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Chapter 4 Education in UK


Chapter 4 Education in UK Sept. 2005 Xiao Huiyun Objectives If the family is central to people's lives, surely their next most significant experience is their education. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4 Education in UK

Chapter 4 Education in UK
  • Sept. 2005
  • Xiao Huiyun

  • If the family is central to people's lives,
    surely their next most significant experience is
    their education. In this chapter we will begin
    with a brief survey of the development of free
    universal education since the last century, and
    then take a closer look at the main institutions
    in which British people are formally educated.

Focal Questions
  • What do you think are among the most outstanding
    changes in the English education system since the
    19th century?
  • What does the streaming system mean to you? Do
    you think the system is reasonable? Why?
  • What are some of the recent changes that have
    taken place in a) primary schools, b) secondary
    schools, and c) higher education?
  • Is university life in Britain different from that
    in China? If so, in which aspects?
  • Apart from universities, can you name some other
    higher and further education institutions in

  • Presentation by Students Focal questions 2 4
  • Lectures by the teacher
  • Class discussion Exploitation Activities
  • Assignment for the next chapter

Soul of British Society
A1 Change Reform in Schools
  • Before 1870 school set up by churches, 40 of
    children aged 10 attended
  • From 1870 onwards government took responsibility
    for education in response to changes caused by
    industrial revolution and movement for social
    political reform
  • The 1944 Act in England Wales gave all children
    the right to free secondary education
  • The tripartite system at end of primary
    education children are selected by means of
    streaming. Those on the top stream (20) went to
    grammar schools. The rest went to secondary
    modern and technical schools

A 1 Change Reform cont.
  • 1960s introduction of comprehensive schools
    early selection streaming not fair, equal
    educational opportunities meritocracy
  • In 1999 85 of children attended comprehensive
    schools while 16 went to remaining gr. schools
    or private schools, problems of streaming still
    remain, holding back of brighter students,
    unjustified labelling

A 1 Change Reform cont.
  • Types of Secondary Schools today
  • Comprehensive schools 85
  • Grammar schools 4
  • secondary modern schools 4
  • City Technology Colleges (CTCs )
  • Specialist schools (England only)

A1 Change and Reform cont.
  • Recent reforms -- 1988 Education Reform Act
  • National Curriculum for 5 16 year-olds and
    regular exams -- National Tests at 7, 11, 14
  • Introduction of CTCs -- sponsors main focus of
  • More power given to schools to run their affairs
    within the framework of national curriculum

A 1 Change Reform cont
  • The National Curriculum in England and Wales is
    divided into four Key Stages (KS), three core
    subjects (English, Mathematics and Science) and
    nine non-core foundation subjects. The Key
    Stages are age-related KS 1 goes up to age
    seven, KS 2 from seven to eleven, KS 3 from
    eleven to fourteen (pre-GCSE) and KS 4 from
    fourteen to sixteen (preparation for GCSE and
    equivalent vocational qualifications) -

A 1 Reform Change Key Stages and Tests
A1 Change Reform cont
  • National Curriculum subjects England
  • English, Mathematics,
  • Science, Design and Technology this
    incorporates craft and design, food technology
  • ICT- Information and communications technology
  • History
  • Geography
  • Art and design
  • Music
  • Physical Education

A 1 Change Reform cont.
  • In Scotland there is no legally prescribed
    national curriculum but the Scottish Executive
    Education Department sets out guidelines for
    teachers. The curriculum in Northern Ireland is
    set by the Northern Ireland Council for
    Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment.

A 1 Change Reform cont
  • 1992 all polytechnics and some colleges of higher
    education become universities.
  • 1997 In universities grants are scrapped in
    favour of student loans, fee 1000 pound
  • 1998 National scheme using laptops expected to
    spread to all schools in 21st century

A2 Schools Today Primary Phase
  • Pre-school education is available (often on a
    fee-paying basis) for children aged two to
    four/five through playgroups and nursery schools.
    The emphasis is on group work, creative activity
    and guided play
  • Compulsory education begins at five in England,
    Wales and Scotland and four in Northern Ireland
  • There is little or no specialist subject teaching
    and great emphasis on literacy and numeracy in
    early years
  • The usual age for transfer to secondary schools
    is eleven in England, Wales and Northern Ireland
    and twelve in Scotland.

A 2 Schools Today Secondary Phase
  • Compulsory education ends at age sixteen, though
    many pupils stay on beyond the minimum leaving
    age . The main exam pupils should take is GCSE.
  • About 90 of state secondary school pupils in
    England, Wales and Scotland go to comprehensive
    schools, which provide a wide range of secondary
    education for most children of all abilities from
    a district in the eleven to eighteen age range
    (twelve to eighteen in Scotland)
  • At age sixteen pupils in England and Wales may
    transfer to sixth form colleges or tertiary
    colleges ,leading to GCE A level

A 2 School Today Exams
  • Examinations At 16 students in England and
    Wales take GCSE examinations. These examinations
    are taken by students of all levels of ability in
    any of a range of subjects and may involve a
    final examination, an assessment of work done
    during the two year course, or both of these
    things. At 18 some students taken A-level
    examinations, usually in not more than 3
    subjects. It is necessary to have A-levels in
    order to go to a university or other institutions
    of higher education

A 2 School Today Exams
  • Examinations
  • In Scotland students take the SCE examinations. A
    year later, they can take examinations called
    HIGHERS, after which they can either go straight
    to a university or spend a further year at school
    and take the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies.
    In Scotland the university system is different to
    that in England and Wales. Courses usually last
    four years rather than three and students study a
    larger number of subjects as part of their

A 2 Schools Today Achieve- ment and Social
  • Since 1980s reform a general improvement in
    qualifications by pupils at 16
  • Still a significant relationship between
    achievement of children and their parents social
  • 80 of children from professional middle class
    attend university compared with 17 from the
    poorest homes

A 2 Schools Today Independent Schools
  • Fee-paying, known as public schools
  • 7 of schoolchildren attending
  • Good teaching staff
  • Eton educated 19 Prime Ministers, 6 Chancellors
    of Exchequers, Shelley, Orwell, founded in 1440
    by HENRY VI to educate sons of the poor for
    service of church state. (see p69 for more)

A 2 School Today Public School -- Eton
  • Eton with the tutor

A 2 Schools Today Public School -- Eton
  • Eton Pupils

A2 Schools Today Public Schools
  • Harrow School East Ham Grammar
    School for Boys

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
  • 110 universities in UK. 93 in England, 13 in
    Scotland, 2 in Wales and 2 in N. Ireland
  • Over 42 of pupils become university students on
    leaving school at 18
  • Two other main universities. University of
    Buckingham (800 students) Open University (over
    20,000 students). The latter non-residential
    university offering courses for adults of all
    ages. (more on p61 concerning important changes)

A 3 Institutions of Higher Learning
Entrance Procedures
  • In the third term of Year 12 students prepare
    their applications to university
  • Applications are then made in the first term of
    the Year 13 through one centralised organisation
    known as UCAS (Universities and Colleges
    Admissions Service )
  • Students can apply to a maximum of six
  • Admission selection on basis of A level results,
    schools an interview

A 3 Institution of Higher learning Entrance
  • If a university or institution is impressed by
    the students UCAS form they will send an offer
    of a place conditional upon obtaining certain
    stated A Level grades
  • The final decision on which institution the
    student will actually attend will be taken when
    the A Level results are published in mid-August.
  • In the case of Cambridge applicants may be asked
    to obtain a good mark in an extra exam (called
    the STEP), which they can sit just after the A
    Level exams.
  • Applications through UCAS to Oxford and Cambridge
    also have to be sent by a special early deadline
    accompanied by a special extra form.

A 3 Institution of Higher Education Cambridge
A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
  • Cambridge University was founded in 1209 by
    students fleeing from Oxford after one of the
    many episodes of violence between the university
    and the town of Oxford.

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education Former
  • His term of office has seen major innovation and
    expansion at Cambridge and a period where
    Cambridge has topped league tables and drawn
    investment from the international business
  • Sir Alec Broers

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
  • Professor Sir Alec Broers said
  • I became Vice-Chancellor because I believed that
    I could help Cambridge build on its strengths by
    reaching out. Companies and individuals from all
    over the world have worked with us to move
    forward our research agenda, and weve worked
    hard to attract and support outstanding students
    from many countries and backgrounds.
  • The Vice-Chancellor is the principal academic and
    administrative officer of the University.

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
Vice-Chancellor, Cambridge
  • Professor Alison Richard
  • It is a great honour that the University of
    Cambridge has chosen me to be its Vice-Chancellor
    and to follow in the footsteps of a heritage of
    eminent Vice-Chancellors, including Professor Sir
    Alec Broers, Dame Rosemary Murray and Sir David
  • Leading a University with nearly 800 years'
    history and a pre-eminent status on the world
    intellectual stage is a daunting prospect, but I
    am looking forward wholeheartedly to the
    challenges ahead. 

A 3 Institution of Higher Education Oxford
A 3 Institution of Higher Education
  • Oxford University. Legend has it that Oxford
    University was founded by King Alfred in 872. A
    more likely scenario is that it grew out of
    efforts begun by Alfred to encourage education
    and establish schools throughout his territory.
    There may have been a grammar school there in the
    9th century. A grammar school was exactly what it
    sounds like a place for teaching Latin grammar.
    The University as we know it actually began in
    the 12th century as gatherings of students around
    popular masters. The university consisted of
    people, not buildings. The buildings came later
    as a recognition of something that already
    existed. In a way, Oxford was never founded it

A 3 Institutions of Higher Educations
Chancellor, Oxford
  • I am very pleased to have been elected Chancellor
    of Oxford University.
  • Oxford is one of the greatest universities in the
    world. It has played a distinguished part in the
    history of our country and our continent, and has
    much to contribute to our success and our
    well-being as a civilised community in the future.
  • Chris Patten

A 3 Institutions of Higher Educations
  • Sir Colin Lucas has been Vice-Chancellor of the
    University of Oxford since 1997. He is the first
    Oxford Vice-Chancellor to serve for seven years,
    following the extension of his original four-year
    term of office, which has enabled him to see
    through a wide-ranging reform of the University's
    system of governance
  • Sir Colin Lucas

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
  • The Boat Race between Oxford Cambridge started
    June 10, 1829
  • The event is now a British national institution,
    and is televised live each year. The race has
    been won by Cambridge 77 times and Oxford 71,
    with one dead heat in 1877. The most recent event
    was amongst the closest in history, with Oxford
    winning by less than a foot. One entertainment
    for spectators is the possibilty of a boat
    sinking. This has occurred on three occasions to
    the Oxford crew in 1925 and to Cambridge in 1859
    and in 1978.
  • The race is currently run over a four mile and
    374 yard stretch of the River Thames between
    Putney and Mortlake in London.

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
  • The Dark Blue Crew
  • Oxford won the 2003 Boat Race, and with it the
    Aberdeen Asset Management Trophy, by the
    narrowest of margins after one of the most
    exciting finishes of all time.

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
Oxbridge Boat Race
A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
  • The Light Blues Dark Blues

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
  • Glasgow University Nottingham

A3 Institute of Higher Education Buckingham
  • Verney Park Campus Chandos Road Campus

A 3 Institution of Higher Education Open
  • The Open University is ranked in the top five of
    UK universities for the quality of teaching,
    according to a newly-published national table.
  • The university, whose headquarters are at Walton
    Hall, Milton Keynes, has fifth spot ahead of
    Oxford and University College London in the
    Sunday Times University Guide 2003s table of
    universities with the best marks for teaching

A 3 Institution of Higher Education Open
  • The University Milton Keynes

A3 Institutions of Higher Learning
  • Universities in crisis
  • In most universities resources are spent on
    day-to-day teaching and research non-essential
    work, such as building maintenance, has been put
    on the back-burner. At the same time academic
    salaries have stalled plumbers earn more than
    professors research staff are paid less than
    school dinner ladies. So top academics are
    fleeing to the US and there are chronic shortages
    of teaching staff in areas such as law,
    computing, maths and computers

A3 Institutions of Higher Education
  • How has all this come about?
  • It boils down to a simple equation government
    funding has remained static over the past few
    decades while the number of students has
    skyrocketed. As a result, Britain would now have
    to spend 3.5bn a year just to bring the amount
    it spends per student up to the EU average. And
    to return to student funding levels of a decade
    ago an extra 5.9bn in annual grants would be
    needed, roughly an extra 3p in the pound in
    income tax. The Week

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education --
  • University graduates dominate British political
    leadership, especially those from Oxbridge
    Thatcher, Blair, from Oxford 2/3 of Blairs
    cabinet members educated at Oxford or Cambridge
  • Individuals still feel positive about education

A3 Institute of Higher Education Teacher
  • To qualify as a teacher in Britain
  • One can take a 4-year Bachelor of Education (BEd)
  • Or follow any degree with a one- year PGCE.
  • In either case 2/3 of training will take place in
    school classrooms

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
Students Activities
  • Choir, Clare College

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
Students Activities
  • Pubbing

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education Students
A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
A 3 Institutions of Higher Education
A 4 Further Education Training FECs
  • Further education (FE) is distinct from higher
    education (HE)
  • FE comprises all provision outside school for
    people aged 16 and over, up to GCE A level or
    equivalent exams. There are 500/600 FECs.
  • Students study part-time or in the evening
  • FE Colleges have strong links with industry and
    commerce, employers often being involved in the
    design of the courses, e.g. secretarial studies
    mechanical engineering.
  • FEC also offer foundation courses for older
    students returning to study after years of
    working to gain qualification for entry of higher

A 4 Further Education Training YTS
  • Objectives of Youth Training Scheme
  • To give a training opportunity to school leavers
    who did not get a job or go on to university
  • To ensure that these young people learn how to
    transfer the skills they learn in one job to
  • Education elements in the training are supplied
    by FECs
  • Critiques 1. artificially reduce unemployment
    figures 2.reinforce young peoples status as
    determined by their class background
    3. jobs are not guaranteed after training

End of Presentation