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Roots, Perspectives, and Impact of Imperialism

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Title: Roots, Perspectives, and Impact of Imperialism


1
The Age of Imperialism (1800-1914 AD)
Roots, Perspectives, and Impact of Imperialism
2
Objectives
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------
  • Describe the political, economic, and social
    roots of imperialism.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------
  • Analyze the perspectives of the colonizers
    (imperialists) and the colonized regarding
    indigenous language, natural resources, labor,
    political systems, and religion.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------
  • Explain the global impact of imperialism
    including the modernization of Japan, the
    political and social reform of China, and the
    exploitation of African resources.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------

3
I. Understanding Imperialism (1)
  • Key Imperialism Terms
  • Imperialismthe extension of a nations power
    over another nation through economic, political,
    and/or military methods to gain political,
    economic, and social control of that nation.
  • Imperialists or Colonizersnations or

    groups of people who extend their power
    over
    another nation to gain political,

    economic, and social control of that nation

    (in other wordswho sets up the colony).
  • Natives (Indigenous) or Colonized

    nations or groups of people who are

    controlled politically, economically, or

    socially by another nation or group of

    people (in other wordsthe colony).

Imperialism results in nations attempting to take
control over other parts of the world.
4
I. Understanding Imperialism (2)
  • Imperialism has occurred throughout history
    including
  • Ancient World (Assyrians, the Roman Empire, and
    the Han Dynasty)
  • 8th-16th Century (Franks, Mongols, and Aztecs)
  • 16th-18th Century (England,

    France, Spain, and Portugal in

    North America)
  • 19th-20th Century (New

    Imperialism)WHAT WE

    WILL FOCUS ON!!!!

Imperialism, throughout history, has involved
some degree of racism or similar beliefs that one
group of people are somehow superior to another
group of people.
5
I. Understanding Imperialism (3)
  • During the period of New Imperialism, Mass
    Societies were unifying people together into
    Nation-States.
  • New Imperialism refers to the period when
    nations switched from having a few trading posts
    to direct control of vast territories.
  • Nations engaged in the New Imperialism
  • Technology (advanced weapons) from the Industrial
    Revolution enabled the imperialist armies to
    easily gain control of the territories in Asia,
    Africa, and the Pacific.

Great Britain Portugal Belgium
France Spain Russia
Japan Germany Italy
The Netherlands The United States
6
Map showing the territory claimed by major
nations during the Age of Imperialismthe New
Imperialism.
7
II. Motivations for Imperialism (1)
  • Imperialism can be caused due to political,
    economic, and/or social reasons.
  • Main factors motivating imperialism
  • Economic
  • Nationalism (Ideological)
  • Racism (Ideological)
  • Political
  • Exploratory
  • Religious

8
II. Motivations for Imperialism (2)
  • Motivating Reason 1 Economic
  • The Industrial Revolution created a demand for
    more colonies, more raw materials, and more
    markets.
  • Industrialized nations needed more colonies in
    order to obtain the raw materials, have access to
    cheap labor, and control foreign trade.
  • The raw materials were used to make manufactured
    goods and technologies.
  • The manufactured goods and new technologies were
    then sold to the new markets in the colonies
    (sold to the natives they took the raw materials
    from).
  • The new markets and control of the raw materials
    led to more wealth for the imperialistsit was
    all about making more money.

9
The Triangular Trade is an example of the
Economic Motivation for Imperialismthe colonies
provided wealth.
10
II. Motivations for Imperialism (3)
  • Motivating Reason 2 Nationalism (Ideological)
  • The more colonies an imperialist nation had, the
    stronger that nation was considered in the world.
  • Colonies became a source of national pride for
    Industrialized nations.
  • The imperialist nations thought their culture and
    language the best in the world and desired to
    spread it to other
    areas.
  • The belief that great nations should

    have empires only fueled this

    Nationalism.

The Nationalism Motivation for Imperialism
encouraged many imperialist nations to set up
colonies to spread their Best culture worldwide
11
II. Motivations for Imperialism (4)
  • Motivating Reason 3 Racism (Ideological)
  • Extreme nationalism often leads to feelings of
    cultural and racial superiority.
  • These beliefs were based upon Charles Darwins
    theory of Natural Selection and Herbert Spencers
    theory of Social Darwinism.
  • These theories of the survival of the fittest
    led to a number of beliefs
  • It is natural for the stronger nations of the
    world to conquer the weaker nations of the
    worldonly the strongest nations would survive.
  • It is the duty of the imperialists to civilize
    (meaning Westernize) the people of inferior
    races.
  • The white race is superior to all other races.
  • These racist beliefs were used to justify
    Industrialized nations colonizing.

12
The Racism Motivation for Imperialism was fueled
by the Survival of the Fittest theories of
Charles Darwin (Far Left) and Herbert Spencer
(Near Left).
Right British soldier getting a pedicure from
Indian servants (trying to civilize the
heathens).
13
II. Motivations for Imperialism (5)
  • Motivating Reason 4 Political
  • Imperialist nations attempted to grab up
    territory and control the resources and markets
    so that rival nations could not.
  • Modern technology led to advanced weapons that
    allowed Industrialized nations to easily take
    over territory and maintain control.
  • The desire to have more political power than
    rival nations (caused by extreme Nationalism)
    caused the imperialists to set up as many
    colonies as possible in the Third World.
  • Colonies gave a nation a chance to demonstrate
    their military power, gain prestige in the world,
    and maintain national security.

14
The Political Motivation for Imperialism led to
the imperialist nations grabbing up as much land
in the world as possible (as shown above) to
prove their power and military might.
15
II. Motivations for Imperialism (6)
  • Motivating Reason 5 Exploratory
  • Some imperialist nations simply wanted to explore
    the unknown.
  • The desire to gain scientific and medical
    knowledge to improve peoples lives and cure
    diseases also drove some of the imperialism.
  • Some imperialists wanted to go on an adventure
    investigate the unknown.
  • Many times these Noble reasons were simply used
    to cover up the real reasons for the
    imperialismsuch as to make money!

Wanting an adventure and exploring the unknown
are examples of the Exploratory Motivation for
Imperialism.
16
II. Motivations for Imperialism (7)
  • Motivating Reason 6 Religious
  • The majority of the imperialist nations wanted to
    spread their religious beliefs to the
    uncivilized natives.
  • Imperialists also attempted to protect their
    missionaries in other lands.
  • The goal of the missionaries was to educate the
    natives and spread the values and morals of the

    imperialist nations.
  • Again, this Noble reason

    was often simply used to

    cover up the real reasons for

    the imperialism.

These German missionaries in Japan are an example
of the Religious Motivation for Imperialism.
17
III. Perspectives on Imperialism (1)
  • Imperialists (Europeans) felt superior entitled
    to control the colonies.
  • The imperialists ruled the colonies so that they
    were profitable and productive for them, but not
    for the natives.
  • The rights and opinions of the natives were not
    taken into consideration when governing the
    colonies.
  • The imperialists tried to assimilate, or conform,
    the natives to the culture of the European
    conqueror.
  • The European beliefs were forced upon the natives
    who often resisted.
  • Different cultural perspectives between the
    imperialists and the natives often led to
    conflict.

18
III. Perspectives on Imperialism (2)
  • Perspective Conflict 1 Languages
  • The imperialists often imposed their language
    upon the natives.
  • The imperialist government would run schools in
    the colonies that taught and used the
    imperialists language (but not the natives
    language).
  • To be economically successful in the colonies,
    the natives would have to learn and use the
    imperialists language.
  • All legal documents were often only written in
    the imperialists language.
  • Many natives would often resist the Western
    language and continue to use their native
    language.

Indigenous people (Left) are often forced to give
up their native culture, including their
language, and accept the imperialists culture
(Right).
19
III. Perspectives on Imperialism (3)
  • Perspective Conflict 2 Natural Resources
  • The imperialists felt that they had the right to
    help themselves to the raw materials found in the
    colonies.
  • The imperialists did not let the natives
    industrialize because then they would have to
    compete with them for raw materials.
  • The imperialists often did not pay for the raw
    materials or for the labor.
  • The only payment the natives received was the
    right to purchase manufactured goods from the
    imperialists (which was viewed as payment enough
    because it improved the lifestyle of the
    natives).
  • The natives felt they were being robbed and their
    land was being destroyed.

South African gold and
diamonds
20
III. Perspectives on Imperialism (4)
  • Perspective Conflict 3 Labor and Economic
    Systems
  • Most of the natives had a Traditional Economy.
  • When the imperialists took over, the natives were
    forced to work for them for very low wages (a
    more Market Economy).
  • The lands were seized from the farmers to build
    factories on and then those farmers were turned
    into hired workers.
  • These forced changes were incompatible with the
    natives lifestyles.
  • The native workers would often rise up and rebel
    in response to these changes, but were almost
    always unsuccessful.

21
III. Perspectives on Imperialism (5)
  • Perspective Conflict 4 Political Systems
  • The imperialists found a variety of political
    systems in lands they conquered.
  • The imperialists often imposed their own
    political system on the natives
  • If Indirect Rule the imperialists rule the
    colony through local leaders with no real power
    because they are controlled by the imperialists
    (often used by the British)
  • If Direct Rule the imperialists overthrow the
    local leaders and establish their own officials
    to manage the colony (often used by the French)

Indirect Rule is often called a Puppet State
because another nation is pulling the strings
and controlling what happens.
22
III. Perspectives on Imperialism (6)
  • Perspective Conflict 5 Religion
  • Missionaries would often go to the colonies to
    set up their own schools, hospitals, and churches
    based upon the imperialists religion.
  • These missionaries believed that the natives were
    an inferior race that needed to be civilized by
    converting them to Christianity.
  • The natives had their own religious beliefs

    and would often resist conversion with the

    end result being violence.

Christian missionary forcing Indian Hindus to
convert to Christianity.
23
IV. Imperialism in Central/Southeast Asia (1)
  • European interest in Asia can be traced back to
    the Roman Empire and the dealings with the Silk
    Road.
  • In 1800, only the Spanish Philippines and the
    Dutch East Indies were colonizedby 1900 almost
    the entire area was colonized.
  • India, Bengal, and Burma
  • Up until 1756, India was controlled by the
    French.
  • In 1756, the British drove the French out of
    India after the Black Hole of Calcutta incident
    in which 146 British soldiers were placed in a
    small dungeon by the French and left to die (only
    23 survived).
  • The British East India Company was given control
    over most of India and under their leadership
    India became the jewel in the English Crown.
  • Major-General Robert Clive established the
    military supremacy of the East India Company over
    India and Bengal (Bangladesh).
  • In 1819 Great Britain also had control of
    Singapore and Burma (to protect their claim on
    India).

24
India and the East Indies (as seen today)
25
  • The dungeon was a strongly barred room and was
    not intended for the confinement of more than two
    or three men at a time. There were only two

    windows, and a projecting veranda

    outside and thick iron bars within
    impeded the
    ventilation, while fires
    raging in different
    parts of the fort
    suggested an atmosphere of

    further oppressiveness. The
    prisoners were
    packed so tightly
    that the door was
    difficult to close.
  • --John Holwell, on the Black Hole survivors--

26
The British East India Company had a tight grip
upon India (The East India House is shown in the
bottom left).
27
Left Robert Clive Right Robert Clive
establishing the military supremacy of the
British East India Company over India at the
Battle of Plassey in 1757.
28
The Maharaja of Pannah (Left) and The Palace of
the Nawab in Bengal (Right) show that
Civilization existed in Central/Southeast Asia
long before the Europeans showed up.
29
IV. Imperialism in Central/Southeast Asia (2)
  • India and Burma (Continued)
  • Indian resistance came in the form of the Sepoy
    Mutiny of 1857 when Indian soldiers used by the
    British East India Company were given new rifles
    to use.
  • The new rifles and rifle cartridges were
    lubricated with beef and pork fat
  • Most of India was made up of Muslims and Hindus
  • Cows (beef) are sacred to the Hindus
  • Pork is forbidden to the Muslims
  • This was an insult to their religions and caused
    the revolt
  • After the Sepoy Mutiny, Great Britain changed
    from Indirect Rule to the much more oppressive
    Direct Rule (Queen Victoria took control in 1876)
  • The British would continue to dominate India,
    providing technological and industrial
    advancements, while also exploiting India and not
    treating them as equals.
  • Mohandas Gandhi would lead the independence
    movement in the 1900s using Passive Resistance
    because the Indian National Congress (formed in
    1885) did not do enough to end the exploitation
    of India.
  • India would not gain full independence until 1947.

30
British Queen Victoria in India.
31
British and other Europeans living in
Central/Southeast Asia lived like Maharajas
(kings and queens).
32
Natives of Central/Southeast Asia were used to
increase the size and power of the British
military.
33
Left Indian Sepoys Right The Sepoy Mutiny
(fought over a religious insult).
34
Fighting during the Sepoy Mutiny.
35
The execution of the Sepoy Mutiny leaders
(setting an example).
36
Amritsar Massacre of 1919 where 379 Indians were
killed and another 1,200 were wounded (only one
example of the brutal British rule that occurred
after the Sepoy Mutiny).
37
Top Mohanda Gandhi who led the Indian
Nationalist movement to gain Indias
Independence Bottom Gandhi leading a protest
march (he used Passive Resistance methods).
38
IV. Imperialism in Central/Southeast Asia (3)
  • The French dominated Indochina starting in 1857
    (Vietnam, Cambodia, Annam, Tonkin, and Laos)
    until the 1950s.
  • The Spanish and Portuguese also had influence in
    the area.
  • The United States took control of the Philippines
    in 1898 after the Spanish-American War.
  • Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish fleet
    in Manila Bay.
  • Emilio Aguinaldo led a rebellion in the
    Philippines against Spanish and then U.S.
    imperialism and lost.
  • The Philippines would not gain independence until
    after WWII.
  • Thailand (Siam) was the only independent state in
    Southeast Asia during this time (used as a buffer
    between the British and French).

39
Colonial possessions in Southeast Asia.
40
Top Left George Dewey Top Right U.S. fleet at
the Battle of Manila Bay Bottom Left Emilio
Aguinaldo Right Bottom Filipino resistance
fighters killed in the Spanish-American War of
1899.
41
The Great White Fleet of the United States
allowed the U.S. to dominate the seas of the
world and begin building an American empire in
Asia, the Pacific, and Latin America after the
Spanish-American War.
42
Uncle Sam The Colossus of the Pacific
political cartoon (a parody of the Colossus of
Rhodes political cartoon).
43
V. Imperialism in China (1)
  • European interest in China increased in the
    13th-14th centuries due to Marco Polointerest
    continued into the 19th century.
  • China was not directly controlled by a foreign
    nation and instead was split into Spheres of
    Influence.
  • Spheres of Influence an area under foreign
    economic domination (NOT a COLONY).
  • China had managed to isolate itself as an
    agricultural nation.
  • The only outside contact was due to its exports
    of tea, silk, porcelain.
  • Manufacturing and trading in China were
    insignificant and looked down upon at this time.

44
Marco Polo (Above) began the European interest in
China with his tales of adventure By the 1900s,
China would not be colonized, but split into
Spheres of Influence (as shown to the Right).
45
V. Imperialism in China (2)
  • The Manchu rulers (Qing Dynasty) of the 1500s
    were unable to deal with the outside influences
    due to little development of technology and the
    weak leaders.
  • By the 1800s, the Qing Dynasty was dominated by
    Regional Warlords who fought with each other
    constantlythe warring factions would turn to
    European powers for aid.
  • In the 1800s, Great Britain introduced the highly
    addictive drug, Opium, to the Chinese and caused
    the Opium Wars of 1839
  • Great Britain was making a huge profit from
    selling Opium to the Chinese and could not keep
    up with the demand.
  • The Chinese officials tried to outlaw the drug,
    which led to the war.
  • In the end, the Manchu rulers lost the war and
    were greatly weakened.
  • The Nanking Treaty of 1842 created the British
    colony of Hong Kong and gave Great Britain
    special trading rights.
  • This marked the beginning of Western influence in
    China.

46
Opium (Left) is highly addictive and led to many
social problems (Bottom) Ships brining Opium to
China (Top Right) were destroyed and led to the
Opium Wars (Bottom Right).
47
Top Left An East India Companys Opium warehouse
(one of many) Top Right Selling Opium in China
Bottom Right Dead Chinese soldiers killed by a
British bombardment during the Opium Wars.
48
V. Imperialism in China (3)
  • Germany, France, Japan, Portugal, and Russia then
    began to also influence parts of China.
  • The Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864 AD) was fought
    over Chinese resentment of the Spheres of
    Influence (the rebellion ended with the Manchu
    rulers losing even more power).
  • The United States also wanted a piece of China so
    Secretary of State John Hay declared the Open
    Door Policy of 1899 to protect Americas right to
    trade with China (each country would respect the
    other countries trading rights).
  • The other imperialist nations declared similar
    policies.
  • In 1900, the political unrest in China led to
    many reforms of the military and educational
    systems, but in the end another rebellion would
    result.

49
The Taiping Rebellion (Top and Bottom Left)
failed to repel the foreign influence John Hay
(Above) declared an Open Door Policy to get the
U.S. trading rights in China.
50
V. Imperialism in China (4)
  • The Boxer Rebellion
  • The secret society of Righteous and Harmonious
    Fists, known as Boxers, wanted to stop foreign
    influence in China and led an uprising.
  • They targeted Christian missionaries and other
    foreign influences.
  • The European imperialists helped the government
    crush this rebellion.
  • The Boxer Rebellion led to even more control over
    China by the imperialists.
  • By 1911 the Manchu rulers had lost all power
    the Republic of China was set up by Sun Yat-Sen
    based upon nationalism, democracy, economic
    security (most citizens were peasants).
  • China continued to industrialize due to the
    spheres of influence.
  • Chinese independence from foreign control would
    not come until after the Chinese Civil War
    between the Nationalists and the Communists in
    the 1930s and WWII in the 1940s.

51
Above Political cartoon showing Russia and Japan
struggling over China and Korea Right Political
cartoon of Russia (the bear) forcing Japan (the
samurai) to accept Russia presence in China.
52
Left A rebel during the Boxer Rebellion Right
Battle between Chinese Boxers and a combined
British and Japanese force.
53
Top Left U.S. Marines fighting rebels in the
Boxer Rebellion Bottom Left Leaders of the
Boxer Rebellion were tortured and executed
Above Sun Yat-Sen who created the Republic of
China.
54
VI. Imperialism in Japan (1)
  • Japan had managed to isolate itself from the rest
    of the world into the 1800s due to the efforts of
    the Tokugawa shoguns.
  • Japan had a feudal system with a ceremonial
    emperor, various shoguns/daimyo controlling the
    local areas, the samurai enforcing the rule of
    the shoguns/daimyo, the peasants serving them
    all.
  • In 1853 U.S. commander Matthew Perry sailed into
    Tokyo Bay with steam-powered, ironclad,
    cannon-armed warships to seek U.S. trading rights
    with Japan.
  • U.S. President Franklin Pierce wanted an Open
    Door Policy with Japan.
  • The Japanese realized they could not resist the
    Industrialized U.S. so they signed the Open Door
    Policy in 1854.
  • Other nations soon did the same thing.

55
Imperialism in Asia and Oceania.
56
The Japanese have become servants to the
foreigners. Sovereignty may belong to Japan but
in fact it's no more than a colony of
Europe. --Japanese Official studying China and
the effects of foreign influence--
The Japanese knew that they had no choice but to
give in to the demands of the United States (but
they didnt have to like it)!!!!
57
Top Left a Tokugawa samurai Top Right Japanese
rendition of Commander Matthew Perrys first
visit Left Commander Matthew Perry Right
President Franklin Pierce.
58
VI. Imperialism in Japan (2)
  • In 1868, the Sat-Cho (daimyo samurai in
    southern Japan) overthrew the Tokugawa shoguns
    (who had ruled since 1603) and opposed Japan
    being opened to trade.
  • The Sat-Cho wanted to return the power/authority
    of the Emperor.
  • The Sat-Cho put 15-year old Emperor Mutsuhito in
    power who quickly transformed Japan from an
    isolated feudal society into a modern industrial
    power (this became known as the Meiji
    Restoration).
  • The Meiji helped Japan gain a stronger
    government, a constitution, modern schools, and
    an industrialized military by the 1870s.
  • The Meiji helped Japan become an important
    global-trading partner.

59
Left Sakamoto Ryoma (hero and leader of the
Sat-Cho) Right Sat-Cho troops during the
Boshin War over who would lead Japan after the
foreigners were pushed out.
Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians!
60
Shogun Yoshinobu (Left), the last of the
Tokagawa, who was overthrown in the Boshin Wars
in an attempt to Restore the Emperor to his
proper power (Right)!
61
Left Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) Right Empress
Haruko.
62
Enlightened Half-Enlightened Un-Enlightened
Newspaper cartoon (c. 1870s) showing the
difference between those who accept Western
influence and those who stubbornly held onto
traditional culture.
63
Civilization and. . .
. . . Enlightenment!
The Japanese became obsessed with Western culture.
64
Everything Western was fashionable!!!!
65
The Meiji Restoration helped transform Japan from
a feudal society into a modern, industrial power
that could rival (or mimic) Western societies.
Japanese soldiers walking with their wives
(notice the un-traditional
clothing).
66
Westernize the School System (France Germany)
Land Redistribution
Abolition of the feudal system
Modern Banking System (U.S. Britain)
Modernize the Army (Prussian/Germany)
Meiji Reforms
Written Constitution (Germans U.S.)
Build a Modern Navy (British)
Human Rights Religious Freedom (U.S.)
Emperor Worship Intensified
67
VI. Imperialism in Japan (3)
  • By the 1890s, Japan began to become an
    imperialist power itself in China, Southeast
    Asia, eastern Russia.
  • Japan continued to industrialize due to the
    benefits of trade with European imperialists.
  • When Japan defeated both China (Sino-Japanese War
    of 1894) and Russia (Russo-Japanese War of 1905),
    it became a world power.
  • Japan fought with China over Korea , Taiwan,
    the Liaodong Peninsula.
  • Japan fought with Russia over Manchuria the
    Liaodong Peninsula.
  • Japan would start the 20th Century as one of the
    most powerful Nation-States in the world.

68
New players on the block?
Japan and the United States wanted a piece of
China too!!!!
69
Top Sino-Japanese War that resulted in Japans
victory over China and gaining control over Korea.
70
Japanese victory over Russia in the
Russo-Japanese War.
71
Political cartoon of the Japanese victory over
Russia in the Russo-Japanese War (the the spoils
of that war).
72
VII. Imperialism in Africa (1)
  • Africa was imperialized by the Europeans much
    later in history due to the initial interest in
    the Americas.
  • Originally, African imperialism had been limited
    to African nations imperializing other African
    nations.
  • The Berlin Conference (1884) set up guidelines
    for African imperialism.
  • In the early 1900s the imperialists interest
    turned to Africa.
  • By 1914, only Liberia (homeland for freed U.S.
    slaves) and Ethiopia, were still independent.
  • Europeans divided up Africa in what became known
    as the Scramble for Africadivided into areas
    with no regard to native rivalry.
  • As in other areas, the Europeans attempted to
    assimilate the Africans.

73
African trade and imperialism from 1450-1600.
74
The Scramble for Africa
75
The Berlin Conference (Left) of 1884 allowed the
European powers to divide up Africa as if it was
a cake that could be cut and shared.
The Berlin Conference was used to justify the
European powers forcefully taking African land
and dividing it up into new areasthey ignored
tribal differences when doing this!
76
VII. Imperialism in Africa (2)
  • Reasons for African Imperialism
  • To increase the number of colonies (only part of
    the world not yet colonized).
  • To obtain cheap natural resources

    (to use for manufactured goods).
  • To increase trade and wealth.
  • To increase political power by

    showing military strength.

The Scramble for Africa was a Scramble for
power and prestige among the European powers.
77
VII. Imperialism in Africa (3)
  • North and Eastern Africa
  • Great Britain dominated the northern and eastern
    portions of Africa.
  • Great Britain controlled the Suez Canal in Egypt
    (the lifeline to India that connected the
    Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea).
  • The Nile River Valley was explored by Dr. David
    Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley.
  • Dr. David Livingstone found Victoria Falls and
    was lost for a while.
  • Henry Morton Stanley was an American reporter
    sent to find Livingstone and report to the
    civilized world what this uncivilized world
    was like.
  • Dr. Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley spent
    the rest of their lives exploring Africa and
    trying to abolish the slave trade.
  • The French were the main rivals for colonies in
    the North.

78
Dr. David Livingstone (Top Left) and Henry Morton
Stanley (Top Right)
Livingstone and Stanley meeting for the first
time (Above).
Victoria Falls (Left) that Dr. David Livingstone
found during his exploration of the Nile River
Valley.
79
John Speke (Left) and Sir Richard Burton (Right)
who explored the Nile River Valley in search of
the source of the Nile River.
80
The Suez Canal (in 1881 on the Left today in the
Middle) allowed Great Britain to dominate in
North Africa Map (Right) showing the trade route
between Great Britain and India.
81
VII. Imperialism in Africa (4)
  • Western and Central Africa
  • The Western and Central portions of Africa

    were explored for the slave trade.
  • King Leopold II of Belgium dominated

    exploration colonization of the Congo.
  • France settled in the area to prevent

    Belgian domination.
  • Western Africa was almost entirely colonized

    by the French.

Leopold II of Belgium (Top Right) European
traveling in the Congo (Bottom Right).
82
African slavery had existed for thousands of
years, but was exploited to horrific levels by
the white Europeans.
Black rags were wound round their loins, and the
short ends behind waggled to and fro like tails.
I could see every rib, the joints of their limbs
were like knots in a rope each had an iron
collar on his neck, and all were connected
together with a chain whose bights swung between
them, rhythmically clinking. --Joseph Conrads
The Heart of Darkness--
83
Harvesting rubber in the Belgian Congo (Left) and
punishing natives for not working fast enough
(Above).
84
It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers)
returning with the hands of the slain, and to
find the hands of young children amongst the
bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber
from this district has cost hundreds of lives,
and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to
help the oppressed, have been almost enough to
make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic
is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to
rise and sweep every white person on the Upper
Congo into eternity, there would still be left a
fearful balance to their credit. --
Belgian Official--
85
VII. Imperialism in Africa (5)
  • South Africa
  • South Africa was valuable because of its sea
    ports, gold, diamonds.
  • South Africa was initially colonized by the Dutch
    (fought the local Zulu).
  • The British took over in the early 1800s
  • Cecil Rhodes set the British policy based on his
    belief that God wanted him to Paint as much of
    Africa Red as possible!
  • Cecil Rhodes set up the De Beers Diamond Company.
  • Great Britain had African colonies from the Cape
    to Cairo.
  • The Sun never set on the British empire!
  • In the late 1800s, Germany (in German East
    Africa) encouraged the Dutch South Africans
    (Boers or Afrikaners) to revolt against the
    British
  • From 1899-1910 the Anglo-Boer Wars were fought
    and created tension between the British and
    Germans.
  • In the end, the British would win the Boer Wars.
  • The British then set up the Union of South Africa
    and to appease the Boers only allowed whites to
    votethis is the beginning of the Apartheid.
  • South Africa would be dominated by outside forces
    until the Apartheid ended in the late 20th
    Century.

86
Dutch settlers colonizing South Africa in 1652.
87
Zulu Warrior of South Africa.
Dutch settlers (Boers) clashing with a Zulu tribe.
88
Cecil Rhodes (Left) worked hard to create a vast
British empire globally (Above) and in Africa
(Right).
89
Left Political cartoon of British imperialism.
Right Zulu warriors fighting against British
soldiers.
90
The Anglo-Boer Wars (shown in these photos) were
fought between the British imperialists and the
Dutch South Africans known as Boers or
Afrikaners. German East Africa encouraged this
war in an effort to become more powerful than
Great Britain.
91
VII. Imperialism in Africa (6)
  • Africa Today (Post-Imperialism)
  • Most African colonies gained independence by 1980
    and became independent nations (as African
    Nationalism grew).
  • These African colonies had difficulty
    transitioning to self-government due to their
    long dependence upon the imperialist nations.
  • Many of these Africa nations are still trying to
    industrialize.
  • Lack on modern communication and transportation
    systems has made it difficult for these African
    nations to compete in the global economy.
  • Attempts at establishing democracies have failed
    due to the weak economiesmilitary dictatorships
    have dominated instead.
  • Thus, much of Africa is engaged in bloody civil
    wars due to the political boundaries drawn by the
    European powers that put rival groups together.
  • The major languages in Africa are French,
    English, and Portuguese.

92
Left Africa during Imperialism Right Modern
Africa.
93
Africa is among the worlds Hot Spots for
conflict.
94
VIII. Imperialism in Latin America (1)
  • Spain and Portugal dominated imperialism in Latin
    America through the 1800s.
  • Revolts, inspired by the Enlightenment and the
    Age of Revolutions, began to occur in the 1800s.
  • Father Miguel Hidalgo led Native Americans in
    rebellion against the Spanish and gained Mexicos
    independence in 1821.
  • The Brazilian natives pushed the Portuguese out
    of Brazil by 1822.
  • Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar led the
    independence movements in South America to push
    the Spanish out in 1824.

95
Independence Movements in Latin America.
96
Father Miguel Hidalgo (Left) led Mexico to
independence Simon Bolivar (Middle) and Jose de
San Martin (Right) led South America to
independence.
97
VIII. Imperialism in Latin America (2)
  • The United States began asserting its influence
    with President James Monroes Monroe Doctrine in
    1823 to guarantee the new independence of Latin
    America by promising to intervene to

    ensure protection from

    European influences.
  • The U.S. defeated the Spanish

    in the Spanish-American War

    in 1898 and began to create

    an empire in Latin America.
  • The U.S. still greatly influences

    political and economic

    conditions in Latin America

    today.

Political cartoon showing the Benefits of
American imperialism in Latin America and
Southeast Asia.
98
U.S. President James Monroe (Top Left) issued the
Monroe Doctrine to guarantee the independence of
the newly formed Latin American nations, while
also ensuring American influence over those
nations.
99
Creoles (left) led independence movements and
paved the way for the caudillos to seize power
like Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (right).
Creoles (descendants of Europeans who were born
in Latin America) and Mestizos (European-American
mixed) led the independence movements for
equality peninsulares, Europeans who temporarily
resided in Latin America and then left, were
resented by the creoles Caudillos took over the
newly independent nations and ruled through
military power.
100
IX. The Last Step Towards Global War
  • Extreme Nationalism had swept through the world
    in the 1800s.
  • The Industrial Revolution allowed nations to
    create large, technologically advanced militaries
    to assert their power.
  • As the industrialized nations reached out around
    the world in search of more colonies and
    political power, conflict grew between them.
  • Now, in the early part of the 1900s,
    industrialized nations were in conflict with each
    other in all sections of the world.
  • These tensions would continue to grow, as
    Nationalism, industrialization, and imperialism
    grew, and would lead to the Great War (the War
    to End All Wars)World War I.

101
Paint as much of Africa Red as possible!
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