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Responder Safety

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Responder Safety – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Responder Safety


1
Responder Safety
2
Safety Awareness for Environmental Health
Practitioners Protect yourself while helping
others!
3
Learning Objectives
  • Identify common hazards you may encounter during
    a response and how those hazards affect your
    health and safety
  • Describe the health and safety precautions that
    should be taken during a response to protect
    yourself

4
ICS Key to a Safe Response Is the Safety Officer
  • Assures personnel safety and monitors hazardous
    and unsafe situations
  • Prepares a site-specific safety and health plan
  • Environmental health must support and provide
    input to safety

5
Federal Response
  • OSHA sets safety and health standards for
    emergency responders
  • Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response
    standard of 29 CFR 1910.120(q)
  • Worker Safety and Health Annex to the National
    Response Framework

6
Employer Responsibilities
  • State and local governments are responsible for
    worker health and safety including
  • Allocating sufficient resources for safety and
    health programs
  • Training staff
  • Purchasing protective clothing and equipment as
    needed
  • Vaccination
  • Correcting unsafe or unsanitary conditions

7
Responder Responsibilities
  • Follow all health and safety rules and wear or
    use all required gear or equipment
  • Follow safe work practices for your job
  • Report hazardous conditions to your team
    leader/supervisor
  • Report hazardous conditions to OSHA if employers
    do not fix them
  • Protect your family at home from contamination
    exposures

8
Physical and MentalFitness for Duty
  • You are responsible for
  • Being prepared to do your job
  • Following good personal health habits
  • Assessing whether you are well enough to work
  • Assessing appropriate work schedule and adequate
    staffing levels
  • Coping with role ambiguity

9
Recommended Personal Gear
  • Copy of personal records and ID
  • Weather-appropriate gear (e.g., rain, snow)
  • Changes of clothing
  • Toiletries
  • Alcohol-based hand sanitizer
  • Flashlight with spare batteries
  • Prescription medicines/OTC medicines
  • Sunscreen and lip salve
  • Insect repellant
  • Hat or cap
  • Sunglasses and extra pair of glasses/contacts
  • Cell phone and charger

10
Emergencies in the Field
  • Notify your supervisor or the incident commander
    about all injuries sustained at your site
  • For minor injuries
  • Apply buddycare/first aid
  • Seek a first aid station or clinic
  • For serious injuries
  • Go to the local hospital
  • Call 911 (know your exact location)

11
Potential Hazards
  • Stress
  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Biological
  • Thermal
  • Radiation
  • Violence

12
Safety and Health Hazards Are Dynamic
  • Hazard Control Response Time Line

Emergency Phase (first 72 hours) Recovery Phase (first 4 weeks) Reconstruction Phase (first 2 years)
Structural Instability Re-entry Decontamination Re-entry Decontamination
Exposure Assessment (1st responders, HCWs, community) Respiratory, Ingestion, Eye, and Dermal Hazards Business Resumption Hazards
Human Remains Hazardous Materials Solid Waste Disposal
Electrical Hazards Heavy Equipment Hazards Ground and Water Pollution
Thermal Stress Cross Contamination Demolition Hazards
Fire Agriculture Hazards Construction Hazards
Security Food Hygiene
Mass Evacuation and Shelter Communicable Diseases
Food and Water Mental Health
Hazardous Materials Vector Control
13
Stress
  • Pace yourself
  • Take frequent rest breaks
  • Watch out for each other
  • Be conscious of those around you
  • Stay hydrated
  • Attend mental health debriefings

14
Debris Piles/Unstable Work Surfaces
  • Only walk on surfaces you know are stable
  • Watch for sharp edges and points
  • Wear protective equipment (safety shoes with
    slip-resistant soles) and leather gloves
  • Avoid temporary trench edges

15
Structural Integrity
  • Do not enter questionable structures until they
    are evaluated and rendered safe
  • Conduct all necessary activities from outside
    damaged structures
  • Ensure structures are evaluated by a competent
    person

16
Injury from Dust and Flying Debris
  • Be alert to the hazards from nearby workers,
    machinery, and falling/shifting debris
  • Wear safety glasses with side shields
  • Consider wearing goggles for protection against
    dust particles or for use over prescription
    glasses
  • Wear hard hats, safety shoes, and work gloves

17
Heavy Equipment
  • Stay aware of all moving machinery and motor
    vehicles
  • Do not walk under or through areas where cranes
    and other heavy equipment are lifting objects
  • Do not climb onto or ride loads being lifted or
    moved
  • Do not ride on equipment or in bucket

18
Power Lines
  • Treat all power lines and cables as energized
    until proven otherwise
  • Stay clear of downed electrical lines

19
Exposure to High Noise Levels
  • A worksite is considered noisy if you
    have to shout to be heard
  • High noise levels are generated from gas-powered
    saws, pneumatic tools, and heavy construction
    equipment
  • Wear appropriate hearing protection in noisy
    work environments

20
Hearing Protection Devices
  • Foam plugs
  • Premolded, reusable plugs
  • Canal caps
  • Earmuffs

21
Driving in Disaster Areas
  • Use a seat belt at all times
  • Avoid distractions
  • Stay alert to situations requiring quick action
  • Watch for emergency vehicles
  • Watch for other drivers and flaggers

22
Bloodborne Pathogens
  • Bloodborne pathogens microorganisms such as
    viruses or bacteria that are carried in blood and
    can cause disease in people
  • Infected blood can enter your system through
  • Open sores
  • Cuts
  • Abrasions
  • Acne
  • Any sort of damaged or broken skin such as
    sunburn or blisters
  • Mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth)

23
Bloodborne Pathogens
  • Adopt Universal Precautions assume blood or
    bodily fluids potentially contaminated with blood
    are infectious
  • Wear gloves
  • Wear eye protection such as goggles or faceshield
    if needed
  • Consider receiving the Hepatitis B series
    vaccination

24
Handling Human Remains
  • For personnel exposed to blood and body fluids
  • Use gloves when handling bodies or fluids
  • Use eye protection, gowns, and masks when large
    quantities or splashes are anticipated
  • Wash hands frequently
  • CDC Interim Health Recommendations for Workers
    who Handle Human Remains After a Disaster

25
Mold
  • Flooded buildings promote mold growth
  • Symptoms include sneezing, nasal, eye and skin
    irritation, and asthmalike symptoms
  • When working with small areas of moldy or damp
    materials, use
  • NIOSH-approved particulate respirators
  • Gloves
  • Goggles
  • Additional protection may be
    needed for high-contamination
    areas or when activities generate
    substantial dust

26
Chemical Exposures
  • You may be exposed via the following routes
  • Inhalation
  • Skin absorption
  • Ingestion
  • Sources
  • Industrial/commercial
  • Households
  • Responder use (e.g., pesticides and
    disinfectants)

27
Chemical Exposures
  • Follow recommendations from Safety Officer/EHS
    professional/Public Health
  • Avoid hazardous atmospheres
  • Avoid contact with chemical
  • Stay aware of wind directions
  • Alert local emergency authorities

28
Chemical Agents
29
Confined Spaces
  • What is a confined space?
  • Space with limited access
  • Large enough for bodily entry
  • Not designed for occupancy
  • Example sewers/storm drains
  • What are the hazards?
  • Oxygen deficiency
  • Entrapment
  • Engulfment
  • Hazardous atmosphere

Avoid confined spaces!!!!
30
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
  • Symptoms headache, dizziness, drowsiness, or
    nausea progressing to vomiting, loss of
    consciousness and collapse, coma, or death under
    prolonged or high exposures
  • Areas affected by gasoline- or propane-powered
    generators or heavy machinery
  • Vicinity of operating equipment
  • Vicinity of temporary generators
  • All fires and temporary space heaters
  • Debris reduction sites
  • Burning and compacting
  • Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas!

31
Inhalation of Dust Containing Asbestos, Silica,
and Other Particulates
  • Dust may contain hazardous materials
  • Avoid dust-generating activities
  • Follow PPE recommendations by supervisor or
    safety officer
  • NIOSH-approved respirators may be recommended if
    potential for exposure to asbestos, silica, or
    high levels of particulates

N-95 Respirator
32
Respirator Care and Use
  • Used in the context of an OSHA-approved program
  • Fit testing, training, medical evaluation,
    maintenance, and safe storage
  • Wear NIOSH-approved respirators
  • Replace when filter material is wet or
    visually soiled

33
Use of Facemasks and Respirators
Video Presentation
34
Smoke Inhalation
  • Hazard hazardous decomposition products
  • Avoid smoky areas
  • Call Emergency Services

35
Cold Stress
  • Contributing conditions
  • Cold air temperatures
  • High velocity air movement
  • Dampness of the air
  • Contact with cold water or surfaces
  • Cold-related disorders
  • Hypothermia
  • Frostbite
  • Chilblains
  • Immersion/trench foot

36
Cold Stress Prevention
  • Wear appropriate clothing
  • 3 layers of clothing
  • Hats
  • Boots
  • Stay hydrated
  • Take frequent breaks in warm areas

37
Heat Stress
  • Contributing conditions
  • High temperature and humidity
  • Direct sun or heat exposure
  • Physical exertion
  • Clothing (e.g., PPE)
  • Poor physical condition
  • Heat-related disorders
  • Heat rash
  • Fainting
  • Heat cramps
  • Heat exhaustion
  • Heat stroke

38
Heat Stress Prevention
  • Stay hydrated (1 cup water/sports drink every 20
    minutes)
  • Watch for signs and symptoms of heat-related
    illness
  • Reduce work load/adjust work schedule
  • Take frequent breaks in cool areas
  • Wear lightweight, light colored, loose-fitting
    clothes
  • Avoid alcohol, caffeinated drinks, or heavy meals

39
Sun Exposure
  • Prevent overexposing skin and eyes to sunlight
    and wind in all seasons
  • Use sunscreen and lip balm
  • Use protective eyewear
  • Limit exposure

40
Radiation Exposure
  • Follow time, distance, and shielding precautions
  • Wear personal dosimeter when entering
    contaminated areas
  • Female workers should declare their pregnancies
  • Follow PPE, personal hygiene and decontamination
    precautions

41
Animal Bites, Stings, and Aggressive Behavior
  • Use insect repellent containing DEET or Picaridin
  • Discuss displaced wildlife and pets with
    appropriate personnel
  • Inspect areas before entering
  • Be cautious about where you place your hands and
    feet
  • Wear proper foot gear and leather gloves when
    handling materials where nests may be present

42
Social Conflict and Violence
  • Report unlawful activities to ICS and coworkers
  • Avoid travel into hostile areas without a buddy
    and means of communication
  • Seek police escort where travel is necessary

43
Waterborne Disease
  • Remember it is not just rain water
  • Failed wastewater treatment plants
  • Backed up, overflowing sewer lines
  • Chemical spillage and wash off
  • Flood water pollution of wells
  • Drink from bottled water sources until water
    supplies are safely treated

44
Foodborne Disease
  • Practice hand hygiene before eating
  • Assure that your food is from a safe source
  • Identify and throw away any food that may not be
    safe to eat
  • Store food safely
  • Only drink from proven potable water sources

45
Contact with Poisonous Plants
  • Learn to recognize poisonous plants
  • Use gloves and wear long pants
  • Rubbing alcohol may removethe oily resin causing
    thereaction.

46
Remember
  • The hazards and issues are dynamic and require
    vigilance and flexibility
  • The key to a safe response is attention to the
    health and safety issues of your work environment
  • Physical hazards are similar to any construction
    or demolition site
  • Health hazards include hazards associated with
    the environment (e.g., food, water, chemical,
    vectors)
  • Social impacts include the hazards associated
    with psychologic stress and violence

47
How to Approach Worker Safety and Health
  • Prevention is the key!
  • Prevent exposure/illness/injury through the
    occupational health hierarchy of controls
  • Engineering controls
  • Administrative controls
  • Personal protective equipment

48
Worker Safety Health During theExxon Valdez
Oil Spill
Video Presentation
Courtesy of the National Institute of
Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), Worker
Education Training Program (WETP) and Mark
Catlin (Service Employees International Union
(SEIU) Education Support Fund). For more
information on this and other worker safety and
health videos, contact Mark Catlin at
mark.catlin_at_seiu.org.
49
Questions
50
REFERENCES
  • CDC Interim Immunization Recommendations for
    Disaster Response
  • http//www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/disease/responder
    immun.asp
  • CDC Key Facts About Hurricane and Flood
    Recovery
  • http//www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/recove
    ry.asp
  • CDC Hurricane Information for Response and
    Cleanup Workers
  • http//www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/worker
    s.asp
  • CDC Chemical Agents http//www.bt.cdc.gov/Agent/
    AgentlistChem.asp
  • EPA Dealing with Debris and Damaged Buildings
  • http//www.epa.gov/katrina/debris.html
  • EPA Potential Environmental Health Hazards When
    Returning to Homes and Businesses
  • http//www.epa.gov/katrina/sep14returnhomeadvisor
    y.htm

51
REFERENCES
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA) Expert System, Electronic health and
    Safety Plans (e-HASP2)
  • http//www.osha.gov/dep/etools/ehasp/index.htm
  • Keeping Workers Safe During Cleanup and Recovery
    Operations Following Hurricanes
  • http//www.osha.gov/OshDoc/hurricaneRecovery.html
  • Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual
    for Hazardous Waste Site Activities
  • http//www.osha.gov/Publications/complinks/OSHG-H
    azWaste/4agency.html
  • Hurricane eMatrix Hazard Exposure and Risk
    Assessment Matrix for Hurricane Response
    Recovery Work. Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration
  • http//www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/hurricane/index.h
    tml

52
REFERENCES
  • NIOSH Interim Guidance for Post Exposure Medical
    Screening of Workers Leaving Hurricane Disaster
    Recovery Areas
  • http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/flood/MedScreenWo
    rk.html
  • Respiratory Programs
  • www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/respiratory/index.html
  • http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/topics/respirators
  • Suggested Guidance for Supervisors at Disaster
    Rescue Sites
  • http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/emhaz2.html
  • 2005 Safety Awareness for Responders to
    Hurricanes Protecting Yourself While Helping
    Others
  • http//tools.niehs.nih.gov/wetp/newsbriefs/Aug07/
    Hurricane_Booklet_0807_v3.pd

53
REFERENCES
  • US EPA Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial
    Buildings http//www.epa.gov/iaq
  • CDC. Mold Prevention Strategies and Possible
    Health Effects in the Aftermath of Hurricanes and
    Major Floods
  • http//www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5508a1
    .htm
  • Environmental Health Officer Deployment Resource
    CD
  • http//www.ehopac.org/index.cfm?facontacts_resou
    rces
  • http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/emhaz2.html
  • NIOSH Emergency Preparedness and Response Topic
    Page
  • http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/emres
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