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Ancient Rome


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Title: Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome
Geography of Italy
  • Italian Peninsula
  • -100 Miles Wide
  • -700 Miles Long
  • 3 Seas Around Italy
  • -Tyrrhenian Sea
  • -Adriatic Sea
  • -Mediterranean Sea
  • Rivers
  • -Po valley rich farm area Tiber-food
  • / transportation
  • Looks Like a Soccer Shoe
  • with a ball.

Label the map of "The Topography of Ancient Rome"
as indicated below bodies of water blue
ink      Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea,
Tyrrhenian Sea rivers blue ink      Po, Tiber,
Rubicon mountains/peaks brown ink      Alps,
Apennines, Mt. Etna, Mt. Vesuvius islands green
ink      Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily cities red
ink      Rome, Ostia, Syracuse, Carthage,
Pompeii, Brindisium, Tarentum peoples purple
ink      Latins, Gauls, Etruscans, Greeks other
black ink      Magna Graecia
  • Italy is poor in mineral resources and
    surprisingly devoid of useful harbors.
  • The most stunning difference between Greece and
    Italy is the larger amount of fertile land. While
    Greece is poor in fertile land, Italy is wealthy
    in both land and precipitation.
  • Italy had one other significant difference from
    Greece it was easily accessible from Europe to
    the north.
  • The Greeks lived behind a formidable mountain
    range the Alps to the north of Italy were not
    quite as invulnerable.
  • The Greeks also had a warlike Greek population to
    the north,, to serve as a buffer between
    themselves and other Europeans..

Geography of Italy
  • The land is less rugged than Greece, so travel by
    land was much easier.
  • Travel by sea was more difficult because Italy
    had few good harbors.
  • This made trade with others living on the
    peninsula easier than trading with outsiders

Natural Resource
  • Plenty of good buildings Stone
  • A good supply of clay was widely used for brocks
    and pottery
  • Forests provided timber for shipbuilding and wild
    animals for food.
  • Fertile volcanic soil and a mild climate resulted
    in profuse harvests of wheat and barley as well
    as olive trees.

  • There was much more arable land in Ancient Rome
  • than in Greece.
  • The fertile land and mild climate were ideal for
  • The Ancient Romans didnt need to import as much,
  • extensive trade wasnt necessary.
  • Rivers carried mineral rich silt that created
  • farmland.
  • Volcanic ash made the soil rich. (Most of the
  • are now extinct.)

Origin of the Etruscans
  • Etruscan civilization is the modern English name
    given to the culture and way of life of a people
    of ancient Italy
  • Between the 900 and 500 BCE they called
    themselves the Rasenna
  • The Greeks Called them the Tyrrhenian
  • The Romans called them the Entrusean
  • They came from the eastern Mediterranean

Etruscan Political System
  • Independent, fortified city-states
  • Had a strong military that dominated all the
    surrounding peoples
  • By 6c BCE, the Etruscan military had conquered
    much of the Italian peninsula, including Rome
    and the island of Corsica.

Etruscan Military
6c BCE Chariot
Bronze Warrior
Etruscan Religion
  • Polytheistic.
  • Believed that the destiny of man was determined
    by the whims of the gods

Reconstruction of an Etruscan Temple
Etruscan Cemetery
Etruscan Funeral Tomb
Etruscan Tomb Wall Tomb Fresco
Interior of an Etruscan Tomb
Etruscan Gold Jewelry
Life-Size Statue of an Etruscan Baby in Swaddling
Dance, Dance, Spin !
Double Flutist
An Etruscan Banquet
Etruscan Wrestlers
Etruscan Jars Vases
Etruscan Bronzes
Questions Of The Day
  • How Wide was Italy?
  • 100 Miles Wide
  • How Long was Italy?
  • 700 Miles Long
  • 3 Seas Around Italy are
  • -Tyrrhenian Sea
  • -Adriatic Sea
  • -Mediterranean Sea

The Story Of Romulus and Remus
  • Romulus and Remus, twin sons of Mars and the
    Vestal Rhea Silvia.
  • when children were unwanted. They were unwanted
    because Amulius, was fearing that the boys would
    grow up to overthrow him, had them placed in a
    trough and thrown into the River Tiber.
  • They were found by a she-wolf, who instead of
    killing them, looked after them and fed them with
    her milk.
  • Faustulus, a shepherd, who brought the children
    to his home. Faustulus and his wife, Acca
    Larentia, raised the boys as their own

Romulus and Remus
  • They decided to build a city near the spot.
  • Romulus slew Remus with a shovel over a dispute
    about which one of the two brothers had the
    support of the local deities to rule the new city
    and give it his name.
  • Romulus win and named the city (ROME)

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The Fasces
  • The faces was on of the Etruscan tradition
    adopted by the Romans.
  • -Axe gathered together with wooden rods was a
    symbol of the authority of the magistrate and was
    displayed when a magistrate was present.
  • - Before world war II the fasces was adopted as a
    symbol of fascist party in Italy.

Etruscans Influence on Roman life
  • They settled south of the Tiber River where
  • they raised crops and herded sheep, goats,
  • and cattle.
  • -Etruscan influenced roman worlds.
  • -roman life including numerals
  • -fondness for blood sports.
  • -belief in Hades and the underworld gods.
  • -Etruscan political affairs.
  • Romans adopt Etruscan, art, gods, building
    techniques (including the arch)

c. 600 BCE Etruscans Conquer Rome
  • 3 groups battle for control of the Italian
    Peninsula Latins, Greeks, Etruscans
  • Etruscans native to northern Italy skilled
    metalworkers and engineers
  • 600 BC an Etruscan became king of Rome
    allowed Rome to grow from a collection of hilltop
    villages to a city that covered 500 square miles

Roman Beginnings
  • Rome started with the
  • Latin Tribe on the Italian Peninsula
  • in the Tiber River Valley
  • around 2000 B.C.

Italian Peninsula Powers map
  • The Tarquin (Etruscan Family) Dynasty was
  • Rome forms its own government.

Life of the people( city life )
  • Rome was the largest city of the roman empire it
    had almost 1 million people living in the city
  • More the Alexandria in Egypt. It was the second
    city with (750 000)
  • It was the center of trade and culture.
  • Engineers planned the city with public building,

Family life
  • Head of roman household was the father. he had
    total power over all members of his household.
  • Power to sell his children into slavery. Or have
    them killed, as long as the father lives.

  • Children in ancient Rome enjoyed the same kind of
    toys and games that the chldren enjoy today.
  • -dolls, carts, hobby hours, and board games.
  • They also had dogs, cats and other pats.
  • In wealthier families, most boys get married when
    there were just 15,18
  • Most girls would get married at 13 or 14 years of
    age. The father picks the husband for her.
  • In poor rural family, children had to work in the

  • No public schools.
  • Earliest schooling would be at home until about
    10 or 11.
  • They learn how to read, write, and arithmetic,
  • Slaves from Greece thought the children.
  • Until age 14 they studied mainly Latin and Greek
    grammar and literature.

The Roman Republic
  • Republic Citizens elect representatives to run
    the government.

The Republic
  • An political system in which a country is ruled
    by law, has representative government, and is
    democratic in nature.
  • Established in 509 B.C.
  • Gives each tribe of Rome representation in the
  • Uses two different branches to run the government

Senatus Populus Que Romanus (The Senate and the
People of Rome )
The Roman Republic
  • Senate
  • Law Makers
  • 300 Members
  • -Proposed Laws
  • -Lifetime Terms
  • -Nominated Consuls
  • -Consuls appoint vacancies
  • Consuls
  • Chief Executive
  • Two Positions
  • -One year terms (to limit their power)
  • -During war time one is chosen to act as dictator

The Senate was made up of land owners or
Patricians. The common people were known as
  • Patricians
  • Large landowners
  • Romes ruling class
  • Plebeian
  • -smaller landowners
  • -farmers
  • -crafts people
  • -soldiers.

Both Patricians and Plebeian were citizens and
groups can vote
Plebeian Plight for Equal Rights
  • 509B.C. - Republic created Plebeians are
    citizens with the right to vote, but they could
    not hold political office
  • 494B.C. - Formation of the Plebeian Assembly and
  • 451B.C. - Twelve Tables created Ensuring the
    right to protection of the law for all Roman
  • 287B.C. - Plebeian Assembly evolves into the
    Popular Assembly with near equal status to the

Twelve Tables
  • TABLE I (Civil procedure)
  • TABLE II (Civil procedure)
  • TABLE III (Debt)
  • TABLE IV (Parents and children)
  • TABLE V (Inheritance)
  • TABLE VI (Property)
  • TABLE VII (Real Property)
  • TABLE VIII (Torts)
  • TABLE IX (Constitutional principles)
  • TABLE X (Funeral regulations)
  • TABLE XI (Marriage)
  • TABLE XII (Crimes)

Twelve Tables
  • An important step in the political development of
    any people is the organization and publication of
    their laws in a way that makes it possible for
    all persons to know what the law is. About 450
    B.C.E., the Romans codified their laws and
    inscribed them on twelve bronze tables which were
    set up in the Roman Forum. These Twelve Tables
    were the basis of all later Roman law, and
    through it, of the legal system of much of the
    world today.

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Statue of Justice in front of the U. S. Supreme
Court Building
Rome Expands
  • North - Took over the Etruscans
  • South - Took over the Greeks
  • By 270B.C. Rome ruled all of central and southern

Punic Wars
  • Series of three wars over 100 years Carthage
    versus Rome
  • First War 241B.C. - Sicily
  • Carthage controlled part of Sicily, Rome wanted
    it as a buffer
  • Fought by ships
  • Rome won!

Battles BC Hannibal the Annihilator Part
  • 219B.C. - Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks
  • Through Iberian Peninsula, through Gaul and over
    the Alps
  • Losing half of his men
  • Rome attacks North Africa
  • Hannibal returns to Africa to defend Carthage

Third Punic War
  • 199B.C. Carthage attacked a Roman ally
  • Rome gets annoyed with Carthage and they destroy
    the city of Carthage
  • Therefore Rome controls all Carthaginian land

North Africa Roman Province
Rome before the wars
Rome after the Punic Wars
Roman Empire
  • Expanding across the Mediterranean brought many
    changes to Rome

Expansion under the Republic
  • Rome expanded to
  • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece
  • 133 B.C. Asia Minor
  • 100 B.C. Middle East and Egypt

End of the Republic
  • Senate became too powerful and the army was doing
    all the work

Enter Julius Caesar
  • Popular General
  • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took
    over Gaul
  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate
  • Overthrew the Senate (weakened it)
  • Gave Roman citizenship to non-Romans
  • Adjusted taxes (taxed rich more than the poor)

Julius Caesar
  • Became a dictator
  • All powerful
  • According to the Senate
  • He was too powerful!

Senate assassinates/murders Julius Caesar
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  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)
  • Concentrated on building the empire from within
  • Adjusted taxes
  • Public works
  • Lack of corruption
  • Encouraged large Roman families

Augustus the majestic
The Roman Empire is born!
Pax Romana (Roman Peace)
Roman Trade
Causes of the Decline of Rome
  • Romes economy declines.
  • Rome faces military upheaval.
  • Roman politics decay.
  • Bigger gap between the rich and poor.

Rome splits into East and West
Contributing Factors to the Decline of the
Western Roman Empire
  • Economic
  • Inflation
  • Disruption of Trade
  • Military
  • Threats from Northern European tribes
  • Decline of patriotism loyalty among soldiers
  • Low funds for defense
  • Political
  • Division of the empire
  • Political office seen as a burden, not an honor
  • Social
  • Lack of confidence in the empire
  • Decline in interest of political affairs