Unit 1: From Pre-History to Early Civilizations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Unit 1: From Pre-History to Early Civilizations PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 67f494-Mjc1O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Unit 1: From Pre-History to Early Civilizations

Description:

Unit 1: From Pre-History to Early Civilizations Chapter 4: Ancient China – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:97
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 68
Provided by: CUSD220
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Unit 1: From Pre-History to Early Civilizations


1
Unit 1 From Pre-History to Early Civilizations
  • Chapter 4 Ancient China

2
Section I Early Civilizations in China (Pages
72-79)
  • This section is about
  • How Chinas geography (mountain barriers and
    rivers) influenced the development of
    civilization while also isolating it from outside
    influences.
  • Life in China during the Shang Dynasty.
  • How different social classes developed in China.

1
2
3
3
  • Geography is very important in the civilizations
    of China.
  • China has many different physical features, and
    climates.
  • Lets look at the stanza from a poem on page 72
  • Would this be a primary source or secondary
    source?

4
One thing that made China different than most
places is it can be hard to get into.
5
4
5
7000 BC 4000 BC-1000 BC
  • An agricultural revolution took place.
  • Rich soils from yearly monsoons and flooding
    rivers gave them plenty of water.
  • They also developed new and better farming tools.
  • In the Huang He (Yellow River valley) farmers
    grew rice and other grains and raised sheep and
    cattle.
  • These farmers and the people in these villages
    worked well together to dig canals and build
    flood walls.
  • The first farming communities arose in China.
  • They had soil rich in loess a fine grained soil
    thats easy to work in and is rich in minerals
    (very fertile).

6
6
(No Transcript)
7
The Shang built Chinas first dynasty (about
1750 BC 1000 BC)
  • At this time, a number of clans (extended
    families) formed a loosely knit group.
  • Archeologists have found remains of some of their
    walled cities complete with palaces and tombs.
  • The King usually had a prince or noble to help
    him keep control in far away areas.
  • Shang armies used chariots and bronze weapons
    against their enemies.

8
Religious beliefs were very important to the
ancient Chinese
  • One of their beliefs ancestor worship
  • They buried dead relatives with food and drink
    (they wanted them to bring them good fortune).
  • And showing respect to people whove come
    before you is important in a lot of Asian
    cultures.
  • The Shang also believed these dead ancestors had
    a close link with a powerful god.
  • They also read oracle bones.

a person, place or thing that a god uses to revel
hidden knowledge
9
The Shang were also the first Chinese writers
7
  • The writing on the oracle bones (from tombs) are
    thought to be some of the earliest Chinese
    writing.
  • At the time, though language and writing wasnt
    the same throughout China.

9
8
10
Shang social classes
  • The King was the warrior / leader and lived in a
    palace.
  • Right below them were warrior nobles (some of
    which controlled their own territories)
  • Most Shang were peasant farmers
  • who lived in huts with dirt floors, worked long
    hours, used simple stone and wood tools, and were
    ordered to fight if a war broke out.

11
Shang artisans and merchants
  • Had no official rank.
  • They were pretty much around to create things and
    sell them to the nobles (peasants didnt need
    their products).
  • A lot of things we find from this time are made
    of bronze (it was the Bronze Age).

12
Shang women
  • Took directions from their husbands and cared for
    their children.
  • Once in a while theyd be given a few rights
    though and were probably better off than women
    in some other areas of the world at that time.

13
Sericulture (silk farming)
  • Women were completely responsible for silk
    production.
  • For centuries, Chinese silk was the most prized
    and expensive fabric in the world (only wealthy
    people could afford it).
  • An ancient Chinese saying Men plough and women
    weave.

14
(No Transcript)
15
(No Transcript)
16
One tomb from this era Lady Haos Tomb
  • Lady Hao was married to a Shang king.
  • This is only Chinese tomb we know of to have
    never been robbed.

Altogether Fu Hao's tomb contained 468 bronze
objects including 130 weapons, 23 bells, 27
knives, 4 mirrors, and 4 tigers or tiger heads
755 jade objects 63 stone objects 5 ivory
objects 564 bone objects including nearly 500
bone hairpins and over 20 bone arrowheads 11
pottery objects 6,900 pieces of cowry shell
17
Stop here for now
Finish the bottom of page "A"
18
Section II The Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties
(Pages 80-84)
  • This section is about
  • The Rise and fall of the Zhou, Qin, and Han
    Dynasties and the major contributions of each.
  • The social and cultural consequences of the rule
    of dynasties in China.

19
  • Read the sequence of events on page 80 (well
    do that in a while)
  • And whats the picture of on page 81?

20
(No Transcript)
21
The Early Zhou
  • When the Shang Dynasty was starting to decline,
    The Zhou started becoming more powerful.
  • Eventually their leader (Wu Wang) attacked and
    overthrew a cruel Shang king.
  • They said they had a reason for doing this
  • ..

22
They said they had earned the approval of a
higher power
  • who had given the king authority to rule.
  • This approval was called the Mandate of Heaven.
  • They claimed the Mandate of Heaven had passed
    from the Shang rulers to them because they were
    kind and truthful.

23
Chinese scholars studied the idea of the Mandate
of Heaven.
1
  • To explain the reason why dynasties rise and fall
    they came up with the dynastic cycle.

A kind and truthful dynasty gains control
The new dynasty provides a good, successful
government
This wins the approval of the gods
The dynasty neglects its duties and loses control
A new group challenges their authority and
overthrows the old government
Violent events (earthquakes, and floods) signal
heavens displeasure
24
2
25
The Zhou Dynasty
  • Organized by social class and land ownership.
  • This started when Wu Wang gave land to his noble
    lords, relatives, and generals.
  • The lords appointed officers to run the daily
    affairs of his territory.
  • Peasants lived on and farmed the lands.
  • The lords governed in the name of the king, but
    were also expected to collect taxes (and give the
    king his fair share of those).
  • If a war broke out, the nobles organized armies
    to defend the king.

26
The Zhou Period was a good time for China
  • Farming was profitable.
  • Better irrigation methods.
  • The Zhou developed blast furnaces allowing them
    to make cast iron.
  • Iron is harder and stronger than bronze giving
    them better farm tools and weapons.
  • So that meant more art and trade.
  • The Zhou started using bronze coins different
    shapes than were used to though.

27
And if things are going good you also have
time to read
3
  • At first, only the rich could read/write.
  • But if merchants are going to trade, they also
    have to be able to read/write.
  • Education became more important and tutors taught
    young men for government service.
  • This is a period where a lot of ancient Chinese
    classics were written.

28
Eventually the Zhou Dynasty lost its power
  • People from outlying areas became more powerful.
  • The wars among these different groups (all from
    China) started some civil wars. By 300 BC, only 7
    Zhou territories were left.
  • The were ready to be taken over completely by

People fighting others from the same country
29
The Qin Dynasty (founded by Zheng)
  • Zheng kept more power to himself and called
    himself First Qin Emperor
  • He was determined to re-unite China.
  • He also had a different philosophy the role of
    government was to meet the needs of the nation
    not the people.
  • This is called authoritarian when a ruler has
    complete and total power.

4
30
Zheng did some good and some bad things
5
  • He didnt favor the nobles with special
    privileges
  • All citizens (not just peasants) paid taxes to
    support his projects and armies.
  • He had strict laws (and enforced them with
    strict punishments)
  • If you disagreed with him, you could be tortured
    or killed.
  • He burned all books (didnt want people learning
    anything) (some books were hidden and saved)
  • United China again.
  • Introduced new coins and set up a system of
    weights and measures.
  • Repaired roads and extended canals.
  • Gave thousands jobs forced them to build his
    tomb of underground chambers and terra cotta
    soldiers.

31
The Zhou had built some walls in China (to keep
out invaders)
  • The Qin joined these together into a great wall
  • But, in doing so, workers were forced to work
    under horrible conditions.
  • Many died.
  • It took centuries until it was complete and
    completely connected.

32
The Terra Cotta Soldiers
  • The significance of the army of Terra Cotta
    soldiers began 2,200 years ago with the conquest
    of all Chinese states which made a king (Qin)
    into the first emperor of the newly unified
    nation.  It took an army of 700,000 craftsman
    laboring for 37 years to produce the massive
    army.  The purpose of the army was to provide
    service to the emperor in the afterlife.  They
    were buried with the Emperor Qin at the time of
    his death. When they were found, time had taken
    its toll and the figures were broken pieces of
    terra cotta.  Each figure had to be meticulously
    repaired.  This repair process continues today. 
  • Apparently, Qin ordered no two faces be alike,
    suggesting that each terra cotta warrior is an
    actual replica modeled after a solder from the
    real army.  The warriors vary in height according
    to their role, the tallest being the
    generals.  The figures include warriors,
    chariots, horses, officials, acrobats, strongmen
    and musicians.  All wooden parts of the chariots
    have decayed, but jewels, gold and silver
    decorations remained.  Even the horses bridles
    were made of silver and gold and were encrusted
    with jade and jewels. 

33
(No Transcript)
34
The Qin dynasty didnt last long (first emperor
ruled for 11 years)
  • The next Gaozu (The Han Dynasty) was a nicer
    leader.
  • China found peace, prosperity, and stability
  • Built new roads and canals
  • Opened up a new trade route (later called the
    Silk Road)
  • Began to trade and export products such as silk
    even traded
  • as far away as Rome.

6
7
8
9
35
Since trade and government was becoming more
complex
  • Han rulers created a civil service where
    citizen employees managed the government and kept
    its records.
  • To be a civil servant, you had to be educated, so
    schools were created for these candidates (had to
    pass a test to become a civil servant).
  • Women were not allowed to take the tests.

36
The Han Dynasty a time of great advancement in
technology and the arts
  • Silk factories became more efficient.
  • Paper making improved (we still use their method
    today).
  • The wheelbarrow and a better plow were invented.
  • The arts flourished including silk tapestries.
  • Magnificent temples and palaces were built.
  • The Han Dynasty ended up becoming about as big as
    the U.S. is today.
  • It lasted until about 220 AD (invaded and
    conquered another cycle)

10
37
Stop here for now
Make sure page "C" is completed
38
Section III Religions and Beliefs in Ancient
China (Pages 85-89)
  • This section is about
  • The main ideas of Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism,
    and Buddhism.
  • How these ideas influenced the cultural, social
    order, government, and religion of ancient China.

39
Confucianism Daoism Legalism
These three Chinese religions have some
similarities and some differences
40
A remarkable philosopher appeared during the Zhou
Dynasty
  • (born in 551 BC)
  • His Chinese name Kong Qiu
  • His western name Confucius
  • Even as a child, he worked hard at his education.
  • As he grew older, he became worried about the
    conditions in China.
  • He went looking for a king who knew about good
    government. But all he found were government
    people who were greedy and dishonest (all they
    cared about was themselves).
  • He tried to change the way people behaved.

41
Confucius was a philosopher who
(Person who thinks about the meanings of things)
  • was an honest man of great learning
  • He felt the early Zhou rulers were good and had
    run the country with harmony and responsibility.
  • He believed
  • A ruler should lead by good example.
  • People had an obligation to obey those who were
    superior.
  • But those who were superior should treat others
    fairly.
  • Every man should try to be a gentleman (educated,
    good manners, and understood ritual and ceremony,
    and what is moral).

42
Confucius had 5 relationships which ruled
society
1
2
  • Between father and son.
  • Between older and younger brother.
  • Between husband and wife
  • Between ruler and subject.
  • Between friend and friend.
  • As long as these relationships were in harmony,
    society would be in harmony.
  • One of his important rules What you do not wish
    for yourself, do not unto others.

43
Confucius was a great and inspiring teacher
  • Even though we dont know if what he said/did was
    written down, many scholars (bright students)
    learned a lot from him.
  • Later, they did record his beliefs and teachings
    called the Analects.
  • Later on the Analects were considered sacred
    with students studying and memorizing his
    sayings.
  • Men trained in his beliefs ended up becoming
    leaders.
  • They even set up schools to learn the teachings
    of Confucius.

44
By the third century BC A new set of beliefs
came along (Daoism or Taoism)
  • Confucianism order, ritual, working hard to
    make the government efficient
  • Daoism Rulers should do as little as possible
    and leave everyone alone.

45
The Laozi (The Classic of the Way and Its Power)
  • Contains the beliefs of Daoism.
  • The Dao is the energy that controls all of the
    events in the universe.
  • The natural order depends on the interaction of
    yin and yang.
  • Yin negative force / dark and weak.
  • Yang positive, bright, and strong.
  • These need to work together to keep balance in
    the universe even if that means spending all
    your time meditating on nature and forgetting
    about worldly matters.

3
4
46
Daoism influenced all the countries around
China (Japan, Korea, and alter even Europe and
North America)
  • Daoism stresses immortality (living forever).
  • Its emphasis on nature inspired writers,
    artists, and architects.
  • The science of the religion also allowed Daoists
    to study astronomy, medicine, and personal
    hygiene.

47
Legalism and Buddhism
5
  • Xunzi was a student of Confucius, but had
    different beliefs about nature and government.
  • He believed laws could inspire people to use good
    behavior.
  • His ideas were called Legalism because they were
    based on laws (with strict laws and harsh
    punishments for doing wrong).
  • He believed people were like little children who
    couldnt be trusted so they need rules and laws.

48
Legalism and the Qin
6
7
  • During this period, the Legalists created a
    strong government.
  • Land was divided up into states all run by the
    government.
  • People could not travel without permits.
  • They were heavily taxed.
  • They were required to work on government projects
    for no pay.
  • Families were grouped together and everyone was
    responsible for any crimes committed by its
    members.

8
49
Buddhism ended up spreading to China because of
the trade along the Silk Road.
  • People didnt follow it at first (it was a
    foreign religion), but started liking that
  • it promised freedom from suffering.
  • Buddhist temples started being built.
  • People started giving them lots of money.
  • They believed this generosity would give them
    good Karma and good fortune in their next life.

9
50
Confucianists and Daoists didnt like Buddhists
  • They didnt agree with Buddhist ideas of
    cremation.
  • They believed it was wrong for monks to not get
    married and have children.
  • Buddhist monks paid no taxes.
  • But all three religions ended up lasting and are
    even still around today.

51
(No Transcript)
52
Stop here for now
Make sure page "E" is completed
53
Section IV Ancient Chinese Life and Culture
(Pages 90-93)
  • This section is about
  • The importance of the family in Chinese society
    and the preference to have sons over daughters.
  • The agrarian-based economy of ancient China.
  • The difficult lives of peasants in China and the
    advances in technology and culture.

54
  • Lets look at the main ideas on page 90.
  • Also. How about the left hand side Then and
    Now Women in China.

What do Xi Shi, Wang Zhaojun, Diao Chan and Yang
Guifei have in common? They are ancient Chinese
women highly regarded for their beauty. Legend
has it, in fact, they are ancient China's four
most beautiful women, and among the nation's most
significant historical figures
55
Chinese families
1
2
  • Children must obey their parents.
  • Wives must obey their husbands.
  • Young people must obey and respect older people.
  • Thats what their religion and beliefs insisted
    upon.

56
Children
3
4
  • Were the reason for the family.
  • Raising children was very important.
  • Children ended up becoming farmers and soldiers.
  • Boys are more important than girls.
  • They were stronger and could work longer in the
    fields.
  • They could perform family ceremonies that honored
    ancestors.
  • In hard times, baby girls might even be left to
  • (you might not want to know)
  • Girls are also a financial burden.
  • If they were to get married, their family often
    had to pay a dowry to the grooms family.

57
Women
5
  • Were inferior to men so we dont know much
    about them (no-one even wrote about them).
  • Even when women did something, they were thought
    of as lower than men.
  • Women were supposed to keep in their place.
  • Lets read on page 91 (in the quotation marks).

58
Ten Signs of Beauty in Ancient China   Concepts
of beauty have changed throughout the various
periods of China's history, but the following 10
characteristics have continuously been considered
signs of beauty 1. Lustrous black hair 2.
Hair loosely coiled on the head to create the
appearance of greater height 3. Finely shaped
black eyebrows. During the Tang Dynasty, many
women shaved their eyebrows, and then drew
eyebrows with pigment 4. Large, bright and
expressive eyes 5. Red lips and white teeth. In
addition to beauty, this was considered a sign of
good health 6. Graceful fingers and arms. A
pretty woman was expected to have well-shaped
hands, with slim, soft fingers, and fair, fleshy
arms 7. Slender waist and fair skin. Throughout
history, women have wanted a willowy figure 8.
Tiny feet and a light, elegant gait 9. Dressing
according to complexion, figure and disposition
and 10. A fragrant body. It's said a concubine of
Qing Emperor Qian Long (1711-1799) gave off a
natural fragrance.
59
Farming and Trade
  • In the Zhou period, farmland was divided up into
    a well-field system.
  • Large areas of land were divided up into 9 parts
    8 for individuals and the 9th for the noble
    landowner (farmed by all).

60
Chinese peasants were very poor
  • Two meals a day.
  • Floods and droughts.
  • Still had to pay taxes (sold crops to make money
    or borrowed).
  • Some were forced to sell everything they had
    including their ____________.

children
61
They had an agrarian economy
  • This meant the depended on agriculture.
  • Its nice to have food, but thats not the best
    way to live.
  • China has had periods of bad weather for a long
    time.
  • When they do, people die (droughts and
    starvation, floods and death).
  • And, they divided up the land poorly dividing
    it up among sons until

62
Merchants and Trade
  • Youd think if you were a businessman, being
    hardworking and clever would be good.
  • In China it wasnt.
  • Merchants were thought of as even lower class
    than farmers and peasants.
  • Confucius said profit wasnt important and
    businessmen want to make a profit.
  • Other countries like Chinese Merchants better
    than the Chinese liked their own merchants (silk,
    lacquer-ware, coins, etc).

6
63
Advances in Technology
7
  • Large scale flood control systems.
  • Processes for making bronze, silk, and fine
    porcelain were perfected.
  • Making cast iron was developed.
  • Better farm tools and equipment.
  • Paper was invented.
  • Excellent geographers and astronomers.
  • Wrote Algebra and Geometry books.

64
Some of the worlds first medicine
  • Relied on observation and careful study.
  • Had to pass a test to practice medicine.
  • Books were written on surgery and the use of
    drugs.
  • Began to use acupuncture.

8
65
(No Transcript)
66
And Literacy and Literature
  • Only the upper class went to school.
  • Considered the ability to read as important.
  • Had a written language as far back as 4500 BC.

9
67
Stop here for now
Make sure page "G" is completed
About PowerShow.com