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Components of Fitness

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... (ball) Flamingo Balance Test Stork stand Balance board Roller board Dynamic ... Muscular Endurance Tests Sit-Up Tests (Crunch Tests) Pull-Up Tests Bench ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Components of Fitness


1
Components of Fitness
  • How fit are you?

2
Key Terms to Understand
  • Skill-related fitness
  • Health-related fitness
  • Flexibility
  • Cardiovascular fitness
  • Muscular strength
  • Muscular endurance
  • Body composition
  • Agility
  • Balance
  • Power
  • Reaction time
  • Coordination
  • Speed
  • Norm-referenced tests
  • Criterion-referenced tests
  • Health-related fitness standards

3
Health-related vs. Skill-related
  • Health-Related Fitness (5)
  • Related to how well the systems of your body
    operate
  • Ex. Your heart and other muscles
  • Related to your overall state of health
  • Skill-Related Fitness (6)
  • Factors related to becoming a good athlete
  • Quickness, hand-eye coordination, power, etc.

4
Health-Related Fitness
  • Flexibility
  • Cardiovascular Fitness
  • Muscular Strength
  • Muscular Endurance
  • Body Composition

5
Flexibility
  • The range of movements possible at various joints
  • This area of fitness is often overlooked and
    neglected
  • Should be worked on as regularly as other
    aspects.
  • Flexibility is specific to each joint
  • Many types of tests

Crazy Flexibility
6
Direct Measures of Flexibility
  • Goniometer
  • Works like a protractor on joint to measure the
    angle of movement
  • Flexometer
  • Basically the same idea without needing to
    identify the axis of rotation

7
Other Measures of Flexibility
  • Groin Flexibility
  • Trunk Rotation Test
  • Calf-Muscle Flexibility Test
  • 90/90 Hamstring Test
  • Sit and Reach Test (lower back and hams)
  • V-Sit Reach Test

8
Sit and Reach Test
  • Sitting on the floor with legs out straight
    ahead.
  • Feet (shoes off) are placed with the soles flat
    against the box, shoulder-width apart.
  • Both knees are held flat against the floor by the
    tester.
  • Hands on top of each other and palms facing down,
    the subject reaches forward along the measuring
    line as far as possible.
  • After three practice reaches, the fourth
  • reach is held for at least two seconds while
  • the distance is recorded.
  • The fingertips on both hands must
  • reach the same point

9
Cardiovascular Fitness
  • The ability of the heart, blood, blood vessels,
    and respiratory system to supply oxygen and
    necessary fuel to muscles during exercise.
  • Aerobic exercise is the best method for
    increasing cardiovascular fitness (Examples?)
  • These activities force the body to use large
    amounts of oxygen for a sustained period of time.
  • 15-30 minutes sustained will give you benefits

10
Measuring Cardiovascular Fitness
  • Stress Tests stationary bike or treadmill
  • - Done in a lab setting with specialized
    equipment
  • One Mile Time Trial (1600m)
  • 12-minute Run
  • MSTF Beep Test

11
Muscular Strength
  • Ability of muscles to exert a force one time
  • One repetition maximum force
  • Guys vs. Girls testosterone potential
  • Usually tested using dynamometers or other safe
    device for one repetition performance
  • Can be done using free weights or machines with
    spotting

12
Muscular Strength Tests
  • 1-RM (1 repetition-maximum)
  • Handgrip Strength Test

13
Muscular Endurance
  • Ability to use muscles for long periods of time
  • Developing muscular endurance is important in
    body toning.
  • Numerous tests are possible for various muscles.
  • beyond aerobic into anaerobic exercise focusing
    on specific muscle groups.
  • Aerobic (using oxygen)
  • Anaerobic (without oxygen)

14
Muscular Endurance Tests
  • Sit-Up Tests (Crunch Tests)
  • Pull-Up Tests
  • Bench Pull (Rowers)
  • Push-Up Tests
  • Flexed Arm Hang
  • Isotonic Prone Bridge
  • Side Ramp
  • Wall Sit
  • 45 sec Agility Jump

15
Body Composition
  • Is the ratio of fat to muscle, bone, and other
    tissues in your body.
  • A certain amount of body fat is needed for good
    health. Too much or too little can have serious
    health implications.
  • Poor body composition is highly linked to self
    esteem issues but it is something that can be
    significantly controlled over time.

16
Body Composition Tests
  • Underwater Weighing (Volume vs. Density)
  • Bio-Electrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
  • Skinfold Tests (skinfold calipers)
  • Triceps
  • Biceps
  • Subscapular
  • Iliac crest
  • Supraspinale
  • Abdominal
  • Front thigh
  • Medial calf

17
Skill-Related Fitness
  • Agility
  • Balance
  • Power
  • Reaction Time
  • Coordination
  • Speed

18
Agility
  • The ability to change the position of your body
    while controlling the movement of your whole
    body.
  • Important quality in many sports that involve
    rapid and controlled changes in direction
  • Agility Tests
  • Zig Zag runs
  • Hexagonal jump
  • Agility ladders

19
Balance
  • Balance is the ability to stay upright or stay in
    control of body movement.
  • We use our eyes, ears and 'body sense' to help
    retain our balance.
  • Some sports require a great deal of balance such
    as skiing, gymnastics, skating, etc.

20
Balance Tests
  • Static Balance
  • Standing on one foot (ball)
  • Flamingo Balance Test
  • Stork stand
  • Balance board
  • Roller board
  • Dynamic Balance
  • Walking on a balance beam
  • Handstands
  • Counterbalance positions

21
Power
  • The ability to do strength performances at a
    rapid pace.
  • Strength Speed Power
  • Football players, shot putters, swimmers, and
    high jumpers are examples of athletes who
    typically have a high degree of power.

22
Power Testing
  • Standing Long Jump
  • 3 hop test
  • Vertical Jump Test
  • Baseball throw
  • Punching Bag Test
  • Medicine Ball Tests

23
Reaction Time
  • The amount of time it takes the body to respond
    to a stimulus.
  • Eyes position of players, ball, etc.
  • Ears playcalls, spectators, players, coaches
  • Kinesthetic sense body position, options, etc.
  • Sports requiring quick reaction (racing, table
    tennis, boxing or karate)

24
Reaction Time Testing
  • Metre stick test catch while it drops
  • Click test
  • Reaction Light Board
  • Whack-a-mole

25
Coordination
  • The integration of eye, hand, and foot movements
  • Required for many sports skills especially those
    with moving objects (ball, puck, shuttle)
  • The ability to move two or more body parts under
    control, smoothly and efficiently.
  • Hand-eye and foot-eye coordination
  • Very difficult to teach, takes practice to develop

26
Coordination Tests
  • Wall Toss (alternating hands)
  • Wall Pass (alternating feet)
  • Light Boards
  • Many of these tests are related to basic
    developed skills as well.
  • Juggling, spinning a basketball, hackysack etc.
    are more skill based but could be used.

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27
Speed
  • The ability to cover a distance in a short time
  • Short runs or sprints are used to measure
  • - 40 yd dash
  • - 100m run
  • - Cycle Sprints
  • - etc

28
Norm Referenced Standards
  • Using statistical norms to determine fitness
    levels
  • Indicated in percentile rankings
  • of ind. who scored at or below your score
  • 75th better than 75 of the pop.
  • Not about comparing specific individuals but to
    the whole population

29
Percentile Norms for 1.6km Run (1 mile time trial)
Age 13 14 15 16 17
Percentile Female
95 712 720 741 709 730
75 820 815 844 902 905
50 929 937 1007 1047 949
25 1058 1145 1223 1302 1130
5 1457 1701 1624 1532 1526

Percentile Male
95 613 553 603 550 603
75 654 638 637 630 638
50 729 712 716 713 727
25 837 804 806 809 828
5 1025 1034 1039 1042 1100
30
Criterion Related Standards
  • Uses specific standards to indicate fitness
  • Not relative to other individuals
  • Determined by fitness professionals

1 Minute Sit Up Test (Men)
Age  18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65 65
Excellent gt49 gt45 gt41 gt35 gt31 gt28
Good 44-49 40-45 35-41 29-35 25-31 22-28
Above avg 39-43 35-39 30-34 25-28 21-24 19-21
Avg 35-38 31-34 27-29 22-24 17-20 15-18
Below Avg 31-34 29-30 23-26 18-21 13-16 11-14
Poor 25-30 22-28 17-22 13-17 9-12 7-10
Very Poor lt25 lt22 lt17 lt9 lt9 lt7
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