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The Crisis of the Imperial Order 1900-1929

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Title: The Crisis of the Imperial Order 1900-1929


1
The Crisis of the Imperial Order 1900-1929
2
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3
Origins of Crisis in Europe Middle East
  • Ottoman Empire in decline
  • losing provinces closest to Europe
  • Young Turks forced constitution, advocated
    centralized rule Turkification of minorities
  • Carried out modernization

4
Causes of World War I
  • Military Strategy-Inflexible mobilization plans
  • Alliances
  • Imperialism
  • Nationalism

5
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6
The Great War Russian Revolutions 19141918
  • All entered war confident
  • German victory seemed assured, but it
    faltered-formed an unbroken line of trenches (the
    Western Front) from North Sea to Switzerland
  • Troops ordered to charge across open fields-cut
    down by machine-gun fire
  • Four Year Stalemate

7
The Home Front War Economy
  • governments imposed controls
  • Rationing recruitment of Africans, Indians,
    Chinese women into European labor force
    transformed civilian life
  • German civilians paid high price because of
    British naval blockade
  • British French forces overran Germanys African
    colonies (except for Tanganyika)
  • Europeans requisitioned food, imposed heavy
    taxes, forced Africans to grow export crops and
    sell them at low prices, recruited African men
    to serve as soldiers porters
  • U.S. businesses grew rich by selling goods to
    Britain and France

8
The Ottoman Empire at War
  • Turks signed secret alliance w/ Germany
  • unsuccessful campaigns against Russia
  • deported Armenians (causing deaths of hundred of
    thousands), closed Dardanelles Straits
  • British tried to subvert Ottoman Empire- promised
    emir Hussein ibn Ali of Mecca a kingdom to lead
    revolt against Turks-he did in 1916
  • Balfour Declaration suggested British would
    view with favor the establishment of Jewish
    national homeland in Palestine

9
Double Revolution in Russia, 1917
  • By late 1916, large but weak Russian army
    experienced numerous defeats
  • civilian economy in collapse
  • cities faced shortages of fuel food
  • In March 1917, tsar overthrown replaced by
    Provisional Government
  • On November 6, 1917 Bolsheviks staged uprising in
    Petrograd overthrew Provisional Government.

10
The End of War in Western Europe 19171918
  • German resumption of unrestricted submarine
    warfare brought US into war-April 1917
  • Germans broke through pushed within 40 miles
    of Paris. Allies counterattacked in August 1918
  • Germans retreated armistice signed on November
    11

11
Peace Dislocation in Europe 19191929
  • 8-10 million died in war
  • millions of refugees, many fled to France US
  • US passed immigration laws-closed doors to east
    south Europeans
  • Influenza epidemic of 19181919-among soldiers
    headed for West Front-spread around the world,
    killing 20 million people
  • War caused serious damage to environment

12
The Peace Treaties
  • Three men dominated the Paris Peace Conference
    U.S. President Wilson, British Prime Minister
    David Lloyd George, and French Premier Georges
    Clemenceau
  • Treaty of Versailles humiliated Germany-left
    largely intact potentially the most powerful
    nation in Europe
  • Austro-Hungarian Empire fell apart
  • New countries created in lands lost by Russia,
    Germany, Austria-Hungary

13
Russian Civil War the New Economic Policy
  • In Russia, Allied intervention/ civil war
    extended fighting for 3 years
  • By 1922, Soviet republic of Ukraine Russia
    merged- created Union of Soviet Socialist
    Republics (USSR)
  • In 1921, Lenins New Economic Policy helped to
    restore production-relaxed government
    controls/allowed return of market economics
  • Regarded as temporary-would be superseded as
    Soviet Union built a modern, socialist,
    industrial economy by extracting resources from
    peasants to pay for industrialization
  • Lenin died in January 1924-power struggle ensued
    between Leon Trotsky Joseph Stalin
  • Stalin filled bureaucracy with his supporters,
    expelled Trotsky-forced him to flee the country

14
An Ephemeral Peace
  • 1920s were decade of dissatisfaction among
    people whose hopes had been raised by rhetoric of
    war and dashed by its outcome
  • In 1923, French occupation of the Ruhr and severe
    inflation brought Germany to the brink of civil
    war.
  • Currency reform and French withdrawal from the
    Ruhr marked the beginning of a period of peace
    and economic growth beginning in 1924.

15
China and Japan Contrasting Destinies
  • China
  • rapid population growth
  • unfavorable ratio of population to arable land
  • avaricious landlords and tax collectors
  • devastating floods of Yellow River
  • Chinese society divided among many groups
    landowners, wealthy merchants, and foreigners,
    whose luxurious lives aroused resentment of
    educated, young, urban Chinese
  • Japan
  • few natural resources-little arable land
  • earthquakes, tsunamis
  • Industrialization/economic growth aggravated
    social tensions
  • Japanese prosperity depended on foreign trade
  • more vulnerable than China to swings in the world
    economy

16
Revolution and War, 19001918
  • Chinas defeat/humiliation by international force
    in Boxer affair of 1900 led many to conclude that
    China needed a revolution to overthrow Qing-
    modernize the country
  • When a regional army unit mutinied in 1911, Sun
    Yat-sens Revolutionary Alliance formed an
    assembly and elected Sun as president of China,
    but to avoid a civil war, the presidency was
    turned over to the powerful general Yuan Shikai,
    who rejected democracy and ruled as an autocrat
  • Japanese joined Allied side in World War
    I-benefited from economic boom as demand for
    their products rose.
  • Japan used war as opportunity to conquer German
    colonies in Northern Pacific and on Chinese coast
    and to further extend influence into China
  • Forced Chinese government to accede to many of
    conditions presented in document called the
    Twenty-One Demands

17
Chinese Warlords and the Guomindang, 19191929
  • At Paris Peace Conference, great powers allowed
    Japan to retain control over seized German
    enclaves in China, sparking protests in Beijing
    (May 4, 1919) and other parts of China
  • Chinas regional generalsthe warlordssupported
    their armies through plunder and arbitrary
    taxation so that China grew poorer while only the
    treaty ports prospered
  • Sun Yat-sen tried to make comeback in Canton
    in1920s by reorganizing his Guomindang party
    along Leninist lines and by welcoming members of
    the newly created Chinese Communist Party
  • Suns successor Chiang Kai-shek crushed the
    regional warlords in 1927
  • Chiang then split with/decimated Communist Party-
    embarked on ambitious plan of top-down industrial
    modernization
  • Chiangs government staffed by corrupt
    opportunists, not by competent administrators
    China remained mired in poverty

18
The New Middle East
  • The Mandate System
  • Instead of being given their independence, the
    former German colonies and Ottoman territories
    were given to the great powers as mandates.
  • Class C Mandates were ruled as colonies, while
    Class B Mandates were to be ruled under League of
    Nations supervision.
  • The Arab-speaking territories of the former
    Ottoman Empire were Class A Mandates, a category
    that was defined to lead the Arabs to believe
    that they had been promised independence.
  • In practice, Britain took control of Palestine,
    Iraq, and Trans-Jordan, while France took Syria
    and Lebanon as its mandates.

19
The Rise of Modern Turkey
  • At the end of the war, the Ottoman Empire was at
    the point of collapse, with French, British,
    Italian, and Greek forces occupying
    Constantinople and parts of Anatolia
  • In 1919 Mustafa Kemal formed a nationalist
    government and reconquered Anatolia and the area
    around Constantinople in 1922
  • Kemal was an outspoken modernizer who declared
    Turkey to be a secular republic introduced
    European laws replaced the Arabic alphabet with
    the Latin alphabet and attempted to westernize
    the Turkish family, the roles of women, and even
    Turkish clothing and headgear.
  • His reforms spread quickly in the urban areas,
    but they encountered strong resistance in the
    countryside, where Islamic traditions remained
    strong.

20
Arab Lands and the Question of Palestine
  • Among the Arab people, the thinly disguised
    colonialism of the Mandate System set off
    protests and rebellions. At the same time, Middle
    Eastern society underwent significant changes
    the population grew by 50 percent from 1914 to
    1939, major cities doubled in size, and the urban
    merchant class adopted western ideas, customs,
    and lifestyles.
  • The Maghrib (Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco) was
    dominated by the French army and by French
    settlers, who owned the best lands and
    monopolized government jobs and businesses. Arabs
    and Berbers remained poor and suffered from
    discrimination.
  • The British allowed Iraq to become independent
    under King Faisal (leader of the Arab revolt) but
    maintained a significant military and economic
    influence. France sent thousands of troops to
    crush nationalist uprisings in Lebanon and Syria.
    Britain declared Egypt to be independent in 1922
    but retained control through its alliance with
    King Farouk.
  • In the Palestine Mandate, the British tried to
    limit the wave of Jewish immigration that began
    in 1920 but only succeeded in alienating both
    Jews and Arabs.

21
Society, Culture, and Technology in the
Industrialized World
  • Class and Gender
  • Class distinctions faded after the war as the
    role of the aristocracy (many of whom had died in
    battle) declined and displays of wealth came to
    be regarded as unpatriotic. The expanded role of
    government during and after the war led to an
    increase in the numbers of white-collar workers
    the working class did not expand because the
    introduction of new machinery and new ways of
    organizing work made it possible to increase
    production without expanding the labor force.
  • In the 1920s, women enjoyed more personal
    freedoms than ever before, and women won the
    right to vote in some countries between 1915 and
    1934.

22
Revolution in the Sciences
  • The discovery of subatomic particles, quanta,
    Einsteins theory of relativity, and the
    discovery that light is made up of either waves
    or particles undermined the certainties of
    Newtonian physics and offered the potential of
    unlocking new and dangerous sources of energy.
  • Innovations in the social sciences challenged
    Victorian morality, middle-class values, and
    notions of western superiority. The psychology of
    Sigmund Freud and the sociology of Emile Durkheim
    introduced notions of cultural relativism that
    combined with the experience of the war to call
    into question the Wests faith in reason and
    progress.

23
The New Technologies of Modernity
  • The European and American public was fascinated
    with new technologies like the airplane and
    lionized the early aviators Amelia Earhart,
    Richard Byrd, and especially Charles Lindbergh.
    Electricity began to transform home life, and
    commercial radio stations brought news, sports,
    soap operas, and advertising to homes throughout
    North America.
  • Film spread explosively in the 1920s. The early
    film industry of the silent film era was marked
    by diversity, with films being made in Japan,
    India, Turkey, Egypt, and Hollywood in the 1920s.
    The introduction of the talking picture in the
    United States in 1921, combined with the
    tremendous size of the American market, marked
    the beginning of the era of Hollywoods
    domination of film and its role in the diffusion
    of American culture.
  • Health and hygiene were also part of the cult of
    modernity. Advances in medicine, sewage treatment
    systems, indoor plumbing, and the increased use
    of soap and home appliances contributed to
    declines in infant mortality and improvements in
    health and life expectancy.

24
Technology and the Environment
  • The skyscraper and the automobile transformed the
    urban environment. Skyscrapers with load-bearing
    steel frames and passenger elevators were built
    in American cities. European cities restricted
    the height of buildings, but European architects
    led the way in designing simple, easily
    constructed, inexpensive, functional buildings in
    what came to be known as the International Style.
  • Mass-produced automobiles replaced horses in the
    city streets and led to the construction of
    far-flung suburban areas like those of Los
    Angeles. On farms, gasoline-powered tractors
    began replacing horses in the 1920s, while dams
    and canals were used to generate electricity and
    to irrigate dry land.

25
Conclusion
  • Postwar Realignments
  • France and Britain emerged from the war
    economically weakened. Russia was left in civil
    war and revolution. The Austro-Hungarian and
    Ottoman Empires were divided into smaller, weaker
    nations.
  • Japan and the United States came out of the war
    in a more strengthened position than before.

26
Conclusion
  • Postwar Promise
  • The fall of the Ottoman Empire generated hope
    among Turks, Arabs, and Jewish immigrants of
    sovereign nation status.
  • French and British mandates thwarted those
    aspirations.

27
Conclusion
  • Postwar Society
  • Women remained in the workforce and demanded
    voting rights while governments took on more
    responsibility for citizens health and
    well-being.
  • Science and technology brought entertainment,
    electricity, better health, and faster
    transportation to western nations.

28
Impact Social
  • Families altered by the departure of so many men
  • With the death or absence of the primary wage
    earner women were forced into the workforce in
    unprecedented numbers
  • Industry needed to replace the lost laborers sent
    to war aided the struggle for voting rights for
    women

29
Impact Social
  • One of the distinguishing features of the war was
    its totality
  • All aspects of the societies fighting were
    affected by the conflict, even countries not in
    war zone

30
Impact Political
  • Expansion of government power responsibilities
    in Britain, France, the United States, and the
    Dominions of the British Empire
  • New government ministries powers created
  • New taxes levied, laws enacted, all designed to
    bolster war effort, many have lasted to today

31
Demographic Impact
  • more dead wounded
  • more physical destruction
  • millions of refugees many fled to France United
    States
  • immigration laws closed doors to eastern
    southern Europeans
  • Influenza epidemic, killed 30 million people
  • serious damage to the environment hastened
    build-up of mines, factories, railroads

32
Geographic Impact Territorial Changes
  • tremendous changes to eastern Europe
  • Empires shattered new nations established
  • Dangerous power vacuum created between Germany
    Soviet Russia

33
Global Impact
  • Destroyed/reduced some empires diminished
    strength of others
  • New nations emerged
  • Shifted economic resources cultural influences
    away from Europe
  • Reduced European global influence encouraged
    nations, notably the United States, to challenge
    Europe's international leadership

34
Global Impact
  • Bolsheviks seized power in 1917
  • Ottoman Austro-Hungarian Empires disintegrated
  • Germany replaced Kaiser's government with Weimar
    Republic
  • New nations such as Poland, Czechoslovakia,
    Yugoslavia emerged
  • European Allies owed over 11 billion to U.S.
  • U.S. transformed from net debtor to net creditor
  • New York replaced London as world's financial
    center
  • Allies faced increasing demands for self-rule
    from their colonies
  • They no longer controlled sufficient military
    economic resources to shape world affairs as
    before

35
Global Legacy
  • Wilsonianism
  • Emphasized national self-determination
  • League of Nations meant to curb nationalist
    excesses and aggression
  • Collective security would enable nations to
    participate in new world order of peace
    prosperity
  • influenced statecraft of future generations
  • continued to shape the international history of
    twentieth century

36
Global Legacy
  • League of Nations failed to maintain peace when
    aggressive nationsnotably Communist Russia,
    Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and Imperial
    Japanlater challenged the Versailles peace
  • These revisionist powers rejected democracy and
    capitalism and challenged the status quo
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