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Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism

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Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism 1870-1914 Objective To understand the causes of European imperialism of the late 19th century To understand the extent of European ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism


1
Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism
  • 1870-1914

2
Objective
  • To understand the causes of European imperialism
    of the late 19th century
  • To understand the extent of European imperial
    expansion
  • To understand the consequences of European
    imperialism for Europe and the developing world

3
Definitions
  • Imperialism
  • extending a nations influence
    directly or indirectly over
    weaker areas

4
Definitions
  • Colonialism
  • Taking direct control of an area and turning it
    into a colony under a nations authority

5
Definitions
  • Nationalism
  • Belief that an ethnic group should rule itself
  • Belief that one nation is better than all the
    others

6
Causes of Late 19th Century European Imperialism
  • Economic

7
Causes of Late 19th Century European Imperialism
  • Economic

8
Causes of Late 19th Century European Imperialism
  • Three Cs of Imperialism
  • Christianity
  • Civilization
  • Commerce

9
Causes of Late 19th Century European Imperialism
  • Political
  • Maintain the balance of power
  • To control strategic areas like sea lanes, access
    to markets
  • Status symbols
  • Germany takes colonies to be like other European
    powers
  • Cultural and Religious
  • Belief in cultural or racial superiority
  • Desire to spread Christianity to heathens
  • To spread civilization

10
Britain
  • Largest colonial empire
  • Sun never sets on the British Empire

11
Britain
  • Largest colonial empire
  • Sun never sets on the British Empire
  • Colonies established to protect trading interests
    in Africa and Asia
  • Two kinds of colonies
  • White Colonies (Canada, Australia, New Zealand,
    South Africa) given self-rule
  • Non-white Colonies (India, Africa) under direct
    rule

12
France
13
France
  • Acquired Algeria in 1830
  • Took over Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia) by
    the 1880s
  • Expanded into Western Africa in the 1880s
  • Took colonies to make up for loss of
    Alsace-Lorraine in 1870

14
Germany
15
Germany
  • Bismarck originally opposed colonial expansion
  • Unnecessary for Germany
  • Did not want to threaten France or Britain
  • Germany took colonies in 1880s for status symbols
  • In Africa and Asia

16
United States
17
United States
  • Did not get involved in European affairs
  • Became colonial power after 1898
  • Spanish-American War
  • U.S. gains control of Puerto Rico, Guam,
    Philippines
  • Monroe Doctrine allows US to extend influence
    into Latin America

18
Scramble for Africa
  • Europe had been interested in Africa for
    centuries
  • Through the slave trade

19
Scramble for Africa
  • Europe had been interested in Africa for
    centuries
  • Through the slave trade
  • Much of Africa still unexplored until 1880s
  • European influence restricted to coastline
  • Technology allows Europeans to explore African
    interior
  • Steamboats, Suez Canal, advances in medicine

20
Scramble for Africa
  • By 1914, 90 of Africa under European control
  • Berlin Conference in 1885 sets ground rules for
    European colonization of Africa

21
Scramble for Africa
22
Scramble for Africa
  • Consequences
  • Traditional way of life disrupted
  • Economic exploitation of Africans
  • European racism imported into Africa
  • Spread of European culture
  • Spread of Western technology

23
European Imperialism in Asia
24
European Imperialism in Asia
  • India
  • Britain trading in India since 1600s
  • British East India Co. gradually took over parts
    of India
  • British government gradually took over India in
    the 1800s
  • Sepoy Mutiny
  • Indian soldiers revolt against British East India
    Co. and were put down by British army

25
European Imperialism in Asia
  • Consequences of British Imperialism in India
  • British educational system established
  • Spread of English language
  • Railroads tie India together
  • Rise of Indian middle class

26
European Imperialism in Asia
  • China

27
European Imperialism in Asia
  • China
  • Potentially huge market
  • Closed to European trade until 1800s
  • Opium War (1840)
  • Britain forces China to open trade to opium
  • By 1900, China divided into European spheres of
    influence
  • Parts of China under European control
  • Chinese monarchy seriously weakened

28
Reaction to Imperialism
  • Rise of Nationalist Movements

29
Reaction to Imperialism
  • Rise of Nationalist Movements
  • India
  • Indian National Congress (1885)
  • Group of middle class Indians begin to demand
    independence (Mohandas Gandhi)
  • China
  • Boxer Rebellion (1900)
  • Nationalist Party

30
Conclusion
  • Different reasons for European imperialism during
    late nineteenth century
  • European imperialism causes reactions in Africa
    and Asia
  • European imperialism disrupts traditional way of
    life and continues to affect the world today
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