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Understanding Text Structures

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Title: Understanding Text Structures


1
Understanding Text Structures

2
What is a text structure?
  • Text structure refers to how the information
    within a written text is organized. This strategy
    helps students understand that a text might
    present a main idea and details a cause and then
    its effects and/or different views of a topic.
    Teaching students to recognize common text
    structures can help students improve their
    comprehension.

3
What is a text structure?
  • A structure is a building or framework
  • Text structure refers to how a piece of text is
    built.

4
What is a text structure?
  • Builders can use different kinds of structures to
    build different things
  • A skyscraper, for example, is a different kind of
    structure from a house

5
What is a text structure?
  • Writers use different structures to build their
    ideas
  • Each text structure communicates ideas in a
    different way.

6
Chronological order
  • Authors use chronological order to explain how
    things happen in order
  • Chronological order is also called sequence or
    time order

7
Chronological order
  • You will know that you are reading a text in
    chronological order because you will see words
    like first, next, later, then, and finally

8
Chronological order
  • You will often see chronological order in
    directions
  • Have you ever made macaroni and cheese? Its
    simple! First, boil some water and make some
    macaroni. Then, make your cheese sauce. After the
    cheese sauce is ready, mix it with the macaroni.
    Bake the entire thing in the oven. Finally, its
    time to eat!

9
Chronological order
  • You will often see chronological order in
    directions or process.
  • Have you ever made macaroni and cheese? Its
    simple! First, boil some water and make some
    macaroni. Then, make your cheese sauce. After the
    cheese sauce is ready, mix it with the macaroni.
    Bake the entire thing in the oven. Finally, its
    time to eat!

10
Another example of Directions or Process in the
Chronological Order
  • To ensure proper interdental cleaning, floss each
    day. First, break off about 18 inches of floss
    and wind most of it around one of your middle
    fingers. Second, wind the remaining floss around
    the same finger of the opposite hand. Third, hold
    the floss tightly between your thumbs and
    forefingers. Next, guide the floss between your
    teeth using a gentle rubbing motion never snap
    the floss into the gums. Then gently slide it
    into the space between the gum and tooth.

11
Which paragraph is in chronological order?
  • Pennsylvania has many historic sites. You
    can visit Revolutionary war sites, like Valley
    Forge. You can also visit important locations
    from the Civil War, like Gettysburg. Finally, you
    can also see the site of the first oil well in
    Titusville. Pennsylvania has many neat places to
    visit!
  • Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen
    many interesting events. The state was founded in
    1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the
    site of important Revolutionary War battles.
    After that, Pennsylvania was home to new
    factories during the Industrial Revolution.
    Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history.

12
Which paragraph is in chronological order?
  • Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen
    many interesting events. The state was founded in
    1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the
    site of important Revolutionary War battles.
    After that, Pennsylvania was home to new
    factories during the Industrial Revolution.
    Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history.

This is the paragraph in chronological order. Can
you find the clue words that show this order?
13
Which paragraph is in chronological order?
  • Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen
    many interesting events. The state was founded in
    1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the
    site of important Revolutionary War battles.
    After that, Pennsylvania was home to new
    factories during the Industrial Revolution.
    Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history.

This is the paragraph in chronological order. Can
you find the clue words that show this order?
14
Example of Sequence
  • When Corbin decided to become a teacher, he had
    no idea that he was also deciding to become a
    career student. His first notions of wanting only
    a bachelors degree were quickly dispelled.
    During those early years as a teacher, he found
    that the more he learned the more excited he was
    about teaching. Eventually, his passion for
    learning earned him a masters degree and a
    doctorate degree.

15
Another example of Sequence
  • What bad luck! First, the shower ran out of hot
    water this morning while your hair was stiff full
    of shampoo. After you left the house, you waited
    at the bus stop for thirty minutes before you
    gave up and decided to walk. Once you traveled
    the two miles to school, you found out that class
    was already in session and that your watch was an
    hour behind!

16
Think about it!
  • What is a structure?
  • What does chronological order mean?
  • What are some clue words that show chronological
    order?

17
Another text structure
  • But what if an author doesnt want to show how
    something happened in sequence?
  • The author would need to use another text
    structure!

18
Another text structure
  • Suppose an author wanted to explain how these two
    birds are similar and different
  • Chronological order wouldnt work---there is no
    order of events
  • The author would need to use compare and contrast

19
Another text structure
  • The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two
    common birds. Both have crests on their heads.
    Both are common at birdfeeders. But the birds
    have some differences. The male cardinal is a
    bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The
    cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place.
    On the other hand, the cardinal stays in one
    place year after year.

20
Compare and contrast clue words
When authors use the text structure of compare
and contrast, they often use special clue words
to show this text structure. Can you find the
clue words in the paragraph?
21
Can you find the clue words?
  • The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two
    common birds. Both have crests on their heads.
    Both are common at birdfeeders. But the birds
    have some differences. The male cardinal is a
    bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The
    cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place.
    On the other hand, the cardinal stays in one
    place year after year.

22
Here they are!
  • The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two
    common birds. Both have crests on their heads.
    Both are common at birdfeeders. But the birds
    have some differences. The male cardinal is a
    bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The
    cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place.
    On the other hand, the cardinal stays in one
    place year after year.

23
Compare and contrast graphic organizer
  • To organize details from a paragraph in compare
    and contrast, use a Venn diagram

24
Example of Compare and Contrast
  • Mr. Frank and Mr. Van Daan.
  • Moving into a tiny apartment with people you
    have never met is a sure way to discover your
    differences. In the play The Diary of Anne Frank
    , Mr. Frank and Mr. Van Daan are in a similar
    situation, but have very different personalities,
    behaviors, and relationships with their families.
    Both men are Jews living Nazi-occupied Amsterdam
    during World War II. Both have children Mr.
    Frank, two daughters and Mr. Van Daan, a son.
    They try to hide their families from the Nazis in
    the same apartment.
  • Despite their similarities, there are many
    differences between the two men. First, they
    nearly opposite personalities. Mr. Van Daan is
    very concerned with appearances and wears
    expensive clothes. He can be kind, but often
    loses his temper. In contrast, Mr. Frank doesnt
    seem to care about material things. He always
    stays calm and has compassion for other people.

25
Another example of C C
  • Josh was shy and awkward, and Tony was
    popular and outgoing. While Josh enjoyed spending
    time indoors watching TV, playing video games, or
    surfing the Internet, Tony liked tossing around
    the football and hanging out at the mall yet,
    they had remained friends ever since the summer
    they spent together at the camp. Since Tony and
    Josh liked to write and receive mail, they easily
    kept in touch. They also took turns calling each
    other on the weekends.

26
Review
  • Can you explain the difference between
    chronological order and compare and contrast?
  • How can clue words help you as a reader?

27
Another text structure
  • Sometimes, a writer will want to explain how one
    event leads to another
  • This kind of text structure is called cause and
    effect

28
Cause and effect clue words
  • When authors write paragraphs to show causes and
    effects, they use words like cause, effect, as a
    result, consequently, and so

29
Can you find the clue words?
  • The nights snowstorm had many effects.
    People were out shoveling snow from their
    sidewalks. The power lines were draped with ice.
    Snow plows drove down every street. Children were
    the happiest of all. The unexpected snow caused
    school to be cancelled!

30
Can you find the clue words?
  • The nights snowstorm had many effects.
    People were out shoveling snow from their
    sidewalks. The power lines were draped with ice.
    Snow plows drove down every street. Children were
    the happiest of all. The unexpected snow caused
    school to be cancelled!

31
More with cause and effect
  • Baby painted turtles spend all winter in
    their nests. They have special chemicals in their
    blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As
    a result, baby painted turtles can survive
    freezing temperatures!

32
More with cause and effect
  • Baby painted turtles spend all winter in
    their nests. They have special chemicals in their
    blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As
    a result, baby painted turtles can survive
    freezing temperatures!

This is the cause
33
More with cause and effect
  • Baby painted turtles spend all winter in
    their nests. They have special chemicals in their
    blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As
    a result, baby painted turtles can survive
    freezing temperatures!

This is the effect
34
Example of Cause and Effect
  • The effects of global warming are visible all
    over the world. In Antarctica, the number of days
    over the freezing point has increased by three
    weeks in the past twenty years. In Montana,
    glaciers in Glacier National Park are shrinking
    at an alarming rate and they may be gone by 2070.
    Rising temperatures have led to a 75 percent
    decline in the ice on Africas tallest mountain.
    This ice is expected to disappear completely in
    just fifteen years.

35
Review
  • Which text structure tells about how things are
    similar and different?
  • Compare and contrast
  • Which text structure explains how things
    happen in time order?
  • Chronological order

36
Another kind of text structure
  • Sometimes, an author will want to explain a
    problem, and then show one or more solutions
  • This kind of text structure is called problem and
    solution

37
An example of problem and solution
Park School had a terrible problem. Every day
at recess, students would argue over the slides.
Teachers had to spend time every day taking care
of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up
with a great solution. They bought another set of
slides that everyone could enjoy.

38
An example of problem and solution
  • Park School had a terrible problem. Every day
    at recess, students would argue over the slides.
    Teachers had to spend time every day taking care
    of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up
    with a great solution. They bought another set of
    slides that everyone could enjoy.
  • Can you find the problem and the solution in this
    paragraph?

39
An example of problem and solution
  • Park School had a terrible problem. Every day
    at recess, students would argue over the slides.
    Teachers had to spend time every day taking care
    of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up
    with a great solution. They bought another set of
    slides that everyone could enjoy.
  • Here is the problem

40
An example of problem and solution
  • Park School had a terrible problem. Every day
    at recess, students would argue over the slides.
    Teachers had to spend time every day taking care
    of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up
    with a great solution. They bought another set of
    slides that everyone could enjoy.
  • Here is the problem

Here is the solution
41
Another Example of Problem Solution
  • The growth of urban areas exacerbated many
    problems,
  • including the absence of clean drinking water,
    the lack of cheap public
  • transportation, and most importantly, poor
    sanitation. Sanitation problems
  • led to heavy urban mortality rates and frequent
    epidemics of typhoid,
  • dysentery, typhus, cholera, and yellow fever.
    Government officials,
  • recognizing the need for improvement, initiated
    the return to suburban and rural areas. The
    proposal involved several cost effective
    solutions. Local village water delivery systems
    were improved, and as villages were
  • substantially smaller, almost everything was in
    walking distance, thereby
  • eliminating the need for public transportation.

42
Text structures weve learned so far
  • Chronological order
  • Compare and contrast
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution

43
Another pattern is known as Description
  • Authors list a series or set of items, facts,
    reasons, details, points, examples, features or
    characteristics.
  • Changing the order of the details does not change
    their meaning.

44
  • The Description pattern is like listing the
    characters that make up a description are no more
    than a simple listing of details.

45
Example of Description
  • An animal as large and beautiful as a horse needs
    to be cared for carefully. First, cleaning its
    stall on a regular basis is absolutely
    necessary.In addition, a horse needs to be
    groomed 3-5 times a week. Finally, a horse needs
    to be fed and exercised on a daily basis.

46
Now its your turn!
  • On the next few slides, you will read some
    paragraphs about the Great Chicago Fire
  • Your task is to decide on the text structure for
    each one
  • Understanding the text structure will help you to
    understand each paragraph

47
Whats the text structure?
  • Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice
    the flames coming from the OLeary barn at around
    830 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm
    box made it impossible for the people in the area
    to call for the fire department. By 930 pm, the
    entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours,
    there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind
    coming from the lake only made the fire bigger.
    It would be another day before the fire would be
    completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings
    had been burned.
  • Chronological order
  • Compare and contrast
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution
  • Main idea

48
Whats the text structure?
  • Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice
    the flames coming from the OLeary barn at around
    830 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm
    box made it impossible for the people in the area
    to call for the fire department. By 930 pm, the
    entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours,
    there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind
    coming from the lake only made the fire bigger.
    It would be another day before the fire would be
    completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings
    had been burned.
  • Chronological order
  • Compare and contrast
  • Problem and solution

49
Whats the text structure?
  • Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice
    the flames coming from the OLeary barn at around
    830 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm
    box made it impossible for the people in the area
    to call for the fire department. By 930 pm, the
    entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours,
    there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind
    coming from the lake only made the fire bigger.
    It would be another day before the fire would be
    completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings
    had been burned.
  • Chronological order

50
Whats the text structure?
  • Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice
    the flames coming from the OLeary barn at around
    830 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm
    box made it impossible for the people in the area
    to call for the fire department. By 930 pm, the
    entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours,
    there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind
    coming from the lake only made the fire bigger.
    It would be another day before the fire would be
    completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings
    had been burned.
  • Chronological order

51
Whats the text structure?
  • Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice
    the flames coming from the OLeary barn at around
    830 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm
    box made it impossible for the people in the area
    to call for the fire department. By 930 pm, the
    entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours,
    there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind
    coming from the lake only made the fire bigger.
    It would be another day before the fire would be
    completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings
    had been burned.
  • Chronological order
  • Notice how the paragraph shows how events happen
    in time order

52
Whats the text structure?
  • Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice
    the flames coming from the OLeary barn at around
    830 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm
    box made it impossible for the people in the area
    to call for the fire department. By 930 pm, the
    entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours,
    there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind
    coming from the lake only made the fire bigger.
    It would be another day before the fire would be
    completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings
    had been burned.
  • Understanding that this text is written in
    chronological order can help you to understand
    how the Great Fire started

53
Try another!
  • Chronological order
  • Compare and contrast
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution
  • Main idea
  • Why was the Great Chicago Fire so
    disastrous? After all, Chicago had fire
    departments and fire alarms. One reason for the
    terrible fire is that the alarm malfunctioned.
    The local fire company noticed the fire by
    accident as it was returning from another fire.
    As another problem, a watchman who saw the flames
    directed other fire companies to a location that
    was nearly a mile away from the fire. Because of
    these two problems, a fire that could have been
    controlled rapidly spread across the city.

54
Try another!
  • Compare and contrast
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution
  • Why was the Great Chicago Fire so
    disastrous? After all, Chicago had fire
    departments and fire alarms. One reason for the
    terrible fire is that the alarm malfunctioned.
    The local fire company noticed the fire by
    accident as it was returning from another fire.
    As another problem, a watchman who saw the flames
    directed other fire companies to a location that
    was nearly a mile away from the fire. Because of
    these two problems, a fire that could have been
    controlled rapidly spread across the city.

55
Try another!
  • Cause and effect
  • Why was the Great Chicago Fire so
    disastrous? After all, Chicago had fire
    departments and fire alarms. One reason for the
    terrible fire is that the alarm malfunctioned.
    The local fire company noticed the fire by
    accident as it was returning from another fire.
    As another problem, a watchman who saw the flames
    directed other fire companies to a location that
    was nearly a mile away from the fire. Because of
    these two problems, a fire that could have been
    controlled rapidly spread across the city.

56
Try another!
  • Cause and effect
  • Notice how the causes (in blue) lead to the
    effect (in yellow)
  • Why was the Great Chicago Fire so
    disastrous? After all, Chicago had fire
    departments and fire alarms. One reason for the
    terrible fire is that the alarm malfunctioned.
    The local fire company noticed the fire by
    accident as it was returning from another fire.
    As another problem, a watchman who saw the flames
    directed other fire companies to a location that
    was nearly a mile away from the fire. Because of
    these two problems, a fire that could have been
    controlled rapidly spread across the city.

57
What text structure is here?
  • After the fire, thousands of people were
    left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing
    except the clothes on their backs. Providing all
    of these people with food, clean water, and
    shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city
    quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
    group started giving out the food donations that
    were pouring in from other cities. The society
    built places for people to live, gathered the
    tools that people needed to rebuild their houses,
    and even vaccinated 64,000 people against
    smallpox.
  • Chronological order
  • Compare and contrast
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution
  • Main idea

58
What text structure is here?
  • After the fire, thousands of people were
    left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing
    except the clothes on their backs. Providing all
    of these people with food, clean water, and
    shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city
    quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
    group started giving out the food donations that
    were pouring in from other cities. The society
    built places for people to live, gathered the
    tools that people needed to rebuild their houses,
    and even vaccinated 64,000 people against
    smallpox.
  • Chronological order
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution

59
What text structure is here?
  • After the fire, thousands of people were
    left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing
    except the clothes on their backs. Providing all
    of these people with food, clean water, and
    shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city
    quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
    group started giving out the food donations that
    were pouring in from other cities. The society
    built places for people to live, gathered the
    tools that people needed to rebuild their houses,
    and even vaccinated 64,000 people against
    smallpox.
  • Problem and solution

60
What text structure is here?
  • After the fire, thousands of people were
    left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing
    except the clothes on their backs. Providing all
    of these people with food, clean water, and
    shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city
    quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
    group started giving out the food donations that
    were pouring in from other cities. The society
    built places for people to live, gathered the
    tools that people needed to rebuild their houses,
    and even vaccinated 64,000 people against
    smallpox.
  • Problem and solution
  • Here is the problem

61
What text structure is here?
  • After the fire, thousands of people were
    left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing
    except the clothes on their backs. Providing all
    of these people with food, clean water, and
    shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city
    quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This
    group started giving out the food donations that
    were pouring in from other cities. The society
    built places for people to live, gathered the
    tools that people needed to rebuild their houses,
    and even vaccinated 64,000 people against
    smallpox.
  • Problem and solution
  • Here is the solution

62
Can you find the text structure?
  • Chicago changed in many ways after the
    fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were
    less than five stories high. The buildings that
    were constructed after the fire, however, were
    some of the first skyscrapers in the country.
    Before the fire, most of the houses were made of
    wood. After the fire, people chose to build their
    houses out of stone or brick. There were changes
    in where people lived, as well. The poor people
    in the city lived close to the center of the city
    before the fire. After the fire, they moved into
    neighborhoods that were farther away from the
    downtown area.
  • Chronological order
  • Compare and contrast
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution

63
Can you find the text structure?
  • Chicago changed in many ways after the
    fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were
    less than five stories high. The buildings that
    were constructed after the fire, however, were
    some of the first skyscrapers in the country.
    Before the fire, most of the houses were made of
    wood. After the fire, people chose to build their
    houses out of stone or brick. There were changes
    in where people lived, as well. The poor people
    in the city lived close to the center of the city
    before the fire. After the fire, they moved into
    neighborhoods that were farther away from the
    downtown area.
  • Compare and contrast
  • Cause and effect

64
Can you find the text structure?
  • Chicago changed in many ways after the
    fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were
    less than five stories high. The buildings that
    were constructed after the fire, however, were
    some of the first skyscrapers in the country.
    Before the fire, most of the houses were made of
    wood. After the fire, people chose to build their
    houses out of stone or brick. There were changes
    in where people lived, as well. The poor people
    in the city lived close to the center of the city
    before the fire. After the fire, they moved into
    neighborhoods that were farther away from the
    downtown area.
  • Compare and contrast

65
Can you find the text structure?
  • Chicago changed in many ways after the
    fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were
    less than five stories high. The buildings that
    were constructed after the fire, however, were
    some of the first skyscrapers in the country.
    Before the fire, most of the houses were made of
    wood. After the fire, people chose to build their
    houses out of stone or brick. There were changes
    in where people lived, as well. The poor people
    in the city lived close to the center of the city
    before the fire. After the fire, they moved into
    neighborhoods that were farther away from the
    downtown area.
  • Compare and contrast
  • Notice how this paragraph is comparing
    Chicago BEFORE the fire to Chicago AFTER the fire

66
Can you find the text structure?
  • Chicago changed in many ways after the
    fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were
    less than five stories high. The buildings that
    were constructed after the fire, however, were
    some of the first skyscrapers in the country.
    Before the fire, most of the houses were made of
    wood. After the fire, people chose to build their
    houses out of stone or brick. There were changes
    in where people lived, as well. The poor people
    in the city lived close to the center of the city
    before the fire. After the fire, they moved into
    neighborhoods that were farther away from the
    downtown area.
  • Compare and contrast
  • Notice how this paragraph is comparing
    Chicago BEFORE the fire to Chicago AFTER the fire

67
Can you find the text structure?
  • One problem with the modern Olympics is that
    it has become very big and expensive to operate.
    The city or country that hosts the games often
    loses a lot of money. A stadium, pools, and
    playing fields must be built for the athletic
    events and housing is needed for the athletes who
    come from around the world. And all of these
    facilities are used for only 2 weeks! In 1984,
    Los Angeles solved these problems by charging a
    fee for companies who wanted to be official
    sponsors of the games. Companies like McDonald's
    paid a lot of money to be part of the Olympics.
    Many buildings that were already built in the Los
    Angeles area were also used. The Coliseum where
    the 1932 games were held was used again and many
    colleges and universities in the area became
    playing and living sites.

68
Can you find the text structure?
  • The famous Leaning Tower of Pisa has been
    tilting for over 800years, and recent
    improvements should allow it to continue tilting
    for another 300 more. On August 9, 1173,
    construction began on this well known Italian
    bell tower. Almost immediately, it began leaning
    because it was being erected on the soft silt of
    a buried riverbed. Between 1178 and 1360, work
    stopped and started two more times as workers
    tried to continue the project and figure out how
    to compensate for the tilt. Over the next six
    centuries, the towers lean continued to
    increase, although tourists were still allowed to
    visit. Then, in 1990, Italys prime minister
    feared the tower would collapse and closed it to
    the public. From 1999 to 2001, engineers
    excavated soil from beneath the tower. Now, the
    tower still leans out about 15 feet beyond its
    base, but it should remain stable for several
    more centuries.

69
Can you find the text structure?
For centuries, Japan had one of the lowest
rates of obesity in the world. But that is
changing. About a quarter of adult Japanese are
now considered significantly overweight. Two
reasons in particular explain this weight gain
among the Japanese. For one thing, lifestyles
have become less active as more and more rural
Japanese move into cities. More importantly, many
Japanese are turning away from their traditional
low-fat diet emphasizing rice, fish, and
vegetables. They are instead adopting a more
Western diet that features lots of processed food
that is high in fat.
70
Can you find the text structure?
  • Although they are sisters, Jennifer and
    Jessica are complete opposites. Jennifer enjoys
    playing sports, while Jessica would rather watch.
    Jennifer has no interest in playing a musical
    instrument, while Jessica is the first chair
    violinist. Jennifer listens to new age music,
    while Jessica prefers country. Jennifers
    favorite subject is English, and Jessicas
    favorite is math. Jennifer likes to curl up in a
    chair on a rainy day and read a good book , but
    Jessica would rather sleep all day. No one would
    ever guess that they are actually twins.

71
After this presentation, you should have a better
understanding of the different text structures
writers use.
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