL LOAD
  • Blood test to that gives an indication of the
    activity of the HIV virus.

35
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36
TREATMENT
  • NO cure for HIV
  •  
  • Many investigations and drug trials are being
    carried out around the world for a cure.
  • A mixture (cocktail) of drugs are prescribed to
    HIV patients to inhibit the reproductive cycle of
    the virus.
  • Vaccines are being trialled

37
AIDS
  • First AIDS case in Australia was 1982
  • By 2000 9754 cases 5751 had died.

11.26 NEWLY DIAGNOSED HIV CASES(a), AIDS cases and deaths following AIDS(b) 11.26 NEWLY DIAGNOSED HIV CASES(a), AIDS cases and deaths following AIDS(b) 11.26 NEWLY DIAGNOSED HIV CASES(a), AIDS cases and deaths following AIDS(b) 11.26 NEWLY DIAGNOSED HIV CASES(a), AIDS cases and deaths following AIDS(b) 11.26 NEWLY DIAGNOSED HIV CASES(a), AIDS cases and deaths following AIDS(b) 11.26 NEWLY DIAGNOSED HIV CASES(a), AIDS cases and deaths following AIDS(b) 11.26 NEWLY DIAGNOSED HIV CASES(a), AIDS cases and deaths following AIDS(b) 11.26 NEWLY DIAGNOSED HIV CASES(a), AIDS cases and deaths following AIDS(b)

Year of diagnosis Year of diagnosis Year of diagnosis Year of diagnosis Year of diagnosis
Prior to 2003 2003 2004 2005 2006 Total

HIV cases(a) 22 529 871 908 962 998 26 268
AIDS cases(b) 9 172 242 201 243 261 10 119
AIDS deaths(b) 6 353 91 107 78 94 6 723

(a) Not adjusted for multiple reporting. (a) Not adjusted for multiple reporting. (a) Not adjusted for multiple reporting. (a) Not adjusted for multiple reporting. (a) Not adjusted for multiple reporting. (a) Not adjusted for multiple reporting. (a) Not adjusted for multiple reporting. (a) Not adjusted for multiple reporting.
(b) AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in the years from 2002 were adjusted for reporting delays AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in previous years were assumed to be completely reported. (b) AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in the years from 2002 were adjusted for reporting delays AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in previous years were assumed to be completely reported. (b) AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in the years from 2002 were adjusted for reporting delays AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in previous years were assumed to be completely reported. (b) AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in the years from 2002 were adjusted for reporting delays AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in previous years were assumed to be completely reported. (b) AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in the years from 2002 were adjusted for reporting delays AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in previous years were assumed to be completely reported. (b) AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in the years from 2002 were adjusted for reporting delays AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in previous years were assumed to be completely reported. (b) AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in the years from 2002 were adjusted for reporting delays AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in previous years were assumed to be completely reported. (b) AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in the years from 2002 were adjusted for reporting delays AIDS cases diagnosed and deaths following AIDS in previous years were assumed to be completely reported.
Source 'HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia Annual Surveillance Report 2007', National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Source 'HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia Annual Surveillance Report 2007', National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Source 'HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia Annual Surveillance Report 2007', National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Source 'HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia Annual Surveillance Report 2007', National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Source 'HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia Annual Surveillance Report 2007', National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Source 'HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia Annual Surveillance Report 2007', National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Source 'HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia Annual Surveillance Report 2007', National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Source 'HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia Annual Surveillance Report 2007', National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
38
CHLAMYDIA
  • Previously known as non-specific urethritis
    (NSU)
  • Organism Chlamydia trachomatis
  • bacterium
  • Treatment with antibiotics
  • Infects both men and women

39
CHLAMYDIA
  • Symptoms only show in men
  • Yellow, pus like discharge
  • Burning sensation on urination
  • Long term damage in men
  • Inflammation of epididymis epididymitis
  • Sterility

40
CHLAMYDIA
  • Long term damage in women
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Infertility
  • Ectopic pregnancies can occur
  • Diagnosis of Chlamydia in women is confirmed by
    cervical swab.
  • 70 chance that disease will be passed on to
    foetus during birth

41
GENITAL HERPES
  • Increasingly common
  • Herpes simplex type 1 produces cold sores on
    the lip
  • Herpes simplex type 2 results in blisters on
    genitals
  • Disease is not curable

42
  • Symptoms
  •  
  • Painful blisters on penis/labia and vagina
  •  
  • Virus can reinfect at any time and the blisters
    will recur
  •  
  • Can cause serious malformations and
    life-threatening diseases in children bornto
    infected mothers.
  •  
  • - children get delivered by caesarean section
  •  

43
  • TREATMENT
  • Medication to reduce the pain
  • Sexual abstinence during blister eruption
  • Anti-viral drugs
  • Vaccine available for women does not work for
    men

44
GENITAL WARTS
  • Caused by a virus human papillomavirus
  • Associated with cervical cancer detected by a
    PAP smear
  • Usually found Vagina, Labia, Cervix, Penis
  • Also found Anus Throat
  • A newborn child can become infected during
    passage through birth canal

45
PUBIC LICE AND SCABIES
  • Both cause intense itching in the genital area
  • Louse (insect) Phthirus pubis
  • Scabies (mite) Sarcoptes scabei
  •  
  • Intense scratching due to allergic reaction to
    the lice or their faeces
  • Transmission through either sexual contact or
    sharing same bed

46
TRICHOMONIASIS
  • Infection caused by a protozoan Trichomonas
    vaginalis
  • Causes inflammation of the mucus membranes of the
    vagina in women and the urethra in men.
  • Symptoms in women
  • Vaginal discharge and severe vaginal itch
  • No symptoms in men

47
CONTROL OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS
  • What can be done to decrease the incidence of
    sexually transmitted infections?
  • Effective health education
  • Safe sex practises
  • Identifying high risk groups
  • Sexual health clinics
  • Tracing of sexual contacts
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