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The Cold War Era


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Title: The Cold War Era

The Cold War Era
Emergence of the Cold War
  • Initially blamed on the tensions created by
    Roosevelt/Truman, Churchill and Stalin at the end
    of WWII
  • Disagreements between Allies over previous
  • Russia wanting permanent control over Poland and
  • US over German reparations to Russia

US Inaction
  • US took no action to stop Soviets at the end
    of WWII
  • Reflected US peacetime plans and goals
  • Self determination
  • Autonomy
  • Democracy
  • Open Door Policy regarding economics
  • US Goals did create tension with the UK and
    France, but mostly the USSR
  • France saw rise of large Communist groups

Soviet Perspective
  • Extending borders would give extra protection
  • Compensation for losses in WWII
  • Saw American resistance as a threat to their
  • Feb 1946- Stalin and Molotov publicly declared
    the Western Democracies-enemies
  • Churchill responded with Iron Curtain speech
  • Warned against Communist threat
  • Urged unity in the West

  • 1947- American policy of resisting the expansion
    of Soviet influence
  • Hope that the Soviet system would collapse
  • Forced America into overseas alliances
  • Supported anti-communist governments
  • Expend funds on military
  • Foreign Aid
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Support free peoples resisting communism
  • Funds to support Greece and Turkey

Marshall Plan
  • Economic Aid plan to rebuild Western Europe
  • Created by George C Marshall
  • Only requirement to work together for mutual
  • Invited the USSR and other communist governments
  • Finland, Czechoslovakia- willing to join
  • Poland, Hungary interested- USSR forbid them

Soviet Domination
  • Soviets wanted control over E. Europe due to
    historical and ideological reasons
  • Napoleon and Crimean Wars
  • WWI and WWII
  • Tsars
  • controlled Poland until 19th century
  • Crushed the Hungarian revolution in 1849
  • Long history of desiring the Black sea region

Stalin Post WWII
  • 1947- International meeting of all communist
  • Formed the Communist Information Bureau
  • Dedicated to spreading Communism world wide
  • Officially ended cooperation with noncommunist
  • February 1948- Stalin expelled Democratic members
    of Hungarys government
  • Included Jan Masaryk- son of Czech founder
  • President Benes forced to resign
  • Hungary completely controlled by Soviets
  • Required other E. Europe countries to follow
  • Caused by Josip Tito freeing Yugoslavia from the
  • Stalin wanted to stop other countries from

Post-War Germany
  • West and Soviets differed on postwar treatment
    and economic policy
  • Russia dismantled German industry in the East
  • Americans rebuilt industry in the West
  • Didnt want to economically support Germany
  • No rebuild- chaos and communism
  • Soviets feared a strong Germany

Berlin Blockade
  • Feb 1948- Soviets left joint Allied Control
  • Summer 1948- Allies issue new currency in western
  • Stronger than East German currency
  • Soviets seal off city access
  • Intent- drive Allies out of Berlin
  • US responded with 11 month airlift of supplies
    into Berlin
  • Incident increased tensions
  • Sped up official separation of Germany
  • West- German Federal Republic
  • East- German Democratic Republic
  • Berlin remained split between two sides

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NATO and Warsaw Pact
  • Marshall plan drew nations closer together
  • April 1949- Western Europe, Canada, and US formed
    the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Mutual assistance organization
  • US committed to defend allies outside of Western
  • 1949 Soviets and Eastern Europe
  • Form Council of Mutual Assistance (COMECON)-
    integrate economies
  • May 1955- Warsaw Pact
  • Formal recognition of Soviet control of Eastern
  • Dominated by Red Army

Creation of Israel
  • Middle East became hot spot during the Cold War
  • Controlled by Great Britain after WWI
  • Zionist groups
  • Originally created by Theodor Herzl
  • Arab Nationalists challenged British authorities
  • Balfour Declaration
  • 1917- Arthur Balfour declared Britain favored
    creating a nation for Jews in Palestine
  • Between WWI- WWII- Jews immigrated to
    British-ruled Palestine
  • (Yishuv)
  • Created its own political, labor and education
  • Arabs considered Jews intruders
  • WWII and the Holocaust- united Jews behind the
    Zionist cause

Israel- U.N and Independence
  • 1947- U.N. inherited Israel problem from the
  • Divided Palestine- Jewish and Arab states
  • Arab states resisted
  • May 1948
  • British withdrew from Palestine
  • May 14- Israel declares independence
  • David Ben Gurion made first P.M.
  • Arab states invade
  • 1948-49 Fighting between Arab-Israel
  • Israel expanded territory
  • Jerusalem divided
  • Peace Armed Truce
  • Conflict drew in Superpowers
  • US made Israel ally
  • Soviets supported Arab nations

Korean War
  • 1910-1945 Korea controlled by Japan
  • US and USSR divided Korea at 38th parallel, but
    eventually would be united
  • 1948- Two separate states
  • Democratic Peoples Republic- Supported by USSR
  • Republic supported by US
  • June 1950 N. Korea invades S. Korea
  • US intervened, U.N sent other nations (Soviets
    boycotted the UN during the key vote)
  • Seen as another attempt at containment
  • Late 1950- Chinese sent troops to support N.
  • US retreated
  • US saw Chinese as Soviet controlled, not
    independent nation (1949- China became communist
    under Mao Tse Tung)
  • June 1953- Eisenhower administration
  • Signed Armistice- ended fighting, not war

Shifting Times
  • 1953- Stalin dies, replaced by Nikita Khrushchev
  • 1955- Soviets leave Austria- Austria declares

Premier Nikita Khrushchev
About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend
on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you
don't like us, don't accept our invitations,
and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether
you like it our not, history is on our side. We
will bury you. -- 1956
De-Stalinization Program
Khrushchev Domestic Policies
  • 1953-64- retreat from Stalinism
  • Wanted to reform Soviet system
  • Intellectuals freer
  • Solzhenitsyn (One Day in the Life of Ivan
  • Reformed economy
  • More consumer goods,
  • Removed restrictions on agriculture
  • Reforms caused grain shortage
  • 1956- Secret Speech
  • Attacked policies of Stalin and the crimes of
  • Started to remove Stalinist officials
  • Seen by E.European leaders as easing of

The Three Crisis of 1956
  • The Suez Canal
  • Controlled by a French-British Company
  • Egypt Nationalizes the Canal
  • Egypt and Israel Go to war
  • U.K. and France use war as an opportunity to
    occupy canal.
  • USSR vehemently opposes action
  • US refuses to support Allies
  • British and French have to withdraw
  • Proof that US and USSR control international
  • United Nations Introduces Peace Keepers

The Suez Crisis 1956-1957
2. Poland Strives for Independence 1956
  • Puppet Prime Minister Dies
  • Lack of consumer goods lead to uprisings
  • Poland refuses to ascend Soviet nominee
  • Poland elect their own candidate, Gomulka
  • Soviets approve after Gomulka agrees to cooperate
    with USSR
  • Maintained military alliances but modifies
    economic policy
  • Improves Relationship with R.C.C.
  • Russia mobilizes troops at the boarder but
    Gomulka reassures Khrushchev of his good

Hungarian Uprising 1956
  • Gomulkan Reforms Spread to Hungary
  • Student Demonstration in Budapest escalates into
  • Imre Nagy put in power, wants more independence
    for Hungary
  • Soviets invade and execute Nagy
  • The USSR and USA are the Hegemonic powers of the

The Hungarian Uprising Cont.
Imre Nagy, HungarianPrime Minister
  • Promised free elections.
  • This could lead to the end of communist rule in

Space Race
  • United States and The Soviet Union compete to
    explore space
  • Origins in Military Rockets (German V2)
  • The ability to deliver Nuclear Warheads drive the
    race (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles) ICBM
  • Also opportunity for espionage
  • Russians take the early Lead

Sputnik I (1957)
The Russians have beaten America in spacethey
have the technological edge!
Nixon-KhrushchevKitchen Debate(1959)
Cold War ---gt Tensions
lt--- Technology Affluence
  • Cuba falls to Communism
  • Rebels under Fidel Castro overthrew Batistas
  • Seen as a failure in containment of Communism

U-2 Spy Incident (1960)
Col. Francis Gary Powers plane was shot down
over Soviet airspace.
Socialist revolution is being split between China
and USSR.
Thwarts 1960 Paris Conference between Eisenhower
and Khrushchev Demonstration of Soviet
Revolutionary Zeal
Vienna, 1961
Khrushchev JFK meet to discuss Berlin and
nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that
JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
Goal Stop the Refugee Crisis From East to West
Berlin Wall
  • East Germany built wall to keep E. German
    refugees from escaping into W. Berlin.

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Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963)
President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West
is with them!
Khrushchev Embraces Castro,1961
Castro Revolutionary and Opportunist
Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and
the other man blinked!
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1962- Soviets secretly began placing missiles in
  • Kennedy blockaded Cuba, demanded missiles removed
  • Closest two nations came to nuclear war
  • Soviets backed down
  • Undermined Khrushchevs administration
  • Increased Chinas status among other Communist
  • Last major Cold War threat to Europe
  • 1963- US and Soviets sign nuclear test ban treaty

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
An Historic Irony Sergei Khrushchev, American
Son is a Citizen of the United States and a
Professor at Brown University
Cold War Brezhnev and Gorbachev
  • Supreme Soviet from 1964-1982
  • Invasion of Czechoslovakia 1968
  • Remembered as the Prague Spring
  • Dubcek experiments with liberal communism
  • USSR and allies invade an promote the pro-Moscow
  • He reversed all of Duceks reforms
  • The Brezhnev Doctrine USSR will intervene in all
    communist countries in the name of preserving the
  • Brezhnev Stagnation Economic Recession, Ignored

US Soviet Relations Détente 1964-1980
  • Brezhnev attempts to reach out to Americans,
    while promoting socialist expansion
  • Period characterized by a reduction in arms and
    the understanding of spheres of influence
  • Helsinki Accords Supported by NATO, recognized
    Human Rights
  • USSR and US continue to promote their agendas
    around the world
  • Arms Race Continues
  • USSR has largest military force in the world, and
    nuclear parity with the US
  • Relations deteriorate after USSR invades
  • US Boycotts Soviet Olympics(1980), provides aid
    and arms to the Taliban.

Poland and Solidarity
  • Country suffered under Soviets
  • Food shortages
  • Economic mismanagement
  • 1978- Pope John Paul II- advocate of Polish
  • 1980- Food prices raised
  • Causes strikes
  • August 14- Shipyard strike in Gdansk
  • Led by Lech Walesa, strikers refused to negotiate
  • Wanted independent union (Solidarity)
  • By Sept- Head of Communist party replaced
  • Solidarity made independent
  • 1981- Secret elections allowed with real choices
    for party congress, allowed debate
  • New freedoms crushed by General Wojciech
  • Martial law declared- until 1983
  • Solidarity leaders arrested

Reagan and Gorbachev
  • Reagan puts pressure on the Soviets
  • Increases defense spending and develops Star
  • Communist economic problems plague the eastern
    bloc (Poland)
  • Gorbachev and Perestroika
  • Attempt at Economic Revival
  • Glasnost A Communist Debate
  • Easing of political and economic restrictions
  • 1989 New Constitution and Elections
  • Gorbachevs economic policies fail but he opens
    the door for future democracy.
  • Brandenburg Gate Speech

Decolonization the achievement of independence
by the various western colonies and protectorates
in Asia and Africa following World War II.
  • European Empires Post WWII

  • British had controlled India directly since 1858
  • Required Indians to pay for British rule
  • Indian cotton went to British textile mills, to
    be sold back to India
  • Caused widespread Indian migration to other parts
    of the British Empire
  • 1885- Indian National Congress (Hindu)
  • Goals- modernize India, liberalize British policy
  • 1887- Muslim League
  • Wanted independent Muslim nation
  • Indian nationalism grew after WWI

Indian Nationalism
  • Primary Indian Nationalist leader-
  • Mahatma Gandhi
  • Trained in British law
  • Advocated passive resistance influenced MLK Jr.
  • 1920s-40s- Nationalist movement grew
  • Protest marches
  • Fasting by Gandhi
  • 1942 Gandhi calls for British to leave
  • 1947- British decide to leave
  • Created India and Muslim Pakistan
  • Pakistan led by Muhammed Ali Jinnah
  • Two parts- Pakistan and East Pakistan
  • Caused religious violence
  • Gandhi assassinated

British Empire shrinks
  • Costs of Empire too high
  • Wanted to create self-government in former
  • 1948- Burma and Sri Lanka became independent
  • 1950s- British prepared African colonies for
  • Ghana first
  • Some peaceful withdrawals, others under
    nationalist pressure
  • Cyprus, Kenya and Yemen

Independence of the Developing World
France and Algeria
  • France in Algeria since 1830 under Charles X
  • 1848- made part of France
  • Thousands of French settled in Algeria
  • Government rigged to give French settlers as much
    power as natives
  • WWI- France gives Algerians full citizenship
  • WWII- Free France controlled Algeria
  • Bloody riot at the end of the war,led France to
    repress Muslims
  • Seen as Algerian Bloody Sunday
  • Start of pro-Algerian independence movement
  • After WWII
  • France attempted to give more representation to
  • 1954- National Liberation Front founded
  • Fighting and civil war broke out until 1962
  • Divided France

De Gaulle and Algeria
  • 1958 De Gaulle becomes President
  • End of 4th Republic
  • New constitution
  • Start of 5th Republic
  • Started retreat from Algeria
  • Long process, lots of violence
  • 1962- Algeria becomes independent
  • FLN takes over- led by Mohammed Ben Bella
  • French settlers and Pro-French Muslims fled
  • Those who stayed- massacred

Vietnam War 1965-1973
Vietnam War 1959-1973
  • French
  • Second Indochina War
  • Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Communist) v.
    Republic of Vietnam (US Supported)
  • French ask for US support in finance and small
  • French are defeated at the Battle of Dien Bien
  • As part of the Geneva Convention, Laos Cambodia
    and Vietnam are given independence.
  • Vietnam was partitioned temporarily at the 17th
    parallel .
  • Political turmoil ensues

Vietnam War Cont.
  • The Domino Theory
  • The pro-western regimes of Laos and Cambodia
    align with communist movement.
  • US pledges aid to Diem and South Vietnam
  • Later fell in a coup, and was executed
  • Political chaos follows
  • Kennedy increases advisors from 800 to 16,000
  • Throughout the 60s the crisis escalates
  • Only was America has ever lost.
  • To Be Continued if time allows!

Legacy of Decolonization
  • Extreme Poverty
  • Political instability
  • Civil War
  • Famine
  • Poverty
  • Disease
  • Regions with natural wealth but human poverty.

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The End of The Cold War Revolutions in Eastern
  • Poland
  • The Elections of 1989 end the dominance of the
    Communist Party
  • Gorbachev approves the Solidarity Parties nominee

  • Hungary 1989, opened its border with Austria
  • Mass exodus of East Germans
  • Democratic elections by October
  • Romania 1989 Violent Revolution
  • Gorbachev Renounces the Brezhnev Doctrine

The Day the Wall Came Down
  • Popular Movements in East Germany call for
  • Protests and demonstrators force the communist
    government to step down.
  • In November of 1989, West and East Germans
    embrace and begin the long hard struggle of
    tearing down the political, social and economic
    wall that was the greatest symbol of the cold war

The Fall of the USSR
  • Gorbachev recognizes the need for reform
  • Eliminates the Single Party State
  • Republics wage a War of Laws
  • Gorbachev allies with the conservatives, Bad
  • August 1991 the Conservatives attempt a coup and
    place Gorbachev under house arrest.
  • The People Speak the largest protest in the
    History of Russia, The Communist Party
  • Yeltsin gains favor
  • December 1991, under a revised constitution the
    Soviet Union ceases to exist The Cold War is

Yeltsin and Putin
  • Yeltsin- First president of Russia
  • Opposed by Parliament
  • 1993 -He suspended it
  • Parliament tried to lead uprisings
  • Military supported Yeltsin
  • Oct 4 1993- Yeltsin ordered tanks to stop
    rioters- established his authority
  • West supported him
  • December 1993- New constitution
  • 1994- War with Islamic province of Chechnya
  • 1990s Process of dismantling Soviet economy and
  • Created small groups of very rich individuals
  • 1998- Yeltsin replaced by Vladimir Putin
  • Renewed war on Chechnya
  • Supported US in Afghanistan in 2001
  • Has sought to regain central control over
    independent states

End of Yugoslavia
  • Created after WWI as a multi-ethnic nation
  • Controlled by Josif Tito from 1940s to 1980
  • Dictator, cult of personality
  • After death, country fell into civil war
  • 1980s- Ethnic tensions erupted
  • Milosevic- Serbian leader
  • Tudjman- Croatian leader
  • Both nations declared independence in 1990
  • Ethnic violence increased, especially over
  • Serbs practiced ethnic cleansing
  • 1995- NATO forces carried out air strikes to end
    the war
  • Bosnia declared independent
  • 1999- NATO sent in troops to protect Kosovo to
    protect ethnic Albanians
  • 2000- Milosevic overthrown and arrested

Radical Political Islam
  • Sept 11 2001- Terrorist Attack
  • Beginning of War on Terror by US
  • Radical Islam- Interpretation of Islam with a
    radical anti-Western perspective

Arab Nationalism
  • Add your own notes
  • What is Arab Nationalism?
  • Where did it begin?
  • Who supports it now?

Iranian Revolution and Afghanistan
  • Group Notes in Class- In Theory