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2011 ORNITHOLOGY (B/C)

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2011 ORNITHOLOGY (B/C) KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman karenlancour_at_charter.net (Modified by Neil Michels, MSO) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 2011 ORNITHOLOGY (B/C)


1
2011 ORNITHOLOGY (B/C)
  • KAREN LANCOUR
  • National Bio Rules
  • Committee Chairman
  • karenlancour_at_charter.net
  • (Modified by Neil Michels, MSO)

2
Event Rules 2011
  • BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2011 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT
    PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL
  • The MSO Bird List is at the MSO website.

3
TRAINING MATERIALS
  • Training Power Point content overview
  • Training Handout - content information
  • Sample Tournament sample problems with key
  • Event Supervisor Guide event prep tips, setup
    needs and scoring tips
  • Internet Resources Training Materials on the
    Science Olympiad website at www.soinc.org
  • under Event Information
  • A Biology-Earth Science CD, the Peterson, Birds
    of North America field guide as well as the
    Division B and Division C Test Packets are
    available from SO store at www.soinc.org

4
The Competition
  • Content
  • Taxonomic Scheme of the 2011 Official Science
    Olympiad Bird List is used in competition
  • Identification, anatomy physiology,
    reproduction, habitat characteristics, ecology,
    diet, behavior, ID calls, conservation,
    biogeography
  • Process Skills observation, inferences, data and
    diagram analysis
  • Event Parameters check 2010-2011 rules for what
    is allowed

5
Field Guide
  • All specimens, with current taxonomy, on the
    National List are represented in the
  • Peterson Field Guide to Birds of North America,
    Houghton Mifflin, 2008

6
Taxonomy
  • Official National List
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus specie (Scientific name)
  • and Common name

7
ORDERS AND FAMILIES OF BIRDS
  • Learn the Order and Family characteristics and
    then species!!
  • General arrangement of guides
  • The families reflect how birds have evolved and
    have many distinctive features and behaviors.
  • Ocean, shore, game and predatory birds appear
    first, they are generally large birds.
  • Next are hole-nesting birds without true songs,
    they are smaller.
  • Last come the song birds which are still smaller.

8
Class Aves
  • 3 billion birds
  • 9000 species
  • vertebrates with feathers, modified for flight
    and for active metabolism.
  • horny beak, no teeth
  • large muscular stomach
  • feathers
  • large yolked, hard-shelled eggs. The parent bird
    provides extensive care of the young until it is
    grown, or gets some other bird to look after the
    young.
  • strong skeleton

9
19 Orders on the SO National Bird List
  • Anseriformeswaterfowl
  • Galliformesbird-like fowl
  • Gaviiformesloons
  • Podicipediformesgrebes
  • Procellariiformesalbatrosses, petrels, and
    allies
  • Pelecaniformespelicans and allies
  • Ciconiiformesstorks, bitterns, herons and allies
    Waders
  • Falconiformesfalcons, eagles, hawks and allies
    Birds of Prey
  • Gruiformescranes and allies
  • Charadriiformesgulls, button-quails, plovers and
    allies

10
19 Orders on the SO National Bird List
  1. Columbiformesdoves and pigeons
  2. Cuculiformescuckoos, Roadrunners, and Anis
  3. Strigiformesowls
  4. Caprimulgiformes Goatsuckers, nightjars and
    allies
  5. Apodiformesswifts and hummingbirds
  6. Trogoniformestrogons
  7. Coraciiformeskingfishers and allies
  8. Piciformeswoodpeckers and allies
  9. Passeriformespasserines perching birds with
    most being song birds

11
Order Characteristics
  • Order Apodiformes swifts, tree swifts, and
    hummingbirds
  • their legs are small and have limited function
    aside from perching.
  • the feet are covered with bare skin rather than
    the scales (scutes) that other birds have.
  • long wings with short, stout humerus bones

12
Family Characteristics
  • Gives unique characteristics of this group of
    birds
  • Family Trochilidae Pay attention to these
    characteristics !!!
  • Small birds, iridescent with needle like beak for
    sipping nectar
  • Jewel like throat feathers in most males
  • Hover when feeding nectar (red color favored),
    small insects, spiders
  • Can fly backwards wing motion is so rapid that
    wings appear to blur
  • Aggressive
  • Hover when feeding
  • Vocal differences can be important in
    identification

13
Specie Characteristics
  • Unique characteristics of this particular bird
  • Archilochus colubris - Ruby-throated Hummingbird
  • Small bird - 3 ¾ inches or about 10 cm.
  • Male has fiery red throat, irridescent green back
    and forked tail
  • Female lacks red throat
  • The only widespread specie East of Mississippi
  • Males wings hum in courtship display
  • Chase calls are high and squeaky other call a
    soft chew
  • Habitat flowers, gardens, wood edges, over
    streams

14
Bird Modifications
  • Generally the feeding habits go from eating fish
    and small mammals to eating seeds and insects.
  • Special modifications in morphology allow birds
    to succeed in their environment.
  • These modifications are very helpful in
    identifying families, species, and their unique
    behaviors.

15
Body Regions
16
Identification Features
  • Special features
  • Adaptations
  • Sexual differences

17
Head Markings
  • Many have distinctive stripes or colored patches
    on their head.
  • Crown tip of the head and Cap a
    distinctively colored crown as black-capped
    chickadees.
  • Crest a projection or tuft on the head often
    brightly colored as cardinals.
  • Lores space between eye and bill and
    spectacles distinctive eye rings or eye stripe.
  • Size of eye large eyes are hints that the bird
    is nocturnal or feeds at night.
  • Color of eye they may be red, yellow, brown,
    black, etc.
  • Ear tufts projections near ear region as horned
    owls (birds do not have visible ears).
  • Auricle region feathers covering the opening of
    the ears.
  • Chin the area around the bill
  • Throat the area between the bill and the
    breast. It may be highly brightly colored as
    the ruby throated humming birds.

18
Bill Adaptations for Feeding
  • The two parts are the upper and lower mandibles.
    Often mistakenly called a beak.
  • Beak the hooked bill of a hawk or parrot.
  • The bill is modified for eating a specific type
    of food.

19
Bill adaptations
  • A. probing flowers for nectar
  • B. drilling into trees for insects
  • C. scooping fish
  • D. catching fish
  • E. straining food from the water
  • F. capturing prey and tearing flesh
  • G. cracking seeds
  • H. capturing worms and insects
  • I. opening seeds from pine cones

20
NECK and BODY
  • Most birds have short necks but some such as the
    crane are long.
  • Some birds are stout while others are slender
    bodied.
  • Back upper surface and rump area closest to
    the tail.
  • Breast (chest) underside near head and belly
    underside around legs.
  • Sides belly under wings.
  • Many birds have distinctive plumage patterns but
    remember that stripes are head to head or
    lengthwise while bars are wing to wing or
    crosswise.

21
PLUMAGE
  • The color pattern of the feathers along the body
    varies. It is often unique for a species.
  • It is usually brighter in males than females with
    young of both sexes resembling the female.
  • It is usually brightest during the mating season
    (spring and summer for most birds).

22
TAIL
  • The tail is used for steering and breaking during
    flight. It can also be used in courting
    displays.
  • The shape and color pattern is useful in
    identification.
  • The tail can be long or short and its shape can
    be square, rounded, pointed, elongated, forked or
    notched.

23
Wing Feathers
  • WINGS used for true flight as well as gliding,
    balance during hovering and perching, and during
    courtship. Many have distinctive white or
    colored patches.
  • Wings can be long or short, pointed or rounded.
  • Shoulder part of wing nearest to the body.
    There are two sets of flight feathers.
  • Primaries from bend outward to tip and
    Secondaries from bend toward shoulder.

24
LEGS and FEET
  • The length and thickness of the legs as well as
    the shape of the foot are clues to the way the
    bird lives.
  • Some birds extend their legs during flight while
    others hold them under their body.
  • The feet are modified for perching, clinging,
    walking or swimming.

25
Foot adaptations
  • A. perching
  • B. wading
  • C. climbing or clinging
  • D. swimming
  • E. preying

26
VOCALIZATION
  • Many birds have distinctive calls and songs.
    They can help to identify birds not visible.
  • Calls are short and simple to signal alarm or
    distress while songs are more complex and are
    used for ownership of feeding territory and
    courtship. In most species only males sing.

27
LEARNING BIRD SONGS
  • Books and field guides attempt to put sounds into
    words. Many have slightly different word
    translations so be careful about these.
  • Listen to the actual sounds or recordings to
    learn them.

28
BEHAVIOR
  • What a bird is doing can tell a lot about its
    identity and role in its ecosystem.
  • Is it alone or in a flock? Is it shy or social
    or aggressive? Where is it most of its time?
  • How does it fly? Is it soaring, gliding,
    flapping or fluttering? Is there a flock flight
    pattern ?

29
BEHAVIOR
  • Is it swimming, dappling, diving, perching,
    walking, and/or hopping?
  • How does it feed and what does it eat? Where
    does it nest? How do the young act?
  • How does it react to other birds of its specie,
    other species or other animals?
  • Does it have any unique behaviors?

30
2009 - The State of the Birds United States
of America
  • Cooperative Effort of
  • North American Bird Conservation
  • Initiative, U.S. Committee
  • American Bird Conservancy
  • Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies
  • Cornell Lab of Ornithology
  • Klamath Bird Observatory
  • National Audubon Society
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • U.S. Geological Survey

31
Bird Ecology Roles of birds in the ecosystem
  • Indicators of environmental health
  • Food source for humans and animals
  • Flower pollinators
  • Insect control they eat insects and reduce many
    pests
  • Disseminate seeds
  • Scavengers and Cleaning Carcasses of Dead Animals
  • Clean parasites off animals

32
Challenges to Bird Population
  • Habitat loss
  • Residential and commercial development
  • Agriculture
  • Energy production and mining
  • Natural resource use
  • Pollution
  • Climate change

33
Student Preparation Tips
  • Use a power point presentation
  • Insert pictures, key characteristics and songs
  • Practice with power point sample stations with
    questions, pictures, and songs
  • Tab your field guide
  • Practice using the field guide
  • Practice under timed conditions

34
Learn the Shapes of Birds
35
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36
Bird Songs
  • Bird Jam
  • New York Birds (many apply to MN)
  • eNature
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