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ISYS263 Introduction to Information Systems

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ISYS263 Introduction to Information Systems David Chao – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ISYS263 Introduction to Information Systems


1
ISYS263 Introduction to Information Systems
  • David Chao

2
Welcome to the Information Age
  • Information Age/society
  • the majority of workers are involved in the
    creation, distribution, and application of
    information.
  • Knowledge Workers Workers involved in the
    creation, distribution, and application of
    information.
  • Businesses depend on information technology to
    get their work done.

3
Some Newspaper Titles
  • Beefy Google profit boots stocks
  • 4th quarter proft 204 million, revenue 1.03
    billion
  • Online auction scans soar complaints nearly
    double
  • Shoppers can pay for their groceries with the
    touch of a finger
  • Biometric service
  • Law hasnt deterred e-mail spammers
  • Anti-Spam law, Can Spam Act
  • 80 of all email sent

4
Why study information systems?
  • An end-user perspective
  • Enhance personal productivity, and the
    productivity of their work groups and department.
  • Increase your opportunities for success
  • be aware of the management problems and
    opportunities presented by the information
    technology.

5
Why study information systems?
  • An enterprise perspective Information systems
    play a vital role in the success of an
    enterprise.
  • Efficient operations
  • Effective management
  • Competitive advantage

6
Information System is a major functional area of
business
  • A major part of the resources of an enterprise
    and its cost of doing business.
  • An important factor affecting operational
    efficiency, employee productivity, customer
    service, etc.
  • A major source of information needed to promote
    effective decision making.
  • An important ingredient in developing competitive
    products and services that give an organization a
    strategic advantage in the marketplace.
  • A challenge career opportunity.

7
Techies might finally be able to move into top
management
  • More Chief Information Officers (CIOs) are
    reporting directly to CEOs.
  • More CIOs are being included on management
    committees.
  • In a recent survey of executives at capital
    market firms, 89 believed that technology
    managers would assume greater responsibilities.

8
Course Introduction
  • IT Introduction to information technology
  • Computer hardware, software
  • Computer network
  • IS Introduction to information systems
  • Information system components
  • Types of information systems
  • PC personal computing
  • Problem solving techniques
  • expression, problem solving using functions,
    decision, etc.
  • spreadsheet design
  • Introduction to database
  • Internet techniques
  • Creating web pages

9
What is Information Technology?
  • A term used to refer to a wide variety of items
    and abilities used in the creation, storage, and
    dispersal of data and information.
  • Data Raw facts, figures, and details.
  • Information An organized, meaningful, and useful
    interpretation of data.
  • Its three main components are computers,
    communications networks, and know-how.

10
Computers
  • An electronic system that can be instructed to
    accept, process, store, and present data and
    information.
  • Input function
  • Processing function
  • Output function
  • Storage function

11
We use computer to
  • Process data
  • Numerical data
  • Calculation
  • Text data
  • Ex. Name, address, title, etc.
  • word processing, key word search, sorting.
  • Multimedia data
  • Graphics, video/audio data

12
We use computer to
  • Gather information
  • Information about business performance
  • Ex. How many cars sold in July?
  • Other information.
  • Improve communication
  • Email, electronic bulletin, computer conference
  • Chat, Weblog
  • Internal, and inter-organizational

13
Hardware
  • Input devices
  • CPU and primary storage
  • RAM - temporary storage
  • Processor
  • Control Unit - decoder
  • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
  • Machine cycle
  • fetch instruction
  • decode instruction
  • execute instruction
  • place results in memory

14
Hardware
  • Output devices
  • Secondary storage
  • Communication devices

15
Hardware
  • Microcomputers
  • Desktop, notebook, Tablet, PDA, Palm
  • personal computing, workstation,network server.
  • Minicomputers
  • Departmental and workgroup systems, network
    server, workstation.
  • Mainframes
  • Enterprisewide systems, transaction processors
  • Supercomputers
  • Scientific calculation
  • Networked computer systems

16
Local area network
  • Peer-to-peer network
  • no dedicated server
  • allow file sharing with password protection
  • Client/Server network
  • at least one computer as dedicated server
  • improved security, performance
  • Network Operating System (NOS)
  • Downsizing replacing mainframes by networked
    micro/minicomputers.
  • Upsizing replacing PC based systems by networked
    micro/minicomputers.
  • Distributed processing.
  • Client/Server computing.

17
Business Are Becoming Internetworked Enterprises
  • The internet and Internet-like networks
    (intranets and extranets) have become the primary
    information technology infrastructure that
    supports the business operations of many
    organizations.
  • Electronic commerce
  • The buying and selling, and marketing and
    servicing of products, services, and information
    over a variety of computer networks.
  • Globalization
  • Global markets, global production facilities,
    global partners, global competitors, global
    customers.

18
Hardware Trends
  • CPU Parallel processor systems.
  • Two approaches of parallel processor systems
  • Pieces of the problem are worked on
    simultaneously by two or more CPUs and the
    results are then combined.
  • Multiple CPUs are used sequentially in an
    arrangement called pipelining.

19
Hardware Trends
  • Storage
  • RAID (Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks)
    Arrays of disk drives that provides a fault
    tolerant capability by storing multiple copies of
    data on several disks.
  • RAID hardware/RAID software, Mirroring.
  • Erasable optical disk.
  • Input/output video and multimedia input/output,
    voice recognition and response, optical and
    magnetic recognition, biometric scanner.

20
Software (Program)
  • System software
  • Operating system
  • Application software
  • Universitys registration system
  • Application development software

21
Operating system functions
  • User interface
  • Resource management (managing hardware)
  • Task management (managing the accomplishment of
    tasks)
  • File management (managing data and program files)
  • Utilities (providing a variety of supporting
    services)

22
Application development software
  • Low level language
  • High level language
  • third generation
  • fourth generation
  • Word processing, desktop publishing, spreadsheet,
    database management, graphic presentation, etc.
  • fifth generation

23
Compiler
  • Translator Translate the source program to
    machine executable code.
  • Interpreter Translate one command at a time.
  • VBScript, JavaScript

24
Object-oriented development tools
  • Graphical user interface
  • Component programming
  • Event-driven programming
  • Code generator
  • Examples, VisualBasic.Net

25
Portability Java Write Once Run Anywhere
Java Byte Code
Java Source Code
Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
Java Byte Code (Intermediate Code)
Executable Code
26
Microsofts .Net
  • Language must compliance with Common Language
    Specification, CLS.
  • Compile the language into Microsoft Intermediate
    Language (MSIL) code.
  • The MSIL code is then executed in the Common
    Language Runtime (CLR), which conceptually is
    same as the JVM, where it is translated into
    machine code by a compiler.

27
Know-How
  • The capability to do something well.
  • Information technology know-how consists of
  • Familiarity with the tools of IT including the
    Internet
  • Possession of the skills needed to use these
    tools
  • An understanding of when to use IT to solve a
    problem or create an opportunity

28
The Functions of Information Technology
29
IT and Business Reengineering
  • Information technology provides the means to
    rethink/recreate/reengineer conventional business
    processes.
  • Business Processes Collections of activities,
    often spanning several departments, that take one
    or more kinds of input and create a result that
    is of value to a companys customers.
  • Reengineering The reshaping of business
    processes to remove barriers that prohibit an
    organization from providing better products and
    services and to help the organization capitalize
    on its strengths.

30
What Is an Information System?
  • Information system is a collection of components
    that work together to process data and provide
    information to help in the operation and
    management of an organization.

31
Information and Business Operations
  • Business operations are those activities that
    provide the goods and services of the business,
    and that ensure that the business makes a profit
    from selling its products.
  • Manufacturing products, processing customer
    orders, billing customers, keeping track of
    inventory, purchasing raw materials, etc.
  • Information is needed for these operations to
    function efficiently.

32

33
Order Information
Customer
Sales Department
Payment
Sales Information
BillingInfor
A/R Department
Billing Department
Shipping Department
BillingInfor
Shipping Infor
34
Information and Management Decisions
  • A decision is a selection between several courses
    of action.
  • Information helps reduce uncertainty.
  • Information systems improve decision-making
    effectiveness by providing decision makers with
    information related to the decisions for which
    they are responsible.

35
The Fundamental Roles of Information Systems
  • Support of business operations
  • Support of managerial decision making
  • Support of strategic competitive advantage
  • Information systems that give a company a
    competitive advantage in the market place.

36
Benefits of Information Systems
  • Increased productivity
  • Output/Input
  • Reduce cost
  • Improved service
  • ATM, Online system
  • Better information

37
Components of an Information System
  • Information technology
  • people
  • Database
  • Procedure

38
People
  • Information specialists
  • programmer, system analyst, database
    administrator, etc.
  • End-user
  • Menu-level end users
  • Command-level end users
  • End-user programmer
  • End-user computing

39
What Stimulated End-User Computing?
  • An increase in computing literacy
  • The information services backlog
  • Low-cost hardware
  • Power/Price ratio
  • Ex. MB/
  • User-friendly software

40
Traditional Communications Chain
Database Administrator
Systems Analyst
Operator
User
Computer
Programmer
Network Specialist
41
IS and EUC The End-User Computing Communication
Chain
Information Specialists
Support
User
Communication
Computer
42
Office Ethics Confusion
  • Technology Is Changing the Rules of Conduct on
    the Job

43
Do you think it is wrong to
  • Copy companys software for use at home?
  • 35 say no.
  • Use company equipment like computers to search
    for a new job?
  • 34 say no.
  • Blame your own personal errors on technological
    glitches?
  • 39 say no.
  • Use office computers to do personal shopping on
    the Internet?
  • 46 say no.

44
Workplace PCs May Not Be Very Private
  • Dont be fooled It may be personal, but it is
    not private.
  • Cyber-surveillance The person most likely to be
    spying on you is your boss. 27 of businesses
    surveyed by the American Management Association
    said they review employee email.
  • Reasons
  • Productivity
  • Liability
  • Network performance

45
Database
  • A group of related files
  • Support business operations
  • Provide information

46
An example of database application
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47
Major Functions of Database Management
  • Creating a database
  • Analysis Entity-Relationship Diagram
  • Design Design file structure
  • Implementation
  • Accessing a database
  • Updating a database

48
Database Security
  • Logical protection
  • Illegal access
  • Illegal update
  • Virus
  • Physical protection

49
Internet firms flocks to store data in
blast-proof British bunker
  • Some of Britains biggest companies are running
    their Internet operations on systems installed in
    a 300-foot-deep nuclear blast-proof bunker.
  • IRA bombings
  • Anti-Capitalists

50
Procedures
  • Procedure A step-by-step process or a set of
    instructions for accomplishing specific results.
  • Operations
  • Backup and Recovery
  • Security
  • Development

51
  • Operations Procedure A procedure that describes
    how a computer system or application is used, how
    often it can be used, who is authorized to use
    it, and where the results of processing should
    go.
  • Backup Procedure A procedure that describes how
    and when to make extra copies of information or
    software to protect against losses.
  • Recovery Procedure An action taken when
    information or software must be restored.
  • Security Procedure A procedure designed to
    safeguard data centers, communications networks,
    computers, and other IT components from
    accidental intrusion or intentional damage.
  • Development Procedure A procedure that explains
    how IT professionals should describe user needs
    and develop applications to meet those needs.

52
Types of Information Systems
  • Operations Support Systems
  • Transaction processing systems
  • Office automation systems
  • Management Support Systems
  • Management information systems
  • Decision support systems
  • Executive support systems
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