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The Scientific Revolution

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Title: The Scientific Revolution


1
The Scientific Revolution
  • Chapter 10 Section 1 Notes
  • World History Mr. Heaps

Introduction Video Clip
2
Background to the Revolution
  • Many Medieval scientists did not make
    observations about the natural world, but instead
    relied for 2,000 years on beliefs of ancient
    authorities like __________.
  • During the Renaissance, newly discovered works by
    ______, ___________, _______ showed that some
    ancient thinkers disagreed with Aristotle, which
    led scientists of the 15th 16th centuries to
    begin to question ancient authorities. (see
    video clip)

Aristotle
Ptolemy
Archimedes
Plato
3
Leading to New Ways of Thinking
  • The invention of new instruments such as the
    __________ the ___________ led to new
    scientific discoveries.
  • The invention of the ____________ helped spread
    new ideas quickly easily.
  • A rediscovery of works of ancient _____________
    during the Renaissance led to the development of
    great mathematical scientists such as
  • __________________
  • __________________
  • __________________
  • __________________

telescope
microscope
printing press
mathematicians
Nicholas Copernicus
Johannes Kepler
Galileo Galilei
Isaac Newton
4
A Revolution in Astronomy
  • The long held view of the universe according to
    Middle Age philosophers was called the
    _____________ System, named after Ptolemy, a
    great 2nd century ______________.
  • Ptolemys view of the universe, also called the
    ____________ view, placed _________ at the center
    of the universe.

Ptolemaic
astronomer
Geocentric
Earth
Ptolemy (2nd century)
5
The Ptolemaic Universe (Geocentric)
  • Earth sits ___________ at the ________ of the
    spheres.
  • All spheres revolve around Earth in _________
    orbits.
  • Beyond the spheres of the Ptolemaic system was
    __________, where God all saved souls reside.

motionless
center
circular
Heaven
6
The Copernican System (Heliocentric)
  • In 1543, Polish Astronomer, _________
    _____________ published a book, On the
    Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.
  • He argued the __________ system was too
    complicated.
  • He believed in a ____________ view of the
    universe, which placed the ________ at the center.

Nicholas
Copernicus
Geocentric
Heliocentric
Sun
Copernicus
7
The Copernican System (Heliocentric)
  • The ______, not Earth, sits at the center of the
    universe.
  • The ________ revolves around the Earth.
  • The apparent movement of the sun around the Earth
    was caused by the __________ of Earth on its
    axis.
  • Planets orbit the Sun in __________ orbits.

Sun
moon
rotation
circular
8
Johannes Kepler
German
  • __________ mathematician who confirmed that the
    _______ was at the center of the universe.
  • He added that orbits of the planets around the
    sun were not circular, but instead ____________,
    or egg-shaped, with the sun toward the end of
    ellipse.

Sun
elliptical
Click picture to watch clip
9
Galileo Galilei
  • Italian ___________ ______________, Galileo was
    the first to observe the heavens using a
    ___________. (Galileo video clip)
  • Galileo discovered
  • The __________ of the moon.
  • Four large moons orbiting __________.
  • The ________ of Saturn.
  • __________
  • Galileos book, The Starry Messenger, supported
    the ____________ view of the universe. This
    contradicted the Churchs view and led to Galileo
    being charged with __________.

astronomer
mathematician
telescope
mountians
Jupiter
rings
sunspots
heliocentric
heresy
10
Isaac Newton
  • English ___________ ___________ whose major
    work, the Principia, defined three laws of
    ________ that govern planetary bodies, as well as
    objects on Earth.
  • Newtons universal law of ____________, explained
    why planetary bodies do not go off in straight
    lines, but instead continue in ___________ orbits
    around the sun.
  • Newtons theory of gravity stated that every
    object in the universe is ___________ to every
    other objects by a force called gravity.

physicist
mathematician
motion
gravitation
elliptical
attracted
11
Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
  • Newtons universal law created a new view of the
    universe. It was now seen as one huge,
    regulated, uniform machine that worked according
    to __________ ________. Newtons
    _________________ concept dominated the worldview
    until the 20th century.

natural
laws
world-machine
12
Breakthroughs in Medicine
  • Medicine in the Late Middle Ages was dominated by
    the teachings of the Greek physician _________,
    who had lived in the ____ century A.D.
  • Galen had relied on _________, rather than
    _________ dissections to arrive at a picture of
    the human __________.
  • In many instances he was ________.
  • __________ is the study of the structures of body
    parts and their relationship to one another.

Galen
2nd
animal
human
Anatomy
wrong
Anatomy
13
Galen (Chief Physician of Rome)
  • Dissecting both live and dead animals,
    particularly goats, pigs, and monkeys, Galen
    demonstrated how different muscles are controlled
    at different levels of the spinal cord. He noted
    the functions of the kidney and bladder and
    identified seven pairs of cranial nerves. By
    tying off the laryngeal nerve, he showed that the
    brain controls the voice. He thought that the
    liver was the central organ of the vascular
    system and that blood moved to the periphery of
    the body to form flesh. He disproved the
    400-year-old belief that arteries carry air.
    Galen also described the valves of the heart and
    noted the structural differences between arteries
    and veins, but fell short of conceiving that the
    blood circulates.

14
Compare what you know to what Galen believed.
  • What controls the movement of muscles?
  • Instead of the liver, what is the central organ
    of the vascular system, or cardiovascular system?
  • Galen disproved the theory that arteries carry
    air. What is carried by the arteries?

The brain the spinal cord
The heart is the central or main organ of the
cardiovascular system.
Blood that is rich in oxygen nutrients.
15
16th Century Anatomy
  • The new _________ of the 16th century was based
    on the works of Belgian physician __________
    ___________.
  • Vesalius wrote a book called On the Fabric of the
    Human Body, in which he discussed what he had
    found when dissecting human _________ at the
    University of Padua.

Anatomy
Andreas
Vesalius
cadavers
16
Anatomy (Andreas Vesalius)
Dissection
Muscular
Skeletal
Vesalius Video
17
Blood Circulation
Galen
Vesalius
  • Both ________ __________ had believed that two
    kinds of blood flowed in the ________
    _________.
  • Galen had thought that the _______ was the
    beginning point of circulation of the blood.
  • In 1623, _______________ published a book called
    On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in which he
    stated the following
  • The _______, not liver, was the beginning point
    of circulation.
  • The same blood flows through ________ ______.
  • Blood makes a complete ________ through the body.
    (William Harvey Video Clip)

arteries
veins
liver
William Harvey
heart
arteries
veins
circuit
18
Medical Recognition (Bonus)
Galen
  • Due to his achievements in medicine, ________
    served as the chief physician of the Roman
    Emperor Marcus Aurelius and became the chief
    surgeon to the ____________ of Rome.
  • _________________ served as physician to Holy
    Roman Emperor, Charles V and Phillip II of Spain.
  • _________________ served as physician to both
    King James I and his son Charles I of England.

gladiators
Andreas Vesalius
William Harvey
19
Chemistry
chemistry
  • The science called __________ arose in the 17th
    century.
  • ______________ was one of the first scientists to
    conduct controlled experiments.
  • By studying the properties of gases he came up
    with Boyles Law The _______ of a gas varies
    with the __________ exerted on it.
  • _________________ - invented a system of naming
    the _________ __________. (still used today)
  • Lavoisier is regarded by many as the _________
    of modern chemistry.

Robert Boyle
volume
pressure
Antoine Lavoisier
chemical
elements
Lavoisier
Father
20
Antoine Lavoisier
  • Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794). A French
    chemist who is widely regarded as the father of
    modern chemistry, Lavoisier showed in 1788 that
    air is a mixture of gases which he called oxygen
    and nitrogen. His major written work, published
    in 1789, contained the ideas which set chemistry
    on its modern path. He established the
    distinction between elements and compounds, and
    showed that chemical reactions are quantitative
    in nature. Among other accomplishments, Lavoisier
    devised a system of naming chemical compounds,
    and was a member of the commission which
    established the metric system. In spite of his
    many achievements, as an aristocrat Lavoisier was
    charged with counter-revolutionary activity and
    was guillotined in 1794.

21
Women in the Scientific Revolution
  • In Germany, many of the women involved in science
    were ______________.
  • They became involved by working in family
    ______________, where they had been trained by
    their __________ or ___________.
  • By 1650 to 1710, women made up _______ of all
    German astronomers.

Astronomers
observatories
fathers
husbands
14
22
René Descartes Reason
  • Descartes was a French ____________ who began to
    think write about the ________ __________
    that seemed to be everywhere in the confusion of
    the 17th century.
  • In his most famous work, Discourse on Method, he
    decided to set aside all that he had ________ and
    to _________ again.

philosopher
doubt
uncertainty
learned
begin
23
Descartes (Father of Modern Rationalism)
  • Descartes said that only one thing seemed to him
    to be beyond a doubt, and that was his very own
    ____________.
  • He once said I ______, therefore I ____.
  • Descartes emphasized the importance of his own
    ________, and he asserted that he would accept
    only those things that his ________ said were
    true. He has been called the Father of modern
    day ____________, the system of thought that is
    based on the belief that reason is the chief
    source of _____________.

existence
think
am
mind
reason
rationalism
knowledge
24
The Scientific Method
  • The Scientific Revolution gave birth to a process
    known as the _____________________, which was a
    systematic procedure for ____________ and
    ____________ evidence.
  • ____________________, an English philosopher,
    developed the scientific method.
  • Bacon believed that scientists should rely on
    __________ ____________ to learn about nature.
  • Bacon believed that systematic ____________ and
    carefully organized ____________ would lead to
    correct general principles.

scientific method
collecting
analyzing
Francis Bacon
inductive
reasoning
observations
experiments
25
Effects of Bacons Method
  • Many scientists, doctors, philosophers will use
    the Baconian Method, a.k.a. the Scientific method
    to make new ___________ in the centuries to come.
  • One such example is Dr. Edward Jenner who used
    __________ reasoning to come up with a cure for
    the disease _________.

discoveries
inductive
smallpox
26
Scientific Method Development
27
Galileo
  • In our modern culture, Galileo (15641642) is
    generally credited with being the father of the
    scientific method. The Encyclopedia
    Britannica (1970) says
  • Even while Bacon was philosophizing, the true
    method was being practiced by Galileo, who, with
    a combination of observation, hypothesis,
    mathematical deduction and confirmatory
    experiment founded the science of dynamics.

28
(No Transcript)
29
Political Thought of the 17th Century
  • The ________ Revolutions of the 17th century
    prompted 2 very different responses from two
    English political thinkers, _____________
    ____________.

English
Thomas Hobbes
John Locke
Locke
Hobbes
30
Thomas Hobbes
  • Alarmed by the revolutionary _________ in
    England, he wrote the book ____________ in 1651
    to try to deal with the disorder.
  • He claimed that before society was organized,
    humans were solitary, poor, _______, ________,
    short. He felt that humans were not guided by
    reason moral ideas, but by _________ struggles
    for self-preservation.
  • Hobbes stated that to save themselves from
    ___________ one another, people made a social
    contract agreed to a form of state which would
    keep peace provide defense.
  • He felt that ______________, was needed to
    suppress rebellion preserve order in society.

31
John Locke
32
Chapter 10-1 GRA
  • 1. What did the writings of Ptolemy and
    Archimedes make obvious?
  • These writings made it obvious that some ancient
    thinkers had disagreed with Aristotle other
    accepted authorities.
  • 2. What new invention helped to spread new
    scientific ideas quickly and easily?
  • The invention of the printing press.

33
  • Where is Earth placed in the universe according
    to the Ptolemaic system?
  • According to Ptolemy, Earth was at the center.
  • Contrary to Ptolemy, what did Copernicus argue
    concerning the construction of the universe?
  • Copernicus argued that the Sun, not Earth, was
    at the center of the universe.
  • 5. What discoveries did Galileo make using a
    telescope?
  • mountains on the moon, four moons around
    Jupiter, and sunspots.

34
  • Why did the Church order Galileo to abandon the
    Copernican idea of the nature of the universe?
  • The Copernican challenged the Churchs views of
    the universe and seemed to contradict the Bible.
  • What did Isaac Newton define in his first book,
    The Principia?
  • He defined 3 laws of motion that govern the
    planetary bodies, as well as objects on Earth.

35
  • What did William Harveys observations and
    experiments show?
  • Harvey showed that the heart- not the liver- was
    the beginning point for the circulation for
    blood.
  • What field of science in Germany provided
    opportunities for women?
  • Astronomy

36
  • What did Rene Descartes emphasize and assert?
  • He emphasized the importance of his own mind and
    asserted that he would only accept those things
    that his reason said were true.
  • Who developed the scientific method?
  • Francis Bacon, an English philosopher.
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