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Sensation and Perception

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Sensation and Perception Chapter 4 Pledge of Allegiance I pledge allegiance of the United States of America and to the republic for which it stands one nation under ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sensation and Perception


1
Sensation and Perception
  • Chapter 4

2
Defining Sensation and Perception
  • Sensation
  • The detection of physical energy emitted or
    reflected by physical objects.
  • It occurs when energy in the external environment
    or the body stimulates receptors in the sense
    organs.
  • Perception
  • The process by which the brain organizes and
    interprets sensory information.

3
Ambiguous Figure
  • Colored surface can be either the outside front
    surface or the inside back surface
  • Cannot simultaneously be both
  • Brain can interpret the ambiguous cues two
    different ways

4
The Riddle of Separate Sensations
  • Sense receptors
  • Specialized cells that convert physical energy in
    the environment or the body to electrical energy
    that can be transmitted as nerve impulses to the
    brain.

5
Sensation Perception Processes
6
Sensory Overload
  • Overstimulation of the senses.
  • Lets play an observation game!
  • Can use selective attention to reduce sensory
    overload.
  • Selective attention
  • The focusing of attention on selected aspects of
    the environment and the blocking out of others.
  • Inattentional blindness

7
Measuring Senses
  • Absolute threshold
  • Difference threshold
  • Signal-detection theory

8
Absolute Threshold
  • The smallest quantity of physical energy that can
    be reliably detected by an observer.

9
Absolute Sensory Thresholds
  • Vision
  • A single candle flame from 30 miles on a dark,
    clear night
  • Hearing
  • The tick of a watch from 20 feet in total quiet
  • Smell
  • 1 drop of perfume in a 6-room apartment
  • Touch
  • The wing of a bee on your cheek, dropped from 1
    cm
  • Taste
  • 1 tsp. Sugar in 2 gal. water

10
Pledge of Allegiance
  • I pledge allegiance

11
  • to the flag

12
  • of the United States of America

13
  • and to the republic

14
  • for which it stands

15
  • one nation under God

16
  • indivisible

17
  • with liberty

18
  • and justice for all

19
JND
  • Each slide of the Pledge of Allegiance increased
    the font size.
  • Did you notice?

20
Stimulus Discrimination
  • Just Noticeable Difference (JND)
  • The smallest amount of change in a stimulus that
    can be detected half the time.

21
Webers Law
  • JND is proportional to the magnitude of the
    stimulus
  • The larger the stimulus the larger the change
    must be to be noticed!!

22
Webers Law
  • For a difference to be perceptible, 2 stimuli
    must differ by a constant proportion, not amount
  • Light 8
  • Weight 2
  • Tone .3

23
Backmasking!!
  • Secret messages hidden in musical lyrics?
  • Lets find out!!
  • Jeffmilner.com

24
Signal-Detection Theory
  • A psychophysical theory that divides the
    detection of a sensory signal into a sensory
    process and a decision process. (expectations,
    experience, anticipation)

Stimulus is Present Stimulus is Absent
Response Present Hit False Alarm
Response Absent Miss Correct Rejection
25
Sensory Adaptation and Deprivation
  • Adaptation
  • The reduction or disappearance of sensory
    responsiveness when stimulation is unchanging or
    repetitious.
  • Prevents us from having to continuously respond
    to unimportant information.
  • Deprivation
  • The absence of normal levels of sensory
    stimulation.
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