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The Early Middle Ages


The Early Middle Ages 7th to the 10th Century Roman Empire Decline ... Found among a pagan ship wreckage treasures suggesting royalty Is of gold decoration; ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages
  • 7th to the 10th Century
  • Roman Empire Decline
  • German Invasions Affecting Artistic Development
    and Other
  • Radical Changes in Social Political
  • In addition to the German invasions were those
    from Islam.

Islamic Art
  • Idolatry forbidden
  • Consisted mainly of abstracts, floral patterns,
    or other geometric objects
  • Sculpture almost nonexistent
  • Abundance of monumental architecture
    architectural decorations

Islamic Art Expressions
  • Mosque
  • A place to pray and face towards Mecca
  • Sahn enclosed courtyard that all mosques have.
  • Qibla prayer wall
  • Mihrab small nitche to indicate the direction of
  • Exterior
  • Tall minarets
  • Large and elaborate

Hagia Sophia changed into a mosque
  • Islam means submission to Gods will
  • Founded by the prophet Muhammed
  • Message is brotherhood of Man equality before
    God (Allah)
  • Differs from Christianity
  • No priesthood, no religious hierarchy, sacraments
    or requirements of literagy
  • Does include rulers and leaders in prayer

Islamic Instruction
  • Faithfully conduct their daily lives
  • Circumcise male infants
  • Pray to Allah five times a day facing Mecca.
  • Worship in the mosque on Fridays
  • Give to the poor, Fast and practice abstinence in
    the daylight during Ramaden
  • Allowed multiple wives

The Great Mosque, Cordoba
  • Mosque built in capital city
  • Striking example of Islamic art
  • Double arches first used here were duplicated in
  • (11.1,11.2, 11.3 11.4)
  • Christians later turned this into a cathedral but
    it still conveys the original orientation of

Northern European Art
  • Influenced by the Germanic tribes
  • New focus on artistic and political activities
  • No monumental structure, paintings or sculpture
    was done to the constant invasions
  • Invaders stimulated a new craft. . .
  • Metalwork designs and techniques

Anglo-Saxon Metalwork
  • Purse cover from the 17th century.
  • Found among a pagan ship wreckage treasures
    suggesting royalty
  • Is of gold decoration cloisonne enamel
    originally on ivory or bone dark red garnets.
  • Early Christian intelace designs and Near Eastern

SuttonHoo purse cover from East Anglia, England,
630 AD Merging animal forms suggest invasion
  • Earliest surviving European epic
  • German folklore with strong Christian morality.
  • A strange king child found adrift Denmark Scyld

Famed was this Beowulf far flew the boast of
him, son of Scyld, in the Scandian lands. So
becomes it a youth to quit him well with his
father's friends, by fee and gift, that to aid
him, aged, in after days, come warriors willing,
should war draw nigh, liegemen loyal by lauded
deeds shall an earl have honor in every clan.
Hiberno-Saxon Art
  • Ireland escaped invasions at this time
  • St. Patrick spread Christianity throughout
    Ireland and for years later it became a haven for
    scholars, missionaries, monasteries, . .
  • Christian art also prevailed across Ireland.
  • Style has been called Insular and Hiberno-Saxon
    (Hiberno is Latin for Ireland)

Manuscript Illumination
  • Illuminated manuscripts produced by monks in
  • Illustrated the Word of God Visual pleasures
  • Used a strict unity of color and form.
  • Crisp, clear sometines contrasting colors flat
    surfaces patterning

Lion Symbol of St. John, from the Book of Durrow,
After AD650. Represents St. John, Evangelist as a
lion . . . .later an eagle.
Carolingian Period
  • Book of Kells
  • Corresponds with the crowning of Charles the
    Great-Roman empr.
  • Charlemagne ruled over the Holy Roman Empire and
    surrounding territories and revived culture.
  • Network of learning was created
  • Latin manuscript texts. . .7LibArts

11.7 Tunc Crucifixerant XPI, from the Book of
Kells (Matthew 2738) Then they crucified Christ
with him two thieves
  • Charlemagnes rule involved the Roman revival of
    culture with manuscripts
  • Manuscripts worked towards development of a
    practical form of portable artistic and
    educational communication
  • They continued after Charlemagnes death but more
    apocalyptic approach
  • Flatter space, figures connected by geometric
    design rather than landscapes.

Revelation the Four Symbols of Evangelsits
  • Revelation-last book of the New Testament
  • Written by St. John
  • Johns account of Christs word in his appearance
    to him.
  • Visionary work with scripture, literary
    tradition and symbols lion, bull, man, eagle.
  • Lion St. Mark Bull St. Luke Man St. Matthew,
    Eagle St. John.

11.8 Four Evangelists, from a Carolingian Gospel
  • Each monastery
  • School
  • Network for artists and scholars to communicate.
  • Religious and Administrative Center for economic
  • Communal living quarters for Monks

Plans for monstery of St.Gall, Switzerland plan
placed church in the center building around in
order of importance of education
Ottonian Period
  • Charlemagnes grandsons were ineffective rulers
    of the European reign fell to invaders.
  • After the Vikings takeover, the Saxons crowned
    Otto I as Otto the Great, emperor.
  • Ottonian refers to rulers named Otto who worked
    to continue Charlemagnes revival of Classical

Major Works of the Ottonian Period
  • Ottonian refers to 3 rulers
  • Otto(s) who stabilized Holy Roman Empire
  • Architectural work
  • Benedictine abbey church of St. Michaels
  • Metalwork at Hildesheim by Bishop Bernward
  • Originally an entrance
  • Old and New Testament figures in high relief by
    thin, lively figures

Abbey Church of St. Michaels (Fig.11.11)
Bronze doors, St. Michaels , Bishop Bernward
(fig 11.13)
Chapter Summary Important Information