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The Antebellum South

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Title: The Antebellum South Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: Mr. and Mrs. Ross Lynde Created Date: 11/30/2003 7:50:04 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Antebellum South


1
The Antebellum South
By Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS
Chappaqua, NY Additions by M. Lynde Currituck
County High School Barco, NC
2
Overview
  • Slavery as a peculiar institution rooted in
    both racism and economic exploitation
  • American slave population is only enslaved
    population that grew by means of own biological
    reproduction
  • Distinctive African American culture flourished
  • It was a cancer in heart of American democracy
    - it mocked the model of social and political
    enlightenment that America claimed to be

3
Overview
  • Early on Thomas Jefferson - truly contradictory
    himself
  • Early Republic banned slavery in Northwest in
    1787
  • Prohibited further importation of slaves as of
    1808
  • Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • Eli Whitneys Cotton Gin 1790 meant southern
    planter class increasingly dependent on slave
    labor and cotton cultivation moved westward
  • War with Mexico 1840s
  • Compromise 1850
  • Bleeding Kansas Nebraska Act 1854
  • Dred Scott 1857

4
American Slavery
  • 1. Most slaves were satisfied with their lot.
    They laughed a lot, appeared happy-go-lucky, and
    sang spirituals while they worked.
  • 2. Most slaves led passive, tranquil lives.
  • 3. There were few runaways.
  • 4. Most Southerners owned slaves.
  • 5. Most Northerners were avid abolitionists.
  • 6. There were many slave suicides, and
    infanticides were fairly common.
  • 7. Masters killed their old slaves when they
    could no longer work.
  • 8. Slaves had no concept of a loving, caring
    family.
  • 9. Most masters were benevolent. Many showed
    affection to their slaves, worked alongside them,
    and were buried in the same graveyards.
  • 10. Most male slaves lusted after white women and
    were a threat to their safety.

5
Overview
  • Civil War about slavery and economy but also
    about viability of the Union as well.
  • IC Could a democratic govt built on the
    principle of popular consent, rightfully deny
    some of its citizens the same right to
    independence that he American revolutionaries had
    exercised in seceding from the British empire in
    1776?
  • Reconstruction combination of weak northern will
    and residual southern power frustrated the goal
    of making emancipated blacks full-fledged
    American citizens.
  • IC The Civil War in the end brought nothing
    but freedom- but over time, freedom proved a
    powerful tool indeed

6
Early Emancipation in the North
7
Missouri Compromise, 1820
8
Antebellum Southern Economy
9
Cotton Is King
  • Cotton Kingdom develops to huge
  • agricultural factory
  • Northern shippers reaped a large part of the
    profits from the cotton trade
  • IC - to a large degree, the prosperity of the
    both the North and the South rested on the bent
    backs of slaves
  • South produced more than half the worlds cotton
    supply-
  • A fact that held foreign nations in economic
    bondage to the
  • South.
  • -Britain was the world economic superpower and
    1/5 of its population
  • drew its wealth from cotton cloth
  • - 75 of that cotton came from the
    South
  • - South knew it

10
Slaves Picking Cottonon a Mississippi Plantation
11
Slaves Using the Cotton Gin
12
Changes in Cotton Production
1820
1860
13
Value of Cotton Exports As of All US Exports
14
Hauling the Whole Weeks PickingsWilliam Henry
Brown, 1842
15
Slaves Workingin a Sugar-Boiling House, 1823
16
Antebellum Southern Society The
Planter Aristocracy
17
Southern Society as an Oligarchy rather than a
Democracy
  • Planter aristocrats had the majority of the
    wealth
  • Educated their children in private schools
  • These young became experts at statecraft John C.
    Calhoun Jefferson Davis - felt a keen sense to
    serve the public
  • But widened gap b/w rich and poor
  • No reason to favor tax-supported public education

18
Southern Population
19
Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a
Southern plantation.
20
Tara Plantation Reality or Myth?
Hollywoods Version?
21
A Real Georgia Plantation
22
Scarlet and Mammie(Hollywood Again!)
23
A Real Mammie Her Charge
Note how your text deliberately (?) uses the word
bondswoman
24
The Southern Belle
25
The South's "Peculiar Institution" The Slaves
Of The Slave System
26
  • IC The Wasteful Plantation System
  • Economic system becomes monopolistic
  • Small farmers must sell their landholdings and
    move north or west
  • Financial instability of the system
  • Led to over speculation in land and slaves
  • (supporting evidence) slaves fed for .10 cents a
    day but could cost 1,200 each they could be
    injured they could run away they could be wiped
    out by disease
  • Agribusiness - King Cotton meant one crop
    economy. No diversification or industry
  • Southern planters resent watching North grow fat
    at their expense
  • (supporting cultural division) Southerners resent
    being wrapped in Northern cloth, coffins with
    Yankee nails
  • Cotton Kingdom repelled large scale European
    immigration
  • No diversity of people
  • Irish immigration competes with slave labor

27
Southern Agriculture
28
Graniteville Textile Co.
Founded in 1845, it was the Souths first attempt
at industrialization in Richmond, VA
29
Characteristics of the Antebellum South
  1. Primarily agrarian.
  2. Economic power shifted from the upper South to
    the lower South.
  3. Cotton Is King! 1860? 5 mil. bales a yr.
    (57 of total US exports).
  4. Very slow development of industrialization.
  5. Rudimentary financial system.
  6. Inadequate transportation system.

30
The White Majority
31
  • 1/4 of white southerners owned slaves
  • Smaller slave owners did not own a majority of
    the slaves but they made up the majority of the
    masters
  • Typically modest farmhouses, working with and
    eating with the slaves
  • Beneath them 3/4 white southerners owned no
    slaves
  • Redneck farmers living on thinner soils of
    backcountry and mountains.
  • Subsistence farmers - corn and hogs. Isolated
    lives
  • Below them - poor white trash
  • IC -all these whites without slaves had no direct
    stake in preservation of slavery yet they were
    among the stoutest defenders. Why?

32
Southern Society (1850)
Slavocracyplantation owners
6,000,000
The Plain Folkwhite yeoman farmers
Black Freemen
250,000
Black Slaves3,200,000
Total US Population ? 23,000,0009,250,000 in
the South 40
33
Slave-Owning Families (1850)
34
Slave-Owning Population (1850)
35
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  • IC -all these whites without slaves had no direct
    stake in preservation of slavery yet they were
    among the stoutest defenders. Why?
  • Hope of American dream - one day they might own
    slaves
  • Fierce in need to proclaim racial superiority
    (Jerry Springer theory?)
  • Always want to outrank someone else
  • Thus did the logic of economics join with the
    illogic of racism in buttressing (supporting) the
    slave system

37
  • NC Mountain Boys (Appalachian)
  • Little in common with whites of flatlands
  • Isolated- Elizabethan English
  • rich mans war but poor mans fight
  • IC - when war came this group formed a vital
    Union peninsula jutting down into secessionist
    territory

38
Narratives 618-620
  • What are the commonalities?
  • what is the source?
  • Is there a possibility of bias in slave
    narratives? Motivation?
  • slavery control
  • hiring out
  • lying out
  • dissident slaves
  • black entrepreneur slaves
  • Apprenticeship system

39
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Narratives 618-620
  • What are the commonalities?
  • what is the source?
  • Is there a possibility of bias in slave
    narratives? Motivation?
  • slavery control
  • hiring out
  • lying out
  • dissident slaves
  • black entrepreneur slaves
  • Apprenticeship system

49
Free Blacks
50
  • Free blacks
  • purchased freedom
  • often illegal to marry within the state of
    residence
  • Owned property
  • Owned other slaves
  • Couldnt testify in court
  • Vulnerable to being kidnapped and sold into
    slavery
  • Freed blacks unpopular in North
  • Compete with immigrant labor
  • Frederick Douglas

51
Plantation Slavery Life Under the Lash
52
Slave Auction Notice, 1823
53
Slave Auction Charleston, SC-1856
54
Slave Accoutrements
Slave MasterBrands
Slave muzzle
55
Anti-Slave Pamphlet
56
Slave Accoutrements
Slave tag, SC
Slave leg irons
Slave shoes
57
A Slave Family
58
The Ledger of John White
  • Matilda Selby, 9, 400.00 sold to Mr. Covington,
    St. Louis, 425.00
  • Brooks Selby, 19, 750.00 Left at Home Crazy
  • Fred McAfee, 22, 800.00 Sold to
    Pepidal,Donaldsonville, 1200.00
  • Howard Barnett, 25, 750.00 Ranaway. Sold out of
    jail, 540.00
  • Harriett Barnett, 17, 550.00 Sold to Davenport
    and Jones, Lafourche, 900.00

59
US Laws Regarding Slavery
  1. U. S. Constitution 3/5s compromise I.2
    fugitive slave clause IV.2
  2. 1793 ? Fugitive Slave Act.
  3. 1850 ? stronger Fugitive Slave Act.

60
Southern Slavery--gt An Aberration?
  • 1780s 1st antislavery society created in Phila.
  • By 1804 slavery eliminated from last northern
    state.
  • 1807 the legal termination of the slave trade,
    enforced by the Royal Navy.
  • 1820s newly indep. Republics of Central So.
    America declared their slaves free.
  • 1833 slavery abolished throughout the British
    Empire.
  • 1844 slavery abolished in the Fr. colonies.
  • 1861 the serfs of Russia were emancipated.

61
Slavery Was Less Efficient in the U. S. than
Elsewhere
  • High cost of keeping slaves fromescaping.
  • GOAL ? raise the exit cost.
  • Slave patrols.
  • Southern Black Codes.
  • Cut off a toe or a foot.

62
African American Culture
  • Deep South - relatively staple culture so more
    distinctive culture
  • Dance, religion (Israelites in Egypt - let my
    people go), sister and brother

63
The Culture of Slavery
  1. Black Christianity Baptists or Methodists
    more emotional worship services. negro
    spirituals.
  2. Pidgin or Gullah languages.
  3. Nuclear family with extended kin links,where
    possible.
  4. Importance of music in their lives. esp.
    spirituals.

64
Slave Resistance Uprisings
65
Slave Resistance
  1. SAMBO pattern of behavior used as a charade in
    front of whites the innocent, laughing black man
    caricature bulging eyes, thick lips, big smile,
    etc..

66
Slave Resistance
  1. Refusal to work hard.
  2. Isolated acts of sabotage.
  3. Escape via the Underground Railroad.

67
Runaway Slave Ads
68
Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages
The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted
escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee
the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned
escapees not to follow a straight route.
69
Slave Rebellions Throughout the Americas
70
Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South
Gabriel Prosser1800 Henrico, VA
1822
Charleston, S.C.
On August 30, 2007, Virginia Governor Tim Kaine
informally pardoned Gabriel and his
co-conspirators
71
Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South
Nat Turner, 1831
72
Abolitionist Movement
1816 ? American Colonization Society
created (gradual, voluntary
emancipation.
British Colonization Society symbol
73
Abolitionist Movement
  • Create a free slave state in Liberia,
    WestAfrica.
  • No real anti-slavery sentiment in the North in
    the 1820s 1830s.

Gradualists
Immediatists
74
Reformers of the Era
  • Theodore Dwight Weld - spiritually inspired.
    Rebels at Lane Theological Seminary in
    Cincinnati, Ohio Lane Rebels

75
Anti-Slavery Alphabet
76
William Lloyd Garrison (1801-1879)
  • Slavery Masonryundermined republicanvalues.
  • Immediate emancipation with NO compensation.
  • Slavery was a moral, notan economic issue.

R2-4
77
The Liberator
Premiere issue ? January 1, 1831
R2-5
78
Other White Abolitionists
Lewis Tappan
James Birney
  • Liberty Party.
  • Ran for President in 1840 1844.

Arthur Tappan
79
Black Abolitionists
David Walker(1785-1830)
1829 ? Appeal to the Coloured Citizens
of the World
Fight for freedom rather than wait to be set
free by whites.
80
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)
1845 ? The Narrative of the Life Of
Frederick Douglass 1847 ? The North Star
R2-12
81
1852 Speech of Frederick Douglass in honor of
signing of Declaration of Independence, This
Fourth of July is yours, not mine. You may
rejoice, I must mourn. Above your national,
tumultuous joy, I hear the mournful wail of
millions
82
Sojourner Truth (1787-1883)or Isabella Baumfree
1850 ? The Narrative of Sojourner Truth
R2-10
83
Harriet Tubman(1820-1913)
  • Helped over 300 slaves to freedom.
  • 40,000 bounty on her head.
  • Served as a Union spy during the Civil War.

Moses
84
The South Lashes Back
85
Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South
Nat Turner, 1831
86
1831-1832Turning Point Virginia Legislature
Debate
  • emancipation proposals
  • defeated
  • result tightened slave codes
  • result no emancipation whatsoever - voluntary
    or compensated! It is illegal!

87
Va Legislature Debate 1831-1832
  • Thomas Wright
  • If you wish to speak of economic advantages, I
    have some facts for you to consider regarding the
    efficiency of free labor and slave labor. The
    best estimates are that it takes six slaves to do
    the work of three free laborers. The slave
    receives the same support and food whether he
    works much or little. The slave has every
    inducement to spare himself as much work as
    possible without drawing punishment. Free
    laborers work hard for short periods. This gives
    them free time to be idle. When idle, the free
    laborer does not have to be paid. Therefore,
    free labor is cheaper than slave labor.
  • In 1800, field hands were selling for 400 and
    cotton was 36 cents per pound. Today slaves sell
    for 800 to 1000 and cotton is 11½ cents per
    pound.
  • One half of the slave owners have fewer than
    twenty slaves. The economic loss of slaves as
    property will be more than offset by decreased
    labor cost and greater productivity.
  • Emancipation can result in a greater supply of
    cheap labor that will mean profitable industrial
    operation. Of course, safeguards must be taken
    to see that laborers are not exploited or abused.

88
Va Legislature Debate 1831-1832
  • Amos Lovejoy
  • Slaves should be freed but not all at once. As a
    step toward complete freedom, several practices
    should change. The power of punishing slaves
    could be taken from the master and given to a
    magistrate. The sale of all women could be
    stopped at once. All slaves could be provided
    wages rather than using punishment as an
    incentive.
  • A second step could involve the complete release
    of slaves born on certain days periodically.
    Over a period of years, all slaves could be set
    free. Such a system has already worked in
    Mexico, Chile, and Argentina. In no case has
    there been insurrection and bloodshed as is
    feared here.
  • Taking steps toward freeing slaves will lessen
    the possibility of violence and insurrection.

89
Va Legislature Debate 1831-1832
James Hammond In the state of Virginia, there
are 470,000 slaves. The aggregate value of the
slave population in Virginia in 1830 was
94,000,000. All of the land and homes were
valued at 206,000,000. Slaves represent
one-third of the property. Therefore, slaves
should not be freed without just compensation to
their owners. I propose that those slaves
normally sold outside this state be sold to the
State and colonized elsewhere at the expense of
the State. This proposal will mean that 6,000
slaves would be given their freedom annually and
colonized at the expense of the State. This
would cost 2,400,000 annually. This is a modest
investment to preserve the economy of the state.
If the State cannot afford it, perhaps the
federal government could be called upon to
compensate owners for their slaves.
90
Va Legislature Debate 1831-1832
  • Samuel Holt
  • The idea of emancipation and relocation as
    proposed by some sounds good. However, further
    examination exposes some flaws in this plan. To
    ask State or Congress to purchase two million
    slaves at 400,000,000 is out of the question.
    This will place far too great a burden upon those
    taxpayers who have never owned to plan to own
    slaves. When the government begins to buy
    slaves, it will cause the price of slaves to go
    up considerably. This will cause slave owners to
    encourage their slaves to marry and produce more
    children, thus compounding the problem.
  • I ask those who say colonize the slaves Where?
    Liberia now has a population of 2,500. At the
    most, Liberia could handle 500 new residents a
    year. If only 500 slaves were freed and located
    annually, in a 25-year period 41,000 more slaves
    would be born than relocated.

91
Va Legislature Debate 1831-1832
  • Thornton Ruffin
  • I am opposed to emancipation of the slaves until
    some way can be found to sustain the trade and
    commerce generated by the cultivation of cotton
    and tobacco. Two-thirds of the cotton produced
    in this country is exported. This greatly helps
    our balance of trade with Europe. Only
    one-forty-sixth of the remaining agricultural
    production is exported. At the present time,
    one-sixth of the blacks in the country are free.
    They shun the cottonfields. I will favor
    emancipation of slaves only when we can assure
    that blacks will remain in the cotton and tobacco
    labor market. If this cannot be assured, to give
    the slaves their freedom would ruin the economy
    of the South and seriously injure the economy of
    the North and England.

92
Va Legislature Debate 1831-1832
  • Stringfellow Holmes
  • The impact of emancipation upon employment of
    free laborers and artisans will be devastating.
    The rate of pay in the North is now much lower
    than in the South.
  • Sample Wages
  • Average Farmhands Earn Per Month
  • North Carolina 10.37
  • Alabama 21.41
  • Mississippi 16.66
  • Indiana 13.71
  • Average US 14.73
  • Daily Wages Bricklaying Carpentry
    Labor
  • Nashville 2.50-3.50 2.25-2.75
    1.00-1.50
  • Lowell 1.50-2.00 1.50-1.75 .75
    1.00
  • If slaves are freed, the impact on the labor
    market will be devastating. Wages will go down
    and many will be unemployed. The cost for room
    and board will probably go up tremendously.
  • Average room and board per week is now
  • 2.70 in Louisiana

93
Southern Fears
  • Nat Turner
  • William Lloyd Garrisons The Liberator
  • Nullification Crisis 1832

94
Southern Pro-SlaveryPropaganda
95
Southern Defense of Slavery
  • Supported by authority of the Bible
  • Wisdom of Aristotle
  • happy lot of servants vs. factory life of
    immigrant workers
  • Post war - Freedom was bigger burden for African
    Americans?- no health care, no literacy, no
    knowledge of law, no knowledge of contract law
    (sharecropping)

96
Congress
  • 1836 Gag rule
  • 1835 Postal system can not deliver abolistionist
    literature

97
Abolition in the North
  • Extreme abolitionists (Garrison) unpopular in the
    North
  • IC - popularity of men like Daniel Webster
    stressing the Union
  • IC - Constitution is sacred and the clauses on
    slavery are lasting clauses
  • North had heavy economic stake in the South
  • Mobocracy due to abolitionism
  • Lewis Tappans New York house
  • Garrison and the Broadcloth mob
  • Elijah P Lovejoy
  • Even Lincoln avoided extreme abolitionism
  • IC - growing number Northerners didnt want to
    abolish slavery in the South but increasingly
    wanted to stop its spread to Western territories
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