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Postwar and the Cold War

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Title: Postwar and the Cold War


1
Postwar and the Cold War
2
  • Focus Question What is a cold war?

3
Origins of the Cold War
  • Former Allies
  • The Soviet Union - communist, totalitarian
    government
  • The United States - democratic, capitalists

4
  • U.S. is upset about non-aggression pact made with
    Hitler
  • Soviet Union - upset that U.S. did not enter the
    war sooner
  • United Nations established

5
Harry S Truman
  • former Senator
  • met w/ FDR only twice
  • became President when FDR died
  • self-educated
  • tough decision maker

6
The Buck Stops Here!
7
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8
Potsdam Conference
  • Great Britain, United States, Soviet Union
  • Truman pushes Stalin to allow free elections in
    Eastern Europe
  • Stalin refuses

9
I REFUSE!
10
  • U.S. wants to spread democracy and build up
    European economy
  • Soviet Union wants to keep Germany weak and build
    up Russia, control neighbors

11
Satellite Nations
  • Stalin creates satellite nations
  • countries dependent on and dominated by the
    Soviet Union (Czech, Hungary, Romania, Albania,
    Bulgaria, Poland)

12
Containment
  • an effort to block the Soviets attempts to
    spread their influence by creating alliances and
    supporting weaker countries

13
Iron Curtain
  • imaginary line separating Communists from
    non-communists in Europe

14
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16
Cold War
  • state of hostility short of direct military
    confrontation that developed between the two
    superpowers (US, Soviet Union)

17
Truman Doctrine
  • stated that the U.S. will support free people who
    are resisting takeovers by armed minorities or
    outside pressures.
  • Sent 400 million in aid.

18
Marshall Plan
  • Sec. Of State George Marshall proposed aid to
    European countries who needed it.
  • The countries would have to remove trade barriers
    and cooperate economically.

19
  • By 1952, Western Europe was flourishing

20
Berlin Airlift
  • After the war, Germany was divided into 4
    sectors. Berlin was divided as well.
  • U.S., France, G.B. unified their sections.
  • Stalin refused to join

21
I REFUSE!
22
  • He blocked East Berlin off from the west.
    (railroads, supply routes).
  • The people in the West faced starvation.
  • 2.1 million inhabitants.

23
  • They would run out of food and fuel in 5 weeks.
  • American and British begin to fly food and
    supplies into W. Berlin. (327 days and 277,000
    flights)
  • Successful!

24
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29
  • Eventually Stalin looses prestige and lifts the
    blockade.

30
NATO
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Defensive military alliance
  • an attack on one is attack on all
  • U.S, Canada, GB, France, Italy, Norway, Portugal,
    Iceland, Lux, Neth., Denmark, etc.

31
Warsaw Pact
  • military alliance between Soviet Union and its
    satellite nations.

32
Civil War in China
  • Communists take over despite U.S. efforts
  • Mao (Comm.) vs. Nationalists
  • U.S. sends to Nationalists
  • Containment fails!!

33
Election of 1948
  • Truman vs. Dewey (Rep.)
  • Dewey projected to win
  • Truman wins
  • raises minimum wage
  • extends Social Security
  • initiates flood control

34
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35
  • Discussion Questions
  • 1. What is a satellite nation?
  • 2. What did Truman encourage Stalin to do at
    Potsdam?

36
  • Focus Question How did the Marshall Plan help
    European countries after World War II?

37
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38
Korean War
  • Divided by 38th Parallel, North Korea is
    communist, S. Korea is not.
  • North was occupied by Russians
  • South by U.S.

39
Invasion
  • After Russians and U.S. leave, fighting breaks
    out
  • N. Korea invades S. Korea.
  • In 1950, U.N. sends 520,000 troops to help
    590,000 S. Koreans.

40
  • General Douglas MacArthur is in charge.
  • MacArthur pushes N. Korea back to 38th.
  • China warns if UN comes too far they will get
    involved.

41
  • UN troops advance, China fights
  • 300,000 Chinese drive troops back.
  • MacArthur wants to invade China

42
  • Truman says no.
  • UN troops fight to regain Seoul
  • MacArthur and Truman at odds
  • Truman relieves MacArthur of his duties.

43
MacArthur
Old Soldiers never die, they just fade away
44
Farewell
  • In MacArthurs farewell address he says, Old
    soldiers never die, they just fade away.
  • 54,000 US troops died, cost 20 billion
  • War ended where it began.

45
Cold War at home
  • Anti-communism Fear
  • House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)-
    search out those thought to be disloyal. Often
    focused on Hollywood.

46
Hollywood Ten
  • would not answer questions about communism and
    sent to prison. 500 actors, writers etc. were
    blacklisted because they were suspected of having
    communist backgrounds.

47
Spies
  • Alger Hiss - accused of being a spy.
  • Prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
  • No evidence (until 1990s), jury found him guilty
    of perjury. Sent to prison.

48
Alger Hiss
49
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
  • accused of helping Klaus Fuchs give Soviets
    information about the Atomic Bomb

50
The Rosenbergs
51
  • they denied it
  • given the death penalty
  • Death by electrocution

52
McCarthyism
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy- anti-communism activist.
  • Wanted something to be famous for.
  • Begins making accusations against people. Even US
    Army.

53
McCarthy
54
  • In televised hearings, McCarthy is so hard on
    people he loses public support.
  • Falls into alcoholism and dies.

55
  • Hydrogen bomb is developed. More powerful than
    Atomic. Nuclear war is feared.
  • Brinkmanship - willingness to go to the brink or
    edge of war.

56
CIA
  • Central Intelligence Agency is developed
  • uses spies to gather info abroad

57
Sputnik
  • Russians win first part of space race.
  • Launched first artificial satellite above the
    Earths atmosphere.
  • Sputnik I.

58
  • U.S. feels inadequate and begins developing
    education and spending more on technology.

59
Life in the U.S.
  • GI Bill of Rights - pay for education of veterans
  • Suburbs- residential communities outside of
    cities
  • cookie cutter houses

60
  • Divorces - many men could not deal with new roles
    of women. Women did not want to give these roles
    up.

61
  • Prices increased
  • Cold war increased economy and jobs - defense
    spending
  • High prices/low wages send workers on strike.
    Truman deals with strikes.

62
  • 1952
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower Ike elected
  • low profile
  • Conservative
  • Alaska and Hawaii become states in 1959!

63
Business in the 50s
  • Conglomerates - major corporation including
    smaller companies.
  • Franchises - company that offers similar products
    in many locations (McDonalds)

64
Baby Boom
  • population explosion (1946-1964)
  • In 1957 one infant was born every 7 seconds

65
Reasons for Boom
  • reunion of families after the war
  • decrease in the marriage age
  • desirability of larger families
  • confidence in the economy
  • advance in medicine

66
More 1950s
  • More working women
  • More leisure time
  • sports and sporting events
  • television
  • reading
  • girl scouts, cub scouts.

67
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68
  • Little league
  • Automobiles
  • drive-ins
  • vacations

69
Consumerism
  • buying material goods, becomes equated with
    success
  • Products
  • polyester, teflon, washing machines, dryers,
    blenders, freezers, dishwashers etc.

70
Advertising Age
  • radio, TV, billboards, magazines
  • mass media - communication that reached large
    audiences (TV in 55 of homes by 1954)

71
What 1950s Product is this?
  • A popular canned food.
  • Mmm, mmm good

72
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73
  • Helps with numbers
  • Keys
  • Tape

74
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75
  • Pollution
  • Expensive
  • Lucky

76
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77
  • Rotary
  • Communication
  • Non-portable

78
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79
  • Music
  • Vinyl

80
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81
  • Sony
  • Black and White
  • Game Shows

82
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83
  • Sticky
  • Covers
  • Food

84
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88
Culture
  • Actors James Dean, Sidney Poitier
  • Music Rock n Roll Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley,
    American Bandstand, Nat Cole, Dizzy Gillespie

89
Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry
90
  • Discussion Questions
  • 1. Why did Truman fire MacArthur?
  • 2. Who won the first part of the space race?

91
  • Focus Question Name two new products in the
    1950s.

92
Election of 1960
  • Nixon vs. Kennedy
  • Kennedys Advantages
  • wealthy
  • political family
  • handsome
  • well-spoken

93
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95
  • Kennedys Disadvantages
  • young
  • Roman Catholic
  • Addisons disease
  • chronic pain
  • injections

96
First Televised Debate
  • JFK had a strong performance
  • Nixon was sweating and nervous
  • Kennedy wins the election by fewer than 119,000
    votes

97
Problems with Cuba
  • Fidel Castro - leader
  • Communist
  • Alliance with the Soviet Union
  • Many Cubans fled to U.S. (Little Havana in Miami
    is 2/3 Cuban American)

98
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99
Bay of Pigs
  • CIA and trained Cuban exiles storm the coast of
    Cuba to try and overthrow Castro
  • They were unprepared and many of them were taken
    hostage

100
  • JFK pays 53 million dollars for their return

101
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Soviets were secretly building missile bases on
    Cuba - some were ready to launch
  • JFK was planning an invasion while imposing a
    blockade
  • Khrushchev (Soviet leader) offered to remove
    missals before invasion

102
  • U.S. and Cuba are unfriendly
  • U.S. occupies base at Guantanamo Bay

103
Berlin
  • Still occupied by Soviets and U.S.
  • Many East Berliners were leaving East Berlin to
    go to the West

104
  • The Soviets began building the Berlin Wall to
    reduce the flow of East Berlin residents to West
    Berlin
  • The wall becomes a symbol of communist oppression

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106
Life in the U.S.
  • JFK did the following
  • boosted economy
  • build the national defense
  • provide international aid
  • funded space program

107
  • Started the Peace Corps- a volunteer assistance
    program. It was very successful. By 1968 there
    were more than 35,000 people involved

108
Race to the Moon
  • First man to space - Yuri Gagarin
  • NASA is created
  • John Glenn - 1962 first American in space

109
  • 1969 - Neil Armstrong was the first man to land
    on the moon.
  • A great triumph for the Americans

110
Tragedy in Dallas
  • Kennedy visits Dallas and is shot in the head by
    an assassin.
  • Dies one hour later
  • Lyndon B. Johnson took the oath of office on the
    plane to Dallas

111
  • Lee Harvey Oswald is arrested
  • former marine - dishonorably discharged
  • supporter of Castro

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113
  • Jack Ruby - nightclub owner
  • Shot Oswald as he was being transported
  • Oswald dies
  • Warren Commission - investigation JFKs murder

114
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115
Berlin
  • Since the Berlin airlift, 3 million East Germans
    had fled to West Berlin.
  • This weakened Communist East Germany

116
  • Kennedy referred to Berlin as the great testing
    place of Western courage and will.
  • August 12, 1961- East German troops began to
    unload concrete
  • Within days a wall stood that cut the city in two.

117
  • The wall became an ugly symbol of Soviet and
    communist oppression.

118
  • Discussion Questions
  • 1. What was the purpose of the Bay of Pigs?
  • 2. Why was the Berlin Wall built?

119
  • Focus Who would be sworn in as President after
    Kennedys assassination?

120
Vietnam
  • Following WWII, France regained control of their
    lost territory French Indochina, or Vietnam.
  • Communist leader, Ho Chi Minh, had strong ties
    to the Soviet Union.

121
  • The Vietminh was formed
  • The combination of all Vietnamese communist
    groups.
  • The US supported the French
  • - sent money and aid, but no troops

122
  • By 1950, many areas of the world had fallen to
    communism, and Korea was about to.

123
Domino Theory
  • Eisenhower compared countries on the brink of
    communism as a row of dominos waiting to fall
    after another.

124
Vietnam
  • Despite MASSIVE aid, the French could not defeat
    the Vietminh.
  • The fall of Dien Bien Phu caused the French to
    pull out, and Vietnam was separated into two
    nations (Communist in the North, Non-Comm. in
    South)

125
Who would defend Vietnam
  • With he French gone, the US was left to deal with
    the problem of Vietnam.
  • But it did not send troops

126
  • Communists in South Vietnam were known as the
    Vietcong
  • Or VC

127
  • President Johnson (1963-1969) was determined not
    to lose Vietnam to the communists

128
Gulf of Tonkin
  • Aug 2, 1964 N. Vietnamese patrol boat fires a
    torpedo at an American destroyer
  • This prompted Johnson to begin bombing N. Vietnam

129
  • Johnson asked Congress for the power to repel any
    attacks (fire back)
  • Congress adopts the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • Gave Johnson broad military powers

130
US first actions in Vietnam
  • March 1965 US troops first sent to Vietnam to
    fight
  • June 1965 50,000 soldiers battling the VC

131
1965 Poll
  • 64 of Americans supported US involvement in
    Vietnam
  • 24 opposed it

132
US enters the War
  • The US entered the war in Vietnam believing that
    its superior power would lead it to victory over
    the VC. However the jungle terrain and guerrilla
    tactics turned the war into a stalemate

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134
The VC
  • Used hit and run tactics
  • Because the VC lived with the civilian
    population, it became difficult to discern friend
    from foe
  • Deadly traps were laid in the jungles and rice
    paddies
  • Enemy also operated from an elaborate network of
    tunnels

135
Westmoreland
  • General Westmoreland the American commander in
    South Vietnam
  • Thought the best way to beat the enemy was to
    destroy their morale
  • Introduced the body count
  • Believed the enemy would surrender if their
    number of dead piled up.

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  • Americans misunderstood the VC. They thought
    they would be fighting an army when actually they
    were fighting covert operatives

138
Poor strategies
  • However, the US forces hurt the Vietnamese
    villagers by dropping napalm and Agent Orange
    that burned the jungles
  • Troops also disrupted villagers by conducting
    Search-And-Destroy missions for people with VC
    ties

139
Effect of War at home
  • US economy began to suffer because of the rising
    cost of war
  • In 1967, many Americans still supported the war
  • Media began to sway opinions
  • Became a living-room war
  • Combat fatigue featured nightly on TV

140
Protests
  • By 1967 many Americans began to protest the war.
  • Most of the soldiers who fought were from lower
    economic classes of society

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  • Most were drafted
  • Many tried to get out of it
  • Doctors excuses
  • Natl Guard or Coast Guard
  • College

143
  • The 60s were more socially active than before
  • By the mid 60s many youths began to believe that
    the nation was in need of fundamental change.

144
  • Growing Youth Movement became known as the New
    Left
  • Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
  • Free Speech Movement

145
Reasons for opposition to Vietnam
  • Vietnam was a civil war that the US should stay
    out of.
  • The US couldnt police the world
  • Morally unjust

146
  • Many returning veterans protested the war
  • In 1967 anti-war activists stepped it up
  • 500,000 gathered in NYC

147
1967 - the war was dividing the nation
  • Doves opposed the war in Vietnam
  • Hawks We should use more military force to end
    the war

148
Tet Offensive
  • Jan 30, 1968 New Years celebrations in SE Asia.
    There was a weeklong truce for Tet. At the same
    time many funerals were being held for victims of
    war. Villagers had firecrackers, flutes and
    coffins

149
  • Coffins actually held weapons many villagers
    were VC agents
  • That night the VC launched a coordinated attack
    in over 100 cities and 12 US air bases.
  • Fighting continued for a month

150
Tet Changed American opinions
  • Prior to Tet 28 Doves and 56 Hawks
  • After Tet 40 Doves and 40 Hawks.
  • Mainstream media criticized the war

151
Johnson suffered the most
  • Following Tet, Johnson's approval rating was in
    the low 30s
  • Nixon wins 1968 election
  • Summer 1969 Nixon announced some US troops
    withdrawal

152
Vietnamization
  • This was Nixons strategy to end US involvement
    in the war (gradually withdraw to increase S.V.
    more active combat role)
  • Nixon secretly ordered bombing in Cambodia and
    Laos
  • Believed many VC were coming from these countries

153
  • Nixon also wanted foreign leaders to see him as a
    madman.
  • Capable of anything to get what he wanted

154
More Protests at home
  • 4 students were killed at Kent State by national
    guard troops during a protest where an ROTC
    building was burned (students were protesting the
    invasion of Cambodia by U.S. forces)

155
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157
  • Other students were killed around the country
    protesting

158
End of US Involvement
  • US knew there was no benefits for them in the war
    and no prompt end
  • March 29, 1973 - last troops were removed
  • Vietnam is still Communist

159
Results
  • 58,000 Americans dead
  • 365,000 Americans wounded
  • War Powers Act - president must inform Congress
    within 48 hours if US forces are sent to a
    hostile situation without a declaration of war

160
  • US abolished the draft
  • War Powers Act of 1973
  • Limited powers of President in sending troops
    (troops can only remain 90 days w/o approval
  • Americans questioned their government

161
  • Discussion Questions
  • 1. What was the purpose of U.S. involvement in
    Vietnam?
  • 2. How did Americans at home react to the war?

162
  • Focus Question Why did the U.S. leave Vietnam
    before the war was over?

163
Nixon foreign policy
  • Architect of the policy is Henry Kissinger
  • Confront powers head-on

164
  • Containment is dead
  • Us now recognizes Communist countries

165
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166
Detente
  • New policy is called détente
  • Easing Cold War tensions
  • First test of détente is to visit China
  • Since 1949 the US had not recognized China

167
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168
  • Nixon also visited Moscow
  • Soviets promised to let other countries enter
    West Berlin as they wished
  • Allies would recognize East Germany

169
Carters foreign policy
  • Détente dies with Carter
  • Carter insisted on human rights and led to
    breakdowns in discussions

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171
Afghanistan
  • Dec 1979 Soviets invaded Afghanistan
  • Carter protests, does not send troops

172
Gorby
  • March 1985 Gorbachev becomes leader of Soviet
    Union
  • Understood economic weakness that the Cold War
    was creating
  • Ended many communist practices

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174
  • Gorbachev reduced the number of troops in Europe
  • Told Eastern European countries to move towards
    democracy

175
The Wall Comes Tumblin Down
  • Nov 9, 1989 East Germany opened the Berlin
    Wall, allowing free passage between the two
    cities.
  • Wall gone

176
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177
China
  • April 1989 Student marches in Tiananmen Square
  • Troops fired at protesters (
  • World watched and gasped!

178
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179
Soviet Union
  • 1990 Non-Russian republics (like Uzbekistan)
    gained power
  • Aug 24, 1991 Gorbachev resigns as leader of the
    communist party
  • COMMUNISM DEAD

180
Dec 1991
  • 14 non-Russian republics declared their
    independence and Gorbachev resigned as Soviet
    President

181
Feb 1992
  • Pres. Bush and new Russian President Boris
    Yeltsin declared an end to the Cold War.

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183
China
  • 1997 China declares an end to communism in
    cities and areas of China that can thrive
    without, but says it will continue in rural areas.

184
  • Discussion Questions
  • 1. What Soviet leader began to move away from
    Communism?
  • 2. When did the Cold War end?
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