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ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL CHINA

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Title: ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL CHINA


1
ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL CHINA
2
ANCIENT LEGENDS THE THREE WISE SAGE KINGS
  • King Yao a virtuous ruler bringing harmony to
    society
  • King Shun regulating the four seasons, weights,
    measures, and units of time
  • King Yu rescued China from raging floods of the
    Yellow River
  • Legends reflected the values of society many
    may prove true!

3
APPEARANCE OF HUMANS IN EAST ASIA
  • Beginnings were over two hundred thousand years
    ago
  • Domesticated rice around 7000 B.C.E. in the
    valley of the Yangzi River
  • Millet cultivation in the valley of the Yellow
    River
  • Wheat and barley became staple foods of north
    China by 2000 B.C.E.

4
EMERGENCE OF CHINESE SOCIETY 2ND MILLENNIUM BCE
  • Agricultural villages appeared in the valleys of
    the two rivers
  • Society was patriarchal
  • Fathers dominated families
  • Elder males ruled village
  • Males performed religious sacrifices
  • Cities, states appeared in north China during 2nd
    millennium B.C.E.
  • Three dynastic states in the valley of Yellow
    River Xia, Shang, Zhou

5
EARLY AGRARIAN SOCIETY
  • The Yellow River
  • Water source at high plateau of Tibet
  • Loess soil carried by the river's water, hence
    "yellow"
  • The river was "China's Sorrow" as it flooded
    uncontrollably
  • Loess rich soil, soft, easy to work
  • Neolithic societies after 5000 B.C.E.
  • Yangshao society, 5000-3000 B.C.E.
  • Excavations at Banpo village fine pottery, bone
    tools

6
ANCIENT CHINA
7
XIA DYNASTY
  • Archeological discovery of the Xia is still in
    its preliminary stage
  • Established about 2200 B.C.E.
  • Legendary King Yu, the dynasty founder, a hero of
    flood control
  • Erlitou possibly the capital city of the Xia
  • Chinese scholars believe it existed

8
THE SHANG DYNASTY 1766-1122 B.C.E.
  • Arose in the southern, eastern areas
  • Many records, material remains discovered
  • Bronze metallurgy, monopolized by elite
  • Agricultural surpluses supported large troops
  • Vast network of walled towns
  • Shang-kings were warriors
  • Constant struggle with nobles for power
  • The Shang capital moved six times
  • Lavish tombs of Shang kings
  • Contained chariots, weapons, bronze goods
  • Sacrificial human victims, dogs, horses

9
MANDATE OF HEAVEN
  • The right to rule granted by heaven
  • Zhou justified their overthrow of Shang
  • Ruler called "the son of heaven"
  • Only given to virtuous, strong rulers
  • To lose mandate someone else should rule
  • Replacement of dynasties Dynastic Cycle
  • Signs one had lost mandate
  • Corruption, heavy taxes
  • Lazy officials and rulers
  • Revolts, invasions, civil wars, crime
  • Natural disasters
  • Society develops bad morals, habits

10
THE ZHOU DYNASTY 1122-256 B.C.E.
  • The rise of the Zhou
  • The last Shang king was a bad ruler
  • The Zhou forces toppled the Shang
  • Political organization
  • Adopted decentralized administration
  • Used princes and relatives to rule regions
  • Consequences
  • Weak central government with ceremonial functions
  • Rise of regional powers often called feudalism
  • Constant rivalry between warring families, nobles

11
THE FALL OF THE ZHOU
  • Iron metallurgy
  • Iron technology spread 1st millennium B.C.E.
  • Iron weapons helped regional authorities to
    resist the central power
  • Qin mastered iron technology, weapons
  • Nomadic invasion sacked capital
  • Other Troubles
  • Territorial princes became more independent
  • Warring States (403-221 B.C.E.)
  • Rise of Qin state
  • Last king abdicated his position in 256 B.C.E.

12
FAMILY
  • Xia to Zhou ruled through family, kinship
  • Veneration of ancestors
  • Belief in ancestors' presence, continuing
    influence
  • Burial of material goods with the dead
  • Offering sacrifices at the graves
  • Eldest males presided over rites honoring
    ancestors
  • Only males could perform religious duties
  • Filial Piety
  • Patriarchal society
  • During Neolithic times, Chinese society
    matrilineal
  • Rise of states, war due to men's contribution s
  • After Shang, not even queens merited temples

13
THE SOCIAL ORDER
  • The ruling elites
  • Royal family and allied noble families at the top
  • Their lavish consumption of bronze products, silk
  • Hereditary aristocrats with extensive landholding
  • Most of the land owned by the king, nobles
  • Peasants, the majority of population
  • Called the mean people
  • Landless peasants provided labor
  • Lived in small subterranean houses
  • Wood, bone, stone tools before iron spread in the
    6th century B.C.E.
  • Womens World
  • Wine making, weaving, silkworm raising
  • Managing household, raising children
  • Elite women vs. poor women

14
OTHERS
  • Specialized labor
  • Free artisans, craftsmen in great demand
  • Also served the needs of the ruling elites
  • Merchants, trade were important
  • Jade from Central Asia, tin from SE Asia
  • A few pieces of pottery from India
  • Merchants ranked socially lower
  • Slaves
  • Mostly war prisoners
  • Performed hard work
  • Became sacrificial victims
  • Suspicious towards Foreigners

15
CHINESE POPULAR RELIGION
  • Customary beliefs and practice
  • As old as civilization in China
  • Never encouraged/discouraged by state
  • Syncretic in nature
  • Will absorb many different traditions
  • Blends all major ideas, philosophies
  • Exists in harmony with official philosophies,
    faiths
  • Believes gods, spirits (shen) influence family,
    world
  • Power over world affairs
  • Deceased members of community, family
  • Deified figures of history, literature
  • Spiritual embodiment of nature, geography
  • Maintenance of family shrines, community temples
  • Prayers, supplications
  • Food offerings
  • Shamanism and divination are practiced

16
HOUSEHOLD PUBLIC RITUALS
  • Household Rituals
  • Always performed by males
  • Expression of Confucian filial piety
  • Domestic altar
  • Names of deceased, icons
  • Worship of the stove god
  • Oversees familys moral conduct
  • Reports on family to heaven
  • Public Rituals
  • Preserve social harmony, local identity
  • Local earth god protects area from spirits
  • City god important has temple at center of city
  • Physical, public processions, offerings
  • Supreme Deity and Influence of Daoism
  • Shangdi (Ruler on High)
  • Cannot be addressed directly
  • Shang kings called up other spirits to address
    Shangdi
  • Later called Tian or Heaven
  • Rulers called Son of Heaven

17
SECULAR CULTURAL TRADITION
  • No organized religion, priestly class
  • Impersonal heavenly power - tian
  • Males performed few duties
  • Fathers took care of family duties
  • Rulers took care of the public duties
  • Oracle bones
  • Rulers, people question tian for direction
  • Primary instruments of fortune-tellers
  • Discovery of the "dragon bones" in 1890s
  • Bones recorded day-to-day concerns
  • Early Chinese writing
  • Earliest form was the pictograph
  • From pictograph to ideograph
  • Absence of alphabetic or phonetic component
  • More than two thousand characters
  • Modern Chinese writing is direct descendant

18
THOUGHT, LITERATURE
  • Zhou literature
  • The Book of Change, a manual of diviners
  • The Book of History, the history of the Zhou
  • The Book of Rites
  • The rules of etiquette and rituals for
    aristocrats
  • The Book of Songs
  • The most notable of the classic works
  • Verses on themes both light and serious
  • Reflected social conditions of the early Zhou
  • Destruction of early literature
  • Most Zhou writings have perished
  • 1st emperor destroyed most writings

19
NOMADS, PASTORALISTS
  • Steppelands
  • Pastoralists domesticated animals
  • Lived on grassy lands
  • Seasonal migrations to pasture lands
  • Became nomads, ancestors of Turks, Mongols
  • Nomadic society
  • Little farming, but relied on herding animals
  • Exchange of products between nomads, farmers
  • Nomads often invaded rich agricultural society
  • Nomads did not imitate Chinese ways
  • Nomadism relied on grains and manufactured goods
    of the Chinese

20
EXPANSION OF CHINESE SOCIETY
  • The Yangzi valley
  • The longest river of China
  • Two crops of rice per year
  • Dependable and beneficial to farmers
  • Indigenous peoples of S. China
  • Many assimilated into Chinese society
  • Some pushed into hills, mountains
  • Migrated to Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand
  • State of Chu (Conquered by Qin)
  • Emerged in the central Yangzi region
  • Challenged the Zhou for supremacy
  • Adopted Chinese ways

21
CONFUCIUS SEARCH FOR ORDER
  • Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.)
  • A strong-willed man, from an aristocratic family
  • Traveled ten years searching for an official post
  • Educator with numerous disciples
  • Sayings compiled in the Analects by disciples
  • Confucian ideas
  • Fundamentally moral and ethical in character
  • Restore political and social order stress ritual
  • Formation of junzi - "superior individuals"
  • Edited Zhou classics for his disciples to study
  • The key Confucian concepts
  • Ren - a sense of humanity
  • Li - a sense of propriety
  • Xiao - filial piety
  • Cultivating of junzi for bringing order to China
  • 5 Relationships and filial piety as basis of
    society

22
LATER CONFUCIANS
  • Mencius (372-289 B.C.E.)
  • Principal spokesman for the Confucian school
  • Believed in the goodness of human nature
  • Government by benevolence, humanity
  • Xunzi (298-238 B.C.E.)
  • Served as a governmental administrator
  • Cast doubt on the goodness of human nature
  • Harsh social discipline to order to society
  • Stress moral education, good public behavior

23
LEGALISM
  • Legalism
  • The doctrine of statecraft
  • Promoted a practical and ruthlessly efficient
    approach
  • No concern with ethics and morality
  • No concern with the principles governing nature
  • Doctrine used by Qin dynasty
  • Shang Yang (ca. 390-338 B.C.E.)
  • A chief minister of the Qin state
  • His policies summarized in The Book of Lord Shang
  • Was executed by his political enemies
  • Han Feizi (ca. 280-233 B.C.E.)
  • Student of Xunzi, became the most articulate
    Legalist
  • A synthesizer of Legalist ideas
  • Forced to suicide by his political enemies

24
LEGALISM IN PRACTICE
  • The state's strength
  • Agriculture
  • Military force
  • Discouraged commerce, education, and the arts
  • Harnessing self-interest of people for needs of
    state
  • Called carrot and stick approach in west
  • Called for harsh penalties even for minor
    infractions
  • Advocated collective responsibility before law
  • Not popular among the Chinese,
  • Chinese used legalism if state threatened
  • Legalism still doctrine common to China

25
MOHISM
  • Founder Mo Zi
  • Lived 470 391 BC
  • A commoner, worked with mean people
  • Served in military, ideas based on it
  • Beliefs
  • Partiality, competition causes problems
  • Advocates doctrine of universal love
  • Advocates cooperation
  • Stress discipline, order, authority
  • Loyalty to all elders, not family
  • Emphasized practical hate waste, war
  • Favor math, science over arts, ritual

26
DAOISM
  • Prominent critics of Confucianism
  • Preferred philosophical reflection and
    introspection
  • Understand natural principles, live in harmony
    with them
  • Laozi and Zhuangzi
  • Laozi, founder of Daoism wrote the Daodejing
  • Zhuangzi, Daoist philosopher, wrote Zhuangzi
  • Philosophical Daoism
  • Dao - The way of nature, the way of the cosmos
  • Opposites in balance, complementary
  • An eternal principle governing all workings of
    the world
  • Passive, yielding, does nothing , accomplishes
    everything
  • Tailor behavior to passive, yielding nature
  • Ambition, activism brought the world to chaos
  • Popular Daoism
  • A folk or religious form of Daoism not
    philosophical
  • Emerged at end of Han Dynasty
  • Seek to master forces of natural, spiritual world
  • Many deities including immortals
  • People venerated the immortals or saints

27
DAOIST WUWEI
  • The doctrine of wuwei
  • Disengagement from worldly affairs
  • Called for simple, unpretentious life, living in
    harmony with nature
  • Advocated small state, self-sufficient community
  • Political implications
  • Served as a counterbalance to Confucian activism
  • Individuals could live as Confucians by day,
    Daoists by night
  • Generally Daoism flourishes when society at
    peace, prosperous

28
UNIFICATION OF CHINA
  • The Qin State and Dynasty
  • Partially sinified pastoralists, perhaps even
    Turkish
  • Located in west China and adopted Legalist
    policies
  • Encouraged agriculture, resulted in strong
    economy
  • Organized a powerful army equipped with iron
    weapons
  • Conquered other states and unified China in 221
    B.C.E.
  • Qin Shi Huang di
  • King of the Qin proclaimed himself First Emperor,
    221 B.C.E.
  • Established centralized imperial rule
  • Held sons of nobles as hostages demolished
    nobles castles
  • Project of connecting and extending the Great
    Wall
  • 700,000 people worked on project 100,000 killed

29
QIN STATECRAFT
  • Suppressing the resistance
  • Bitterly opposed, was opposed by Confucian
    scholars
  • Buried 460 scholars alive because of their
    criticism against the Qin
  • Burned all books except some with utilitarian
    value
  • Policies of centralization
  • Standardization of laws, currencies, weights,
    measures
  • Standardized scripts tried to create uniform
    language
  • Creates a uniform writing system but not language
  • Tomb of the First Emperor
  • The tomb was an underground palace
  • Excavation of the tomb since 1974
  • Terracotta soldiers and army to protect tomb
  • The collapse of the Qin dynasty
  • Massive public works generated ill will among
    people
  • Waves of rebels overwhelmed the Qin court in 207
    B.C.E.
  • A short-lived dynasty, left deep marks in Chinese
    history

30
THE EARLY HAN DYNASTY
  • Liu Bang
  • A general, persistent man, a methodical planner
  • Restored order, established dynasty, 206 B.C.E.
  • Han was long-lived dynasty
  • Early Han policies
  • Sought middle way between Zhou and Qin
  • Royal relatives were not reliable, returned to
    centralized rule
  • Martial Emperor (141-87 B.C.E.)
  • Han Wudi ruled for 54 years
  • Pursued centralization and expansion

31
HAN STATECRAFT
  • Han centralization
  • Adopted Legalist policies
  • Built an enormous bureaucracy to rule the empire
  • Continued to build roads and canals
  • Levied taxes on agriculture, trade, and craft
    industries
  • Imperial monopolies on production of iron and
    salt
  • Established Confucian educational system for
    training bureaucrats
  • Confucianism as the basis of the curriculum in
    imperial university
  • Thirty thousand students enrolled in the
    university in Later Han
  • Han imperial expansion
  • Invaded and colonized northern Vietnam and Korea
  • Extended China into central Asia
  • Han organized vast armies to invade Xiongnu
    territory
  • Han enjoyed uncontested hegemony in east and
    central Asia

32
HAN SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • Patriarchal, patrilocal households averaged five
    inhabitants
  • Large, multigenerational compound families also
    developed
  • Women's subordination (Ban Zhao Admonitions for
    Women)
  • Cultivators were the majority of the population
  • Differences apparent between noble, lower class
    women
  • Scholar bureaucrats Confucian trained
    bureaucrats
  • Officials selected through competitive testing
  • Used to run the government in Early Han
  • Scholar Gentry
  • Confucian bureaucrats intermarried with landed
    elite
  • New class comes to dominate local, national
    offices
  • Strongest in late Han
  • Merchants held in low social esteem

33
TRADE AND COMMERCE
  • Iron metallurgy Farming tools, utensils, and
    weapons
  • State monopolies on liquor, salt and iron
  • Silk textiles
  • Sericulture spread all over China during the Han
  • High quality Chinese silk became a prized
    commodity
  • Traded as far a field as India, Persia,
    Mesopotamia, and Rome
  • Paper production
  • Invented probably before 100 C.E.
  • Began to replace silk and bamboo as writing
    materials
  • Population growth
  • Increased from twenty to sixty million from 220
    B.C.E. to 9 C.E.
  • Despite light taxation, state revenue was large
  • Silk Road established horses for silk

34
HAN TROUBLES
  • Expeditions consumed the empire's surplus
  • Raised taxes and confiscated land of some wealthy
    individuals
  • Taxes, land confiscations discouraged investment
  • Much of defense consumed on defending against
    nomads
  • Social tensions, stratification between the poor
    and rich
  • Problems of land distribution
  • Early Han supported land redistribution
  • Economic difficulties forced some small
    landowners to sell property
  • Some sold themselves or their families into
    slavery
  • Lands accumulated in the hands of a few
  • No land reform, because Han needed cooperation of
    large landowners
  • The reign of Wang Mang
  • A powerful Han minister
  • Dethroned the baby emperor, claimed imperial
    title himself, 9 C.E.
  • Land reforms - the "socialist emperor"
  • Overthrown by revolts, 23 C.E.

35
LOSS OF THE MANDATE
  • The Later Han Dynasty (25-220 C.E.)
  • Overthrown of Wang Mang restores Han
  • New Han much weakened
  • Rule often through large families, gentry
  • Rise of Eunuchs in government as new source of
    power
  • The Yellow Turban Uprising (Daoist Revolt)
  • Rulers restored order but did not address problem
    of landholding
  • Yellow Turban uprising inflicted serious damage
    on the Han
  • Collapse of the Han
  • Factions at court paralyzed the central
    government
  • Han empire dissolved
  • China was divided into regional kingdoms
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