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The Rise and Spread of Islam

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The Rise and Spread of Islam – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 11 November 2019
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Tags: arab | islam | rise | role | spread | women

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Title: The Rise and Spread of Islam


1
The Rise and Spread of Islam
2
Why Important???
  • Islam spread quickly to become one of the worlds
    most popular religions
  • Remains so to this day
  • Muslim merchants played a crucial role in trade
    and cultural diffusion

3
Geography
  • Origins Arabian Peninsula
  • Mostly desert
  • Cities on coasts or near an oasis, thrived on
    trade
  • Mecca and Medina most important
  • Bedouin tribes controlled caravan routes between
    cities
  • Nomadic, clans based on kinship

http//www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/942/6639
46.JPG
http//cache.eb.com/eb/image?id5769rendTypeId4
4
Pre-Islamic Arabia
  • Polytheistic religion, animistic
  • Some Jewish and Christian influence
  • Strong familial ties
  • Polygamy
  • Some allowed women multiple husbands (polyandry)
  • Women enjoyed more freedom than those among
    neighboring cultures (Byzantine Empire and
    Persians)
  • Many Bedouin tribes were matrilineal
  • Women not secluded or veiled
  • Poetry main form of artistic expression
  • No written language among Bedouin tribes

5
Rise of Islam
  • By 500s, Arabia was fragmented
  • Rivalry among Bedouin
  • Christianity and Judaism increased in influence
  • Religious disunity
  • Prophets began to call for unity among the Arabs
  • Believed a common religion was needed

6
Muhammad
  • Born around 570
  • Grew up with fathers relatives
  • Educated to be a merchant
  • Moved to Mecca as an adolescent
  • Heavily influenced by monotheistic religion
    (Judaism and Christianity)
  • 610 received revelation from Allah
  • Believed his revelation was the final word of god
  • Foundations of new religion Islam
  • Beliefs and teachings recorded in the Quran
    (Koran)

7
http//theinsanityofthesane.files.wordpress.com/20
08/05/quran1.jpg
8
Muhammad
  • Teachings unpopular in Mecca at first
  • Fled to Medina
  • became skilled politician and spiritual leader
  • Islamic community became known as umma
  • Muhammads teaching quickly spread
  • Unified the people of Arabia

9
http//spicetrader.net/immortal/mecca-medina.png
10
Teaching of Muhammad Tenets of Islam
  • Muslim follower of Islam
  • 5 Pillars of Islam
  • Acceptance of Allah as one true god and Muhammad
    as his prophet
  • Prayer 5 times daily in direction of Mecca
  • Fasting during day-light hours of Ramadan
  • Charity for the less fortunate
  • Hajj- pilgrimage to Holy Land

11
http//www.theodora.com/wfb/photos/saudi_arabia/gr
and_mosque_mecca_soudi_arabia_photo_2.jpg
12
Beliefs of Islam
  • Islam
  • Is monotheistic
  • promotes equality of all believers in the eyes of
    God
  • Encourages charity for the poor
  • Belief in judgment in the afterlife (paradise or
    hell)
  • Islam was an appealing religion that spread
    quickly

13
Caliphate
  • 632 death of Muhammad
  • Uncertainty about leadership in Muslim community
  • Some renounced faith due to lack of leadership
  • Caliph political and religious successor of
    Muhammad
  • Some wanted Ali (Muhammads first cousin) to take
    over
  • Others felt Abu Bakr (Muhammads father-in-law)
    would be better

14
Umayyad Caliphate
  • Abu Bakr of the Umayyad clan became caliph (from
    632-634)
  • Began to standardize the Islamic faith, oversee
    compilation of the Quran (Koran), reassert
    Muslim authority among the Arabs
  • Temporary peace
  • 656 Civil War erupted after assassination of the
    3rd caliph (Uthman)
  • Those who supported Umayya clan won (661)
  • Conflict created a major division among the
    Muslim community

15
Sunni-Shia Split
  • Sunni Muslims supported the Umayyad clan
  • Believed the first 3 caliphs had been accurately
    chosen
  • Shia (Shiite) Muslims supported Ali to be
    caliph
  • Believed the first 3 caliphs were unfairly chosen
  • The Sunni-Shiite conflict still continues to
    this day.

16
Umayyad Caliphate
  • 632-750, Umayyad ruled over an Arab Empire
  • Capital in Damascus, Syria
  • Major Features
  • Arabic as official language
  • Use of gold silver coins as currency
  • Muslims enjoyed highest social position
  • Only pay taxes for charity received share of
    wealth from caravans
  • Most people were dhimmi (non-Muslim)
  • paid the bulk of taxes
  • Very little attempt to convert non-Muslims
  • Established major area of influence in Jerusalem

17
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18
Umayyad Caliphate
  • Gender/Family under Umayyad
  • Muhammad taught respect for women, saw marriage
    as important social institution
  • Denounced adultery, forbade female infanticide
  • Saw men women as equals in eyes of Allah
  • Under Umayyad, men allowed 4 wives
  • Women allowed only 1 husband
  • Veiling not practiced
  • Women involved in various occupations (law,
    commerce, scholars)

19
Abbasid Caliphate
  • 750-1258
  • 750 Umayyad overthrown during rebellion
  • Abbas took over and established the Abbasid
    Caliphate
  • Capital at Baghdad
  • Abbasid was a Golden Age for Islam
  • Court-life, literature, learning

20
Abbasid Caliphate
  • Increase in converts during the Abbasid
  • Missionary work to promote conversion
  • Urban expansion
  • Baghdad became a cultural center and economic hub
  • Trade boomed
  • Trade routes across the Sahara and throughout the
    Mediterranean and Indian Ocean
  • Use of lateen (triangular) sails on ships known
    as dhows
  • Extensive trade increased wealth
  • Reinvested or used to build Mosques, public
    buildings, religious schools, hospitals (Muslims
    were unsurpassed in their medical expertise at
    the time)

21
Arabian Dhow trade ship
Lateen (triangular) sails
http//www.mikewashburn.com/frcamp/dhow.jpg
22
Abbasid Caliphate
  • Cities were filled with artisan and craft shops
  • Unskilled labor performed by slaves
  • Slavery was not a hereditary condition
  • Non-Muslims, usually captives from Africa
  • Quran(Koran) forbids enslavement of Muslims,
    Jews, Christians, or Zoroastrians

23
Islamic Law Sharia
  • Over time, Muslim scholars developed an Islamic
    law code
  • Sharia
  • Legal stability and common moral code
  • Followed to varying degrees

24
Islamic Learning
  • Muslim scholars preserved classical works from
    the Greek and Hellenistic period
  • Adopted the Indian Numeral system spread it
  • Made advances in algebra and trigonometry
  • Architecture became a form of artistic expression
  • Mosques with elaborate mosaics inside
  • Elaborate palaces for entertaining the elite

25
Dome of Rock- Jerusalem http//en.wikipedia.org/wi
ki/Dome_of_the_Rock
26
Declining Position of Women
  • During the Abbasid, the position of women began
    to decline
  • Harems very popular
  • Legends of harems with thousands of concubines
    and eunuchs
  • Veiling and seclusion became popular
  • Only slave women allowed to appear in public
    unescorted
  • However, women did have some rights
  • Own property, right to divorce and remarry, right
    to testify in court, and the right to go on hajj

27
Decline of Abbasid Caliphate
  • By mid-800s Abbasid began to lose power
  • Internal unrest (Sunni-Shiite conflict)
  • Courtly excess became a financial drain
  • Sunni-Shiite conflict
  • Revolts by non-Muslims and Turkish slaves
    (Mamluks)
  • Abbasid also faced outside pressures
  • Seljuk Turks (nomadic group) seized territory to
    create the Seljuk Sultanate
  • Crusaders
  • Mongol Invasion
  • Abbasid eventually fell in 1258

28
Muslim Conquests under the Umayyad and Abbasid
  • Muslims began to engage in campaigns against
    neighboring empires
  • To gain wealth and glorify their religion
  • Seized territory from Byzantine Empire
  • Territorial gains in Syria, Egypt, Tunisia,
    Spain, Algeria, Morocco
  • Iberian Peninsula became a hub of leaning and
    culture within Europe

29
Spread of Islam
  • Islam spread quickly
  • Aided by trade
  • Expansion into Sub-Saharan Africa, the Swahili
    Coast of East Africa, parts of Europe and Asia
  • More on this later!!!
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