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Personality Disorders

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Personality Disorders Definition of Personality? Definition of Personality Disorder Manifest across many life areas Inflexible Maladaptive Cause either significant ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Personality Disorders


1
Personality Disorders
  • Definition of Personality?
  • Definition of Personality Disorder
  • Manifest across many life areas
  • Inflexible
  • Maladaptive
  • Cause either significant impairment or distress
    to self or others

2
Personality Disorders
  • Dimensions or Categories?
  • DSM-IV
  • Consided as Categories (not dimensions)
  • Axis II of the multiaxial system
  • Not usually primary diagnosis
  • Ten Specific Labels
  • Cluster A Odd / Eccentric
  • Cluster B Dramatic / Emotional
  • Cluster C Anxious / Fearful
  • High Rates of Comorbidity
  • Gender Bias in Diagnosis?

3
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4
Paranoid Personality Disorder
  • Excessively Mistrustful
  • Excessively Suspicious
  • Without Justification
  • Treatment Options
  • Few seek professional help on their own
  • Treatment focuses on development of trust
  • Cognitive therapy to counter negativistic
    thinking
  • Lack good outcome studies

5
Schizoid Personality Disorder
  • Extreme Social Detachment (Loner)
  • Appear Aloof, Cold, Indifferent
  • Limited Range of Emotions
  • Treatment Options
  • Few seek professional help on their own
  • Focus on the value of interpersonal
    relationships, empathy, and social skills
  • Treatment prognosis is generally poor
  • Lack good outcome studies

6
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
  • Also Socially Isolated
  • BUT Behavior Is More Unusual
  • Often Considered Odd or Bizarre
  • Ideas of Reference
  • Magical Thinking
  • Illusions
  • Apparent Connection to Schizophrenia (but be
    careful!)
  • Treatment Options
  • Developing social skills
  • Treatment also addresses comorbid depression
  • Medical treatment is similar to that used for
    schizophrenia
  • Treatment prognosis is generally poor

7
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Long Histories of
  • Violating Cultural Norms
  • Violating Rights of Others
  • Impulsivity Aggressiveness
  • Lack of Remorse, Conscience, Empathy
  • Not Always Criminal
  • Relation Between ASPD, Conduct Disorder, and
    Early Behavior Problems

8
Antisocial Personality
  • Neurobiological Theories
  • Underarousal, Fearlessness, Behavioral
    Inhibition
  • Treatment
  • Few seek treatment on their own
  • Antisocial behavior is predictive of poor
    prognosis, even in children
  • Emphasis is placed on prevention and
    rehabilitation
  • Often incarceration is the only viable
    alternative

9
Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Unstable Relationships
  • Love/Hate Behavior
  • Fear of Abandonment
  • Poor Self-Image
  • Mood Swings, Feel Empty
  • Impulsivity
  • Substance Abuse, Sex, Suicidality
  • Self-mutilation

10
Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Causes?
  • Borderline personality disorder runs in families
  • Early trauma and abuse seem to play some role
  • Treatment Options
  • Few good treatment outcome studies
  • Antidepressant medications provide some
    short-term relief
  • Dialectical behavior therapy is the most
    promising psychosocial approach

11
Histrionic Personality Disorder
  • Overly Dramatic
  • Center of Attention
  • Emphasis on Appearance
  • Emotions are Shallow
  • Seductive Provocative
  • Treatment Options
  • Few good treatment outcome studies
  • Treatment focuses on attention seeking and
    long-term negative consequences
  • Targets may also include problematic
    interpersonal behaviors
  • Little evidence that treatment is effective

12
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
  • Grandiose Sense of Self
  • Exaggerated Self-Importance
  • Preoccupied with Attention
  • Requires Admiration
  • Little Empathy
  • Highly Sensitive to Criticism
  • Treatment Options
  • Focuses on grandiosity, lack of empathy,
    unrealistic thinking
  • Treatment may also address co-occurring
    depression
  • Little evidence that treatment is effective

13
Avoidant Personality Disorder
  • Sensitive to Others Opinions
  • Avoid Social Relationships
  • Extreme Low Self-Esteem
  • Takes Few Risks
  • Socially Inhibited Anxious
  • Treatment Options
  • Several well-controlled treatment outcome studies
    exist
  • Treatment is similar to that used for social
    phobia
  • Treatment targets include social skills and
    anxiety

14
Dependent Personality Disorder
  • Excessive Reliance on Others
  • Submissive Passive
  • Rely on Others to Make Even Minor Decisions
  • Fear Abandonment
  • Clingy
  • Treatment Options
  • Research on treatment efficacy is lacking
  • Therapy typically progresses gradually
  • Treatment targets include skills that foster
    independence

15
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
  • NOT same thing as OCD
  • Fixation on Doing Things The Right Way
  • Preoccupation with
  • Perfectionism
  • Control
  • Orderliness, Details, and Rules
  • Obsessions and Compulsions Are Rare
  • Treatment Options
  • Data supporting treatment are limited
  • Treatment may address fears related to the need
    for orderliness
  • Other targets include rumination,
    procrastination, and feelings of inadequacy

16
Problems with Persoanlity Disoders
  • The Causes of Personality Disorders Are Difficult
    to Pinpoint
  • Treatment of Personality Disorders Is Often
    Difficult
  • Often Comorbid Issues
  • Egosyntonic (vs. Egodystonic)
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