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Child Development


Child Development Chapter 4: Prenatal Development – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Child Development

Child Development
  • Chapter 4 Prenatal Development

  • Write down 5 phrases that explain what you know
    about pregnancy.

State Standards
  • 3.1 Analyze hereditary and environmental factors
    affecting prenatal development beginning with
  • 3.2 Analyze maternal and paternal health and
    environmental factors affecting conception and
    prenatal development

  • Brain Pop-
  • Reproductive System

  • Vocabulary
  • Ovum
  • Uterus
  • Fallopian Tube
  • Sperm
  • Conception

Family Planning
  • The only 100 method of contraception is
  • An ovum usually lives 12-24 hours
  • A sperm usually lives 48-72 hours
  • There are approximately 3-4 days in which
    intercourse could lead to conception

Contraceptive Methods
  • Groups 1-2
  • Each group will have 1 method.
  • Your responsibilities
  • Find a picture of an example of that method
  • Turn picture into the assignment turn in folder
  • Give a 30 second spill about that method and show
  • Grade Assignment worth 20 points
  • 5 points for picture
  • 10 points for spill
  • 5 points for professionalism

Brainpop Video
  • Genetics

Genetic Package
  • Each person inherits characteristics from parents
  • Chromosomes tiny threadlike particles in the
    nucleus of every cell
  • Human babies receive 46 at conception- 23 pairs
  • Each chromosomes has thousands of genes the
    units that determine inherited characteristics
  • For every inherited characteristic a person
    receives two copies of a gene- mother and father
  • Dominant Gene stronger
  • Recessive Gene weaker
  • Genome The complete blueprint for the creation
    of a person

Making a Unique Person
  • Family often times look alike because of the gene
  • Sex of a child is also determined at conception
  • Two types of sex chromosome X and Y
  • Egg cells contain X
  • Sperm cells contain wither X or Y

Brainpop Video
  • Heredity
  • Punnett Square Activity

Multiple Births
  • Identical Twins Fertilized egg divides into two
    separate babies
  • Fraternal Twins two eggs are released at the
    same time and both are fertilized
  • 2.5 of births are multiple births
  • More than 2 babies is even more rare
  • Most of the time multiple births (more than 2)
    results from treatment of infertility the
    inability to become pregnant

  • Not all people are able to become pregnant
  • 1st step Doctor evaluates both parents help to
    determine cause
  • Fertility drugs may be prescribed if the cause is
    eggs are not released every month
  • Several drawbacks serious side effects, multiple
    births, etc

Options for Infertility
  • After treatment for infertility some people are
    still not able to conceive
  • Some options
  • Adoption
  • Artificial Insemination sperm injected into
    womans uterus
  • In vitro Fertilization Egg is fertilized outside
    body and then placed in the womans uterus
  • Ovum Transfer egg from female donor then
  • Surrogate Mother

Period of the Zygote
  • Lasts about 2 weeks
  • Zygote- fertilized egg
  • Zygote travel down fallopian tube
  • Attaches itself to the lining of the uterus
  • Lining provides nourishment
  • At the end of this period the zygote is only the
    size of a pin head

Period of the Embryo
  • 3rd-8th weeks of pregnancy
  • Embryo the developing baby
  • Grows rapidly
  • The mass of cells develop into all the major
    systems of the human body
  • Brain begins to take control of these systems
  • Amniotic Fluid forms
  • Placenta develops
  • Umbilical Cord forms

Bell Work
  • p. 144- Health Tip
  • Answer questions on own paper to turn in

Period of the Fetus
  • 8th week until birth- about 40 weeks
  • 4th-5th month mother begins to feel baby move-
    sensations are called quickening
  • Fluid grows as fetus grows until just before
    birth when fluid begins decreasing
  • Baby is swallowing it
  • 7th month- baby capable of living outside womb
    but only with great medical help
  • 8th and 9th month- organs become ready to survive
    on their own
  • Fetus can- suck its thumb, cough, sneez, yawn,
    hiccup, and even cry

Preparing for Birth
  • Babys weight begins to shift down in 9th month-
  • Fetus is turned upside down in mothers pelvis
  • Less active
  • Muscles of the uterus and abdomen can be
    stretched up to 60 times their original size!
  • Return to original size in about 6 weeks after

Brainpop Video
  • Fetal Development

Section 5-2
  • A closer Look at Conception

Brainpop Video
  • Gender Determination

Section 5-3
  • Problems in Prenatal Development

For Discussion
  • Excerpt from Helen Kellers The Story of My Life

  • Contrast miscarriage and stillbirth
  • Identify some major birth defects
  • Explain the four causes of birth defects
  • Describe how birth defects can be diagnosed and

Key Terms
  • Amniocentesis
  • Birth Defect
  • Chronic Villi Sampling
  • Miscarriage
  • Stillbirth
  • Ultrasound

Losing a Baby
  • Sometimes babies do not develop normally
  • In some cases the developing baby will die
  • Before 20 weeks- miscarriage
  • After 20 weeks- still birth
  • Loss of an unborn child is devastating to parents
  • As many as 20 percent of al pregnancies end in

Types of Birth Defects
  • Birth defect- serious problems that threatens a
    childs health or ability to live
  • About 3 out of 100 children are born with a birth
  • Birth defects affect
  • Shape or size of the body or of certain parts of
    the body
  • A part or system of the body does not work
  • Not all birth defects are apparent at birth

Causes of Birth Defects
  • Scientists still dont understand the cause of
    all birth defects
  • There are 4 main causes

Environmental Causes
  • During the first few weeks of conception all the
    babys major systems develop
  • Things that affect the development of the baby
  • Nutritional balance of the mothers diet
  • Diseases or infections the mother has
  • Harmful substances the mother takes in
  • Some medicines
  • Exposure to outside hazards such as radiation

Hereditary Causes
  • Thousands of genes make up a genetic blueprint-
    each person has about 5-6 imperfect recessive
  • A single copy of this defective gene- no effect
  • 2 copies of this genebirth defect or a dominant
    defective genebirth defect
  • Some inherited conditions affect only one sex
  • Ex- Hemophilia (prevents blood from clotting) and
    color blindness

Errors in Chromosomes
  • Some birth defects are linked to a problem with
    the babys chromosomes
  • Ex- too many or too few chromosomes
  • The child does not inherit this condition
  • Most common is down syndrome
  • 1 child in every 800 births has down syndrome
  • Risk is higher in mothers over 35
  • Child has an extra chromosome 21

Interaction of Heredity and Environment
  • Sometimes birth defects result from heredity and
    environment combined
  • Ex- A baby may inherit the tendency for a heart
    defect but only appears if some factor- such as a
    drug or virus- affects the baby during
  • Researchers think this is probably the cause of
    cleft lip and spina bifida

Prevention and Diagnosis of Birth Defects
  • Children with birth defects have difficulty
    leading normal lives
  • The rest of the family is affected too
  • Responsible couples do everything possible to
    minimize the possibility of birth defects

Genetic Counseling
  • Some people seek genetic counseling
  • May or may not already have a child with a birth
  • Does not tell people what to do, only explains
    risks and options
  • Family doctors can perform this service, but is
    best provided by a specialist
  • The genetic counselor first gathers family
    histories from the couple
  • Then they are given thorough medical examinations
    and sometimes tests

Prenatal Testing
  • More than 100 birth defects can now be found
    before a baby is born
  • There is not a test to tell if a child will be
  • These tests can alert the physician of problems
    many times they can be taken care of before birth
    or immediately following birth
  • Sometimes blood testing can reveal birth defects

Types of Prenatal Tests
  • Ultrasound- checks for specific health problems
  • Can show if the fetus is developing on schedule
  • Can confirm due date
  • Amniocentesis- Process of withdrawing a sample of
    amniotic fluid and then testing it for
    indications of birth defects
  • About 1 out of 200 amniocentesis tests result in
  • Chronic Villi Sampling- Tests a small amount of
    the tissue surrounding the fetus
  • Guided by a ultrasound image the doctor inserts a
    small tube throught the womans vagina into the
    uterus the samples are then obtained by snipping
    or suction
  • Risk of miscarriage or birth defect is mush
    higher than amniocentesis

Ask the Experts
  • P. 163

Section 5-4
  • Avoiding Dangers to the Baby

Key Terms
  • Fetal Alcohol effects
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

  • Identify the hazards that alcohol and other drugs
    pose to prenatal development
  • Discuss other environmental hazards that pregnant
    women should avoid

  • Alcohol is a drug
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome- a pregnant woman who
    drinks is at risk for her child developing FAS
  • Includes physical and mental problems
  • 1 in 5 babies with FAS die soon after birth
  • Almost all are mentally retarded
  • Other problems slow growth, poor coordination,
    heart defects, and facial disfigurement
  • Also, learning disabilities and hyperactivity

Alcohol, continued
  • Fetal Alcohol Effects- less severe than FAS, but
    still suffers from some of the same problems
  • Severity depends on amount consumed by mother,
    stage of pregnancy, and presence of other drugs
    in the mothers system
  • Can be prevented by not drinking!
  • It is not know how much alcohol will cause the

Other Drugs
  • Prescription and over the counter drugs
  • No such thing as a completely safe drug
  • First 3 months are most critical
  • Last 6 months- slowed growth, infections, and
    bleeding at birth
  • Meds should not be taken unless approved by the
  • Caffeine- also a drug, can cause birth defects as
    well, not sure about amounts

Other Drugs, continued
  • Tobacco- the more a mother smokes the smaller the
    baby will be
  • Heavy smoking can cause premature birth
  • Linked to respiratory infections, allergies, and
  • Illegal Drugs- a mother who is addicted to an
    illegal drug normally passes the addiction to the
  • After birth the baby must go through withdrawal,
    some babies die
  • Long-term effects may be serious, many of these
    children have problems following directions and
    learning disabilities

X Rays
  • Radiation can cause birth defects as well
  • Pregnant women should warn medical personnel
  • Always request abdominal shields during x rays

  • When a pregnant woman contracts rubella babies
    can suffer with deafness, blindness, heart
    disease, or mental retardation
  • Vaccines are available but can be dangerous for
    women who are pregnant or become pregnant shortly
    after the shot

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Include Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Hepatitis B,
    Genital Herpes, AIDS, Group B Streptococcus,
  • Can be passed from mother to child
  • Can result in death or other birth defects
  • You can have a STD without knowing it!
  • AIDS- the virus that causes AIDS can be passed
    from mother to child