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CLA Orientation for Writing Integration

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CLA Orientation for Writing Integration GTA Preparation for Grading and Responding Sue Doe Assistant Professor of English Colorado State University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CLA Orientation for Writing Integration


1
CLA Orientation for Writing IntegrationGTA
Preparation for Grading and Responding
  • Sue Doe
  • Assistant Professor of English
  • Colorado State University
  • Sue.Doe_at_colostate.edu

2
Overview of Orientation
  • Introduction to context for writing integration
  • A Sample Assignment
  • Holistic scoring/sortingdeveloping criteria,
    applying criteria, revising criteriaand why
  • Analytic scoringstrategies and choices
  • Commenting/responding to student writing
  • The trouble students have with academic writing
    grading/responding as part of the instructional
    team
  • Interventions through peer review, conferences,
    office hours
  • Guests Representing 2nd year GTAs, TILTThe
    Institute for Learning and Teaching, The Writing
    Center, Writing_at_CSU

3
Local Writing Resources
  • http//writing.colostate.edu
  • Google search possible on virtually any writing
    topic. Over 100K pages of writing information,
    most authored at CSU.
  • Writing tools available through Writing
    Studio-keep track of your drafts, your biblios,
    your reading, etc. Same tools available for
    undergrads and others
  • The Writing Center and WAC
  • Visit Eddy 6 (The physical writing center) or
    submit papers electronically for feedback
  • Request a workshop on any writing subject

4
gtPathways
What it is, where it came from
5
State Guaranteed Transfer gtPathways
  • gtPathways Curriculum Adopted as part of the CCHE
    Academic Affairs Policy I, Part L Statewide
    Transfer Policy.
  • Built upon concepts found in the Student Bill of
    Rights (a.k.a, the King Bill), 23-1-125 C.R.S
  • The Commission, in consultation with each
    Colorado public institution of higher education,
    is directed to to outline a plan to implement a
    core course concept
  • The core of courses shall consist of at least
    thirty credit hours, but shall not exceed forty
    credit hours
  • Individual institutions of higher education
    shall conform their own core course requirements
    with the guidelines developed by the Commission

6
One Policy Goal of gtPathways
  • Students shall have assurance of
  • A quality general education experience that
    develops competencies in reading, writing,
    mathematics, technology, and critical thinking
    through an integrated arts and science
    experience.

7
Major Changes to Colorado Colleges and
Universities
Adams State College Faculty Senate agreed to
adopt gtPathways curriculum for institutional
general education curriculum Fort Lewis College
Restructuring entire general education curriculum
to meet gtPathways requirements modifying
junior-level writing courses to meet gtPathways
requirements (I.e., 200-level). Colorado State
University Integrating writing into general
education AHUM and SOCS courses (20 - 25 of
grades in writing assignments) adding 3 credit
hours in AHUM. University of Northern Colorado
Charting the Future reducing general education
course offerings to 60-70 courses restructuring
curriculum to meet gtPathways curriculum.
8
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9
Memorandum of Understanding
MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING COLLEGE OF LIBERAL
ARTS WRITING IN AUCC COURSES IN LIBERAL
ARTS Effective Fall 2007 All AUCC courses in
Categories 3B, C, D and E of the core must
satisfy the following requirements regarding
writing. These must be clearly stated on the
syllabus for the course. 1. Goals for writing in
AUCC courses There are two goals for writing
assignments in AUCC courses (1) to improve
students comprehension of course content
and, (2) to improve students proficiency in
writing. Note (1) Both of these goals are best
achieved when students receive feedback on their
writing assignments and have an opportunity to
make use of that feedback.
10
MOU continued
  • 2. Writing requirements
  • At least 25 percent of the course grade must be
    based on written work that satisfies the
    following
  • At least one writing assignment must be an
    out-of-class piece of written work. (2)
  • In-class written work, such as on exams, must be
    in the form of essays.
  • Note (2) While this represents a minimum
    standard, to maximize the benefits to students of
    more writing multiple opportunities to write and
    respond to feedback are recommended, such as
  • Several out-of-class writing assignments. OR
  • One or more rewrites of an out-of-class writing
    assignment.

11
MOU continued
  • 2. Writing Requirements (continued)
  • Expectations of written work must be clearly
    stated on the syllabus. Among other things the
    instructor considers appropriate, those
    expectations should include students
    demonstrating (3)
  • The ability to convey a theme or argument clearly
    and coherently.
  • The ability to analyze critically and to
    synthesize the work of others.
  • The ability to acquire and apply information from
    appropriate sources, and reference sources
    appropriately.
  • Competence in standard written English.
  • Note (3) Instructors should use their own
    discretion in communicating to students the
    relative importance of the various expectations
    in their own writing assignments in terms of how
    they will be graded.

12
MOU continued
  • 3. Plagiarism Statement
  • More writing in AUCC courses also brings the risk
    of increased incidents of plagiarism. It is
    strongly recommended that instructors have a
    statement in their syllabus that clearly states
    that plagiarism in not acceptable and is a form
    of academic dishonesty. An example is
  • Plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty. As
    per university policy Any student found
    responsible for having engaged in academic
    dishonesty will be subject to an academic penalty
    and/or University disciplinary action.
  • On page 38 of the 2006 2007 General Catalog,
    plagiarism is defined
  • Plagiarism includes the copying of language,
    structure, ideas, or thoughts of another, and
    representing them as ones own without proper
    acknowledgement. Examples include a submission
    of purchased research papers as ones own work
    paraphrasing and/or quoting material with
    properly documenting the source.

13
Copies of Written Competency Guidelines of
College of Liberal Arts MOU
  • Simply send an email to
  • Sue.Doe_at_colostate.edu
  • Say Please send Guidelines and MOU

14
What Matters in College Writing?
  • Write for 5 minutes about
  • the qualities of writing that you believe all
    first-year college students should
    developessential abilities theyll need
  • your beliefs about student writing ability right
    now and what that belief is based upon
  • the kinds of support students need to improve
  • where, how, and when writing instruction should
    be given in college contexts
  • Put your name on this piece of paper as youll be
    turning it in. Hold onto it for now.

15
GradingBecoming Part of the Instructional Team
  • Support and instruction, formative feedback vs.
    justification of the grade
  • Consistency and fairness
  • Criteria-based grading vs. norming
  • Time management through Hierarchies of Rhetorical
    Concern
  • Holistic and Analytic Evaluation

16
Hierarchy of Rhetorical Concerns
  • Audience, Purpose, Occasion
  • Focus Thesis, Reasons, Unity/Coherence
  • Development Reasons, Evidence, Explanation
  • Style/Mechanics/Conventions Readability, Care
    and Polish, Patterns of Error

17
Hierarchical Concerns Detailed
  • Audience
  • Who is the writers audience? Is this an academic
    audience? What are the expectations?
  • Purpose
  • Is this piece of writing intended to inform?
    Analyze? Explore? Summarize? Argue?
  • Development
  • What kinds of evidence does the audience expect?
    Does the context demand clarification through
    examples, data, etc.?
  • Organization
  • Is the writing organized in a coherent way?
  • Do transitions guide the reader through the logic
    of the paper?
  • Style and Conventions
  • What style is appropriate for the context in
    terms of audience and purpose? What register or
    level of formality Is appropriate? (For
    instance, can the writer use I in this
    context?)
  • Are there locations where the writing is hard to
    follow or comprehension is disrupted? If so, can
    I discern why?
  • Are there patterns of error showing any of the
    Top Five DASTARDLY SENTENCE ERRORS1)
    subjectverb agreement, 2) run-on and fragmented
    sentences, 3) unclear or incorrect pronoun
    agreement, 4) verb tense inconsistencies, 5) weak
    comma use

18
Grading For What MattersPurposes of Assignments
  • What is the TASK being required by the
    assignmentto inform, to explore, to convince, to
    describe, to compare, to summarize, to persuade?
    Find the VERB or VERBS and youll know the task.
  • Is this
  • a thesis-provided paper for which students must
    defend of refute?
  • a problem-solution paper in which students are
    given a problem or question that demands a thesis
    and support? Is
  • a data-provided paper for which students are
    expected to analyze and explain?
  • a genre-provided paper, in which students are
    expected to follow an organizational structure or
    format in an accepted form, such as a memo, case
    study, lab report, or executive summary?
  • write-to-learn or write-to-engage writing for
    which students are expected to explore and/or
    develop their thinking rather than to produce a
    polished paper?
  • an in-class essay, reflecting comprehension of
    course material?

19
Holistic Scoring
  • The Assignment POLS 101 American Government and
    Politics
  • With Thanks to Professor Sandra Davis and Her
    Students Who Generously Shared Their Work With Us

20
The Assignment POLS 101 American Government and
Politics
  • Your assignment is to write an essay supporting
    or opposing the use of the Electoral College as a
    means of electing the president. Use only the
    materials listed here and posted on RamCT
    AMODD, ELAT, and LWV.
  • Essay Components
  • Introduction and Backgroundintroduce the issue,
    explain how the E.C. works to elect the
    president, discuss a variety of historic
    challenges to the E.C. and whether you think the
    process worked well or poorly in 2000.
  • State whether the E.C. should be abolished or
    kept and provide 3-4 reasons why.
  • Support each reason with at least one paragraph
    of evidence backing your view. Use sources and
    distinguish these from your own views.
  • Provide a reference list.
  • Paper should be 3-4 pages but no longer than 4
    pages. (Graders stop reading if paper is over 4
    pages.)
  • Students are instructed in assignment sheet
    You should roughly cover 15-20 points per page.

21
Reference List students are instructed to NOT
USE quotations but to parenthetically cite if
paraphrasing
  • AMODD
  • Sidlow, E. and B. Henchen. (2008). America at
    odds. 6th Ed. Belmont, CA Wadsworth.
  • ELAT
  • FEC National Clearinghouse on Election
    Administration. (2003). The pros and cons of the
    Electoral College System. Retrieved March 25,
    2008 from http//uselectionatlas.com/INFORMATION/I
    NFOMRATION/electcollege.procon
  • LWV
  • League of Women Voters of California Education
    Fund, Choosing the President (1992). The
    Electoral College. Retrieved March 25, 2008, from
    http//www.hks.harvard.edu/case/3pt/electoral.html

22
Additional Advice Given Students
  • You are asked to make a persuasive argument in
    writing. You should try to convince a reader of
    your opinion. State you position on the proposed
    amendment, including the reasons for your
    opinion. This is often done in one or a few
    sentences that summarize the argument you will
    make in the rest of the essay.
  • A thesis statement 1) tells the reader whether
    you oppose the proposed constitutional amendment
    2)is a road map for the paper it tells readers
    what arguments will follow 3) makes a claim that
    others might dispute

23
Holistic Process
  • In groups of three, do a read-around of the set
    of three papers you now have. Sort High, Medium,
    and Low.
  • Before you begin reading the sample papers, read
    through the Holistic Scoring Rubric for a
    Thesis-Restricted Paper.

24
Sort, Read, and Comment (or Stop, Drop, and Roll)
  • You would apply the same strategy if you had a
    set of papers here. You would skim through the
    set of papers. While this sounds like a
    time-consuming extra step, it actually saves you
    time in the long run.
  • Heres what you might do if you had that stack
  • Sort into three stackshigh, medium, low
  • If possible, stack within categories (High and
    High -) so that you have 6 stacks
  • Read with hierarchy of concerns in mind
  • Provide an end comment that is forward-looking
    and focused
  • Substantiate end comment with a few marginal
    comments

25
Minute Paper and the Muddiest Point
  • Write for one minute about the most important
    strategy you learned today
  • Write for one minute about some topic from
    todays session that youre unclear about or
    would like more information on

26
As you arrive, Select Paper 1, 2, or 3
  • If your name begins with A-H, take a copy of P1
  • If your name begins with I-R, take a copy of P2
  • If your name begins with S-Z, take a copy of P3

27
Review of Holistic Scoring --Calibration--
  • Examine a holistic rubric
  • Distinctions between scores
  • Refinements

28
Analytic Criteria Use a scoring tool to assist
with grading
  • Consider Three Approaches
  • standard rubric
  • benchmark and anchor papers
  • continuum approach

29
Approach 1 Standard Rubric as Scoring Tool
  • Component Parts
  • Assignment itself
  • Dimensions/priorities/criteria
  • Scale with levels of achievement. Levels can be
    continuums or reflect categories such as
    proficient, competent, needs work. These
    need not be points.
  • Specific commenting room/space

30
Standard Rubric for Summary Response
Assignment Dimension Excellent
Competent Needs Work
Clarity and accuracy of article summary
Focus of response
Development, Organization Coherence of Response
Readability, Mechanics, Source Citation
Grade
31
Steps for Creating Standard Rubrics or Scoring
Sheets
  • List key elements/features to assess, based on
    course and assignment objectives
  • Refine and simplify key elements, then consider
    their relative importance or weight
  • Do a common sense check to see if weighting of
    criteria is meaningful. Avoid points. Percentages
    are better but keep them broad. Too much
    refinement can lead to grade-grubbing.
  • Decide if youll give feedback on all criteria,
    on certain ones, or only in an end comment
  • Make clear where the overall grade appears

32
Approach 2 Benchmark and Anchor Papers
  • Consider writing a paragraph that explains whats
    necessary for a C paper for this assignment. In
    other words, what MUST a paper accomplish to be
    deemed adequate?
  • Then write a paragraph explaining how the B paper
    improves upon the C. (The B paper does
    everything the C paper does but goes further to)
  • Then write a paragraph explaining how the A
    improves upon the B. (The A paper does everything
    the B paper does but goes further to )
  • It can be useful to distribute or post this
    explanation
  • Remember you are only assigning a grade
    students earn those grades. You do not GIVE
    grades. They do not GET grades. Consider using
    a 24-hour moratorium and a conference plan for
    grade protests.

33
Approach 3 The Continuum Approach
  • Once you have determined the most important
    aspects or criteria for grading, consider using a
    continuum to describe where the student is in
    their application of this criteria. This avoids
    the oft-times awkward approach of assigning
    points with criteria-based evaluation.
  • Example (criteria 3) from the Washington State U
    Critical Thinking Guide
  • Identifies and considers salient perspectives and
    positions important to the issues analysis
  • Scant Substantial
  • ?-----------------------------------------
    -----------------------?

34
Grading Criteria Listed on the POLS 101
Assignment Sheet
  • 1) Clarity of argument and organization
  • 2) Quality of analysis. You need to make your
    position on the issue clear. Provide arguments
    that are supported by information (i.e.,
    evidence)
  • 3) Quality of writing. Your ideas need to be
    clearly expressed. This includes proper
    spelling, grammar, expression of ideas, and
    citation of sources

35
Do Analytic Scoring
  • Number off 1-3 and prepare to do ONE form of
    analytic scoring
  • Write a description of your analytic scoring
    procedure for this assignment
  • Show others in your group the way your
    application would look or how it would be
    described for students
  • Select best example of 1, 2, 3 and show whole
    group

36
Discussion
  • Which forms of analytic scoring do you like best
    or do you like pieces of each kind?
  • What approach do you think youll take with
    grading, if youre allowed to choose your own
    method?
  • What recommendations would you make to others
    about analytic scoring?

37
Write to Engage
  • What was the most helpful feedback youve ever
    gotten on a piece of writing?
  • What made it helpful?
  • What was the least helpful feedback youve ever
    gotten on a piece of writing?
  • What made it less than helpful?
  • What generalization(s) can we draw from these
    experiences?

38
Responding to WTL/WTE and Threaded Electronic
Discussions (aka Discussion Forums)
  • If being used, you have basic decisions to
    make/discuss with prof about how to read and
    assess
  • Will you skim every entry and give whole-class
    feedback?
  • Will you read a random sample/scheduled group and
    give feedback to sample?
  • Will you decide in advance how many times over
    semester you will read and respond to each
    student?
  • Then generate accountability
  • Select good examples to show as models
  • Use a check mark system for recordingparticipatio
    n?
  • Observe length of responses
  • Provide prof with your observations to share with
    whole class
  • Discourage texting shortcuts in posts and for
    in-class writing
  • Expect and enforce a standard of courtesy and
    academic professionalism. Contact people on first
    evidence of discourteous shared writing. Be
    prepared for confessions of adolescent behavior

39
Managing Your Time Through a 3-Part End Comment
  • Sum up the strengths of the paper
  • Identify the main problems to be worked on
  • Provide a specific suggestion for how to improve
    the paper, based on the main problem(s) already
    identified
  • And Remember
  • You cant respond to everything in a paper.
  • There are real people on the receiving end.
  • Comments are not principally for justifying a
    grade. Your are providing formative feedback
    students can use with the next paper, even if
    its not in this class.
  • Consider using questions in your marginal
    comments.

40
Peer Review of Comments
  • Identify the major strength your partner noted in
    this paper. What locations did the GTA point out
    to substantiate this claim of strength?
  • How accurate do you believe this evaluation is?
  • Identify the guidance or advice your partner
    noted as a central concern in this paper. What
    locations did your partner identify to
    substantiate the claim of needs improvement
  • How accurate do you believe this evaluation is?
  • Identify the concrete suggestion for improvement
    that your partner noted. Would an undergraduate
    understand this advice and be able to follow it?
  • How accurate do you believe this advice is?
  • Characterize the tone/attitude of feedback your
    partner has provided. Could it be improved and if
    so, how?
  • Are your partners comments forward-looking and
    formative in nature or do the comments seem
    defensive, as if justifying the grade?

41
Reminder You Are Managing Your Time By Choosing
Your Battleshierarchy, hierarchy, hierarchy!
  • Apply minimal marking technique
  • Avoid becoming your students copy editor as that
    is NOT your job and error correction is not
    instructional. Remember you are part of the
    instructional team, not an editor.
  • To instruct students on grammar issues, look for
    patterns of error or try to characterize error if
    you feel it is impeding the students message.
    Work with a Top 5 list of errors.
  • Severe cases should represent lt2 of papers. For
    these, you will need additional support.
  • Non native speaker/writer issues tenses, dropped
    articles, strings of sentences arranged the same
  • Learning Disabilities misspellings even with
    spell check, omitted words, homonyms
  • Carelessness Consider a return to sender
    policy on first occasion or the R grade. Must
    be approved by professor and not all will believe
    this is a good idea.

42
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43
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44
Commenting Advice
  • The writing teachers ministry is not just to
    the words but to the person who wrote the words.
    --William Zinsser
  • The best kind of commentary enhances the
    writers feeling of dignity. The worst kind can
    be dehumanizing and insultingoften to the
    bewilderment of the teacher whose intentions were
    kindly but whose techniques ignored the personal
    dimension of writing.
  • --John Bean

45
Common Manifestations of Early Academic Writing
  • And Then writingchronological structure
  • All About writingeverything but the kitchen sink
  • Data Dump writingno discernable structure,
    revealing a student overwhelmed with information
    patching together of quotes
  • Did you see any of these in the sample papers?

46
Revision Processes and Strategies for GTA
Intervention
  • Early, mid and late interventions
  • Early
  • Topic proposal (subject, topic, issue, question)
  • Research question tentative thesis
  • Seminal source description
  • Mid
  • Annotated bibliography (text partners) or source
    evaluation
  • Summary and response to one source
  • Quote and paraphrase sheet for one source
  • Introduction review, especially if multiple
    sources. Use templates for entering
    conversation
  • Prospectus in full sentences (one page)
  • Late
  • Full draft workshop on one paper
  • Full draft peer review on all papers
  • Conferencewriters talk about the draft they
    bring and revision plan

47
E.B. White and Revision
  • Revision literally, to re-see

48
Errors in Student Writing
  • Students prose usually contains fewer mistakes
    than instructors perceive. Errors are nearly
    always patterned rather than discreet
  • Student have more linguistic competence than the
    surface features of their prose sometimes
    indicate
  • Errors in student writing increase in direct
    correspondence to increasing difficulty of the
    assignment
  • Errors often disappear in students prose as they
    progress through multiple drafts
  • Teachers can expect to see more serious sentence
    problems in first drafts and on essay exams
  • Not all errors are equal! Imagine the psychology
    student who does not know specialized use of the
    term affect. (A more egregious error than
    typical misspellings of affect/effect.)
  • Dont get into the habit of correcting student
    errors. Its NOT helpful and its a poor use of
    your time. Mark a paragraph at most and say, The
    problem continues and explain what the problem,
    or error pattern, is. Perhaps its not grammar at
    all but academic voice??
  • Traditional procedures for marking student papers
    may make matters worse

49
Conventions vs. Rules
  • Language is fluid and evolving. Rules with
    language are hardly stable.
  • Consider conventions associated with use of the
    male pronoun.
  • Consider the Queens English vs. Standard English
  • Consider conventions associated with source
    citation.
  • Consider the dwindling use of the comma.
  • Texting is legitimate language use. (The sky is
    not falling.)
  • Future language uses classroom wikis and other
    unstable texts

50
Error PatternSimple Form for Typical Student
  • Apply minimal marking to one paragraph or at most
    one page of text
  • Identify patterns of error or describe problem
    youre seeing
  • Require turn in (again) for credit on paper and
    only if errors are corrected
  • Document problem and check for mastery
    application on next writing turned in

51
Error Pattern AnalysisMastery Learning for
Tougher Cases
  • Minimal Marking in paragraph one only,
    identifying all errors you see
  • Error pattern process works toward your gradual
    withdrawal of assistance
  • Start by locating ONE error pattern, correcting
    it, and explaining it marginally (para 1)
  • Next, locate the error and student makes
    corrections (para 2)
  • Use check marks in margin of line with error
    student locates error and corrects (para 3)
  • Student independently responsible for application
    in para 4
  • Process can be repeated for any number of errors,
    one at a time
  • If prolific number of errors, an error journal
    can be started and maintained by studentas
    errors are addressed. Student turns in
    periodically for your review.

52
Keep a Top 5 Error List
  • subjectverb agreement
  • run-on and fragmented sentences
  • unclear or incorrect pronoun agreement
  • verb tense inconsistencies
  • weak comma use
  • Worksheets dont work address these concerns in
    the context of students own writing. If
    possible, have them read aloud to see if they
    identify the error by themselves. If so, then
    errors are careless errors, not misunderstood
    principles.

53
Mis-use of Sources
  • Summary
  • Quotation
  • Paraphrase
  • Consider use of templates as suggested by They
    Say, I Say to instruct students
  • Start your own text partner annotated
    bibliography

54
Your Writing
  • How can helping undergraduates with their writing
    help you with yours?
  • E680
  • Feedback on Orientation

55
E680
  • Fall Semester 2008
  • E 680A1-001 (CRN 66728)
  • 745-9 TR, Clark C-72, Aug 25-Sept 28
  • E680A2-002 (CRN 66729)
  • 4-515 TR Eddy 119, Aug 25-Sept 28
  • E680A3-003 (CRN 66730)
  • 1230-145 TR Eddy 119, Sept 29-Nov 2
  • E680A4-004 (CRN 67513)
  • 1100-1215 TR Clark C-250, Aug 25-Sept 28

56
What are the questions youll ask your prof?
57
The E680 Course Focus
  • Academic writing and thinkingwhat students do in
    their writing, what students can learn
  • The graduate student as writer
  • Intervening in student writing processes and
    getting students to your office
  • Designing and conducting peer reviewselectronical
    ly or in-class. Peer processes for grad students
  • Error Pattern Analysis and dealing with students
    mechanical errors
  • Engagement Writing (threaded electronic
    discussions or in-class)
  • The Non Native Speaker as Writer
  • In-class graded writing, the essay exam
  • Student source usage, citation conventions, and
    plagiarism prevention
  • Genres, discourse communities, professional
    writing in the disciplines
  • Your assignments, papers, comments, challenges

58
Feedback on Session
  1. What stuck from this weeks training? What will
    you use?
  2. Was the training too short, too long, or about
    right?
  3. What aspects of your GTA position are you looking
    forward to?
  4. What parts of your GTA position most concern you?
  5. Would you seek out help from Sue on these issues?
  6. Will you use the CSU writing web site? the
    gtPathways web site?
  7. Would you benefit from support for your writing?
  8. Would you read a monthly one-page newsletter on
    writing integration? If so, what sorts of topics
    would be valuable?
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