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Canadian Involvement in International Conflicts - Peacekeeping

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Title: Cold War - Indirect Conflicts Author: Reynolds Secondary Last modified by: Devin Roberts Created Date: 1/7/2008 2:18:31 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Canadian Involvement in International Conflicts - Peacekeeping


1
Canadian Involvement in International Conflicts-
Peacekeeping Beyond -
2
New World Order
  • End of Cold War did not bring peace to the world
    - numerous regional conflicts and ethnic
    rivalries, such as
  • Gulf War Iraqi invasion of Kuwait (1991)
    Former Yugoslavia (1991-1999)
  • Somalia (1992)
  • Rwanda (1994)
  • Afghanistan (2001-present)
  • US invasion of Iraq (2003-present)

3
UN Peacekeeping
  • The UN has helped millions of people worldwide
    through peacekeeping operations, and its social
    and economic agencies.
  • Canada has been a strong supporter of the UN by
    1999 Canadian peacekeepers had been involved in
    every UN operation since the start of these
    missions in 1956.

4
Peacekeeping cont
  • 1st time peacekeeping used in Suez Crisis of
    1956
  • Lester B. Pearsons suggestion won Nobel Peace
    Prize for this in 1957
  • Initially developed as a means to resolve
    conflict between states

5
Peacekeeping cont
  • Achieved by deploying unarmed or lightly armed
    military personnel from a number of countries
    between the armed forces of the states that were
    formerly at war
  • In these circumstances ceasefire in place and
    parties involved agreed to allow UN forces to be
    present
  • Peacekeepers NOT part of the conflict they
    observed the ceasefire

6
Peacekeeping cont
  • With end of Cold war -dramatic shift in role of
    UN peacekeepers
  • a) More Missions
  • b) Peacekeeping WITHIN states
  • Often in civil war situations
  • Without borders - often no clear area of conflict
    fighting spread out throughout countrys
    territory

Cyprus UN buffer Zone in Blue
7
Peacekeeping cont
  • c) More Actors
  • Now other organizations such as NATO have become
    involved
  • d) Peace Making
  • Peacekeeping no longer simply standing between 2
    armies to keep the peace
  • Increasingly a matter of creating a peace where
    none exists

8
UN - Africa Missions
UN peacekeeping missions
UN peacemaking or peace-building in Africa
 
Adobe Acrobat Required !
 
9
Peacekeeping cont
e) Changing Role of Peacekeepers
  • Modern peacekeeping involves
  • Training and restructuring local police forces
  • De-mining
  • Conducting elections
  • Facilitating the return of refugees
  • Monitoring human rights
  • demobilizing and reintegrating former soldiers
  • Promoting sustainable democracy and economic
    development

10
Peacekeeping cont
  • f) More Diverse Skills
  • In order to respond to more complex situation,
    peacekeepers require a more diverse set of skills
    experts include
  • Regional municipal administrators
  • Judges and prosecutors to develop judiciaries or
    run courts
  • Media, health, tax, and social policy advisors
  • Child protection experts
  • Security experts
  • Facilitators and mediators
  • Experts to help with sewage treatment plants or
    railways

11
Peacekeeping cont
g) Humanitarian Interventions
  • Armed intervention with the intention of
    protecting human rights within the confines of
    another sovereign state
  • Much debate re the legality of intervening
    without consent in the affairs of sovereign
    states (sovereign free from external control)
  • If state sovereignty not protected could be
    seen as imperialism
  • However important not to have human rights
    violations and crimes against humanity

12
Canadian Peacekeeping Missions
  • Egypt 1956-67 1973-78 1987-present
  • Cyprus 1963-92
  • Cambodia 1972
  • Syria 1978-present
  • Persian Gulf 1990-91
  • Bosnia 1991-97
  • Somalia 1993-96
  • Rwanda 1994-95
  • Haiti 1995-98 2004
  • East Timor 1999-2001
  • Ethiopia and Eritrea 2000-03
  • Afghanistan 2001-present

13
1991 Gulf War
  • August, 1990 Iraqi army invaded Kuwait
  • with US/ UN involvement became Operation Desert
    Storm Gulf War
  • Canada cooperated with the US in the first Gulf
    War because it was a UN-sanctioned mission
  • Began when Iraq invaded Kuwait (a sovereign
    nation)
  • Canadian ships and fighter planes were deployed
    to the area

14
Somalia - 1992
  • A drought-ridden land, Somalia engaged in civil
    war, with no internationally recognized
    government, from 1991 until 2005
  • thousands died from starvation and war

15
Somalia cont
  • In 1992, the United States organized an
    international military force to try to end the
    chaos - Known as Operation Restore Hope
  • Canada contributed 900 soldiers from its elite
    Airborne Regiment. The mission was a disaster.
  • The troops were unable to establish control and
    found themselves fighting the very people they
    had been sent to help.

16
Somalia cont
  • Some desperate Somalis started stealing from the
    soldiers' supplies.
  • On March 4, 1993, Canadian soldiers found two
    Somalis on the grounds of their Belet Huen camp.
  • They shot at the pair, killing one and wounding
    the other.

17
Somalia 1992
  • A few days later, a teenager was caught breaking
    into the camp
  • Soldiers beat him to death.
  • One of these Canadian soldiers subsequently
    attempted suicide
  • A huge cover-up occurred, stretching all the way
    to the top ranks of the military

Clayton Matchee with Somali teen Shidane Arone
Kyle Brown,
18
Somalia Affair
  • The military scandal that ensued, magnified by a
    highly politicized and publicized enquiry, that
    greatly damaged the reputation amongst Canadians
    of their military
  • resulted in the disbandment of the military unit
    involved (Airborne Regiment), as well significant
    changes to the Canadian Forces

19
Ethnic Cleansing
  • Ethnic Cleansing is a process in which the
    advancing army of one ethnic group expels
    civilians of other ethnic groups from towns and
    villages it conquers in order to create
    ethnically pure enclaves for members of their
    ethnic group.
  • In Germany they first came for the communists
    and I didnt speak up because I wasnt a
    communist. Then they came for the Jews and I
    didnt speak up because I wasnt a Jew. Then they
    came for the trade unionists and I didnt speak
    up because I wasnt a trade unionist. Then they
    came for the Catholics and I didnt speak up
    because I wasnt a Catholic. Then they came for
    me and by that time there was nobody left to
    speak up. Martin Niemoller

20
Genocide
  • Genocide, as defined by the United Nations in
    1948, means any of the following acts committed
    with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a
    national, ethnic, racial or religious group,
    including
  • (a) Killing members of the group
  • (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to
    members of the group
  • (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group
    conditions of life calculated to bring about its
    physical destruction in whole or in part
  • (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births
    within the group
  • (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group
    to another group.

21
Genocide cont
  • What remains unclear is the question of when
    institutionalized killing rises to the level of
    ethnic cleansing, or genocide.
  • The answer depends on whether events are seen
    through the eyes of victims or perpetrators.
  • More important is whether the international
    community recognizes genocide and whether it is
    prepared to act to stop it.

22
The Eight Stages of Genocide By Gregory H.
Stanton
  • 1. Classification
  • 2. Symbolization
  • 3. Dehumanization
  • 4. Organization

23
8 Stages of Genocide
  • 5. Polarization
  • 6. Preparation
  • 7. Extermination
  • 8. Denial

24
Ethnic Cleansing
  • Occurred in both Rwanda and former Yugoslavia in
    1990s
  • Former Yugoslavia ethnic Cleansing created more
    than two million refugees and displaced persons
    during the war in Bosnia
  • This number increased with the expulsion of Serbs
    from Croatia and with the ferocious atrocities
    committed by Serbs against the Albanian majority
    in Kosovo, prior and during (in spite of) NATO
    air strikes.

25
Former Yugoslavia
26
Yugoslavia 1991 1999
  • The United Nations got involved in September 1991
  • Canadian peacekeepers sent in 1991 until 1997
  • Fought mostly in Bosnia
  • Secured Sarejevo airport
  • Also participated as part of NATO forces in
    bombing raids and as peacekeepers in Kosovo

CBC archives - Providing 'safe havens' in Bosnia
http//archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-71-579-3006/conflict
_war/van_doos/clip8
http//www.cnn.com/video//video/world/2006/03/11/
amanpour.serbia.milosevic.obit.cnn
27
Bosnia-Herzogovina 1992-1995
  • Yugoslavia has a long history of conflict between
    a very diverse mix of ethnic and religious groups
  • When Soviet Union collapsed in 1989, fighting
    erupted between various ethnic groups, leading to
    independence for Slovenia and Croatia
  • When Bosnian Muslims declared independence,
    Yugoslav president Slobadan Milosevic attacked to
    support the Serbian minority

UN peacekeepers 1992 Stripped area Canadian
sector
28
Former Yugoslavia
  • As the Serbs forces advanced, they began to
    systematically eliminate Muslims (Mostly
    Albanians) and Muslim villages, in what became
    known as ethnic cleansing.
  • Over 200,000 Muslim civilians were murdered and
    2,000,000 fled as refugees before NATO forces
    intervened to halt the genocide.
  • After agreeing to a cease-fire in Bosnia, the
    Serbs focused their attention and ethnic
    cleansing on Kosovo, which led to the NATO air
    war and the arrest of Milosevic on war crimes
    charges.

29
Rwanda 1994
  • Rwanda is one of the smallest countries in
    Central Africa, with just 7 million people, and
    is comprised of two main ethnic groups, the Hutu
    and the Tutsi.
  • Hutus account for 85-90 of the population
  • Tutsi minority (10-15) was made the aristocracy
    of Rwanda during Belgian colonial rule and
    dominated Hutu peasants for decades
  • Following independence from Belgium in 1962, the
    Hutu majority seized power and reversed the
    roles, oppressing the Tutsis through systematic
    discrimination and acts of violence.

30
Rwanda cont
  • As a result, over 200,000 Tutsis fled to
    neighboring countries and formed a rebel
    guerrilla army, the Rwandan Patriotic Front
  • In October 1993 the first elected Hutu president
    of Burundi was assassinated, sparking conflict
  • A 2,500 U.N. peacekeeping force was sent to
    preserve a cease-fire while Rwandan and Burundi
    presidents met to work out a peace plan

31
Rwandan Genocide
  • April, 1994 - Hutus began an unprecedented
    killing spree, while the international community
    watched in horror and did nothing.
  • In July 1994, Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutus,
    stopping the genocide, which had claimed over
    800,000 lives, more than 10 of Rwandas
    population.

32
Rwanda
  • Canadian General Romeo Dallaire was in charge of
    the mission
  • His hands were continuously tied by UN
  • Genocide may have been stopped if they had
    allowed him to intervene earlier

33
Rwanda
http//www.motherjones.com/commentary/fiore/2005/0
3/never.html
34
Land Mines Issue
  • Anti-Personnel Land Mines major problem faced
    by people in war-torn countries
  • 110 million anti-personnel mines in over 64
    countries in the world
  • Internationally, 500 people die each week because
    of land mines thousands maimed
  • cannot distinguish between the combat boots of a
    soldier and the footfall of an innocent child.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?v2O45evC6wis
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vE45TH3xLpYw
35
Land Mines cont
  • Land mines cost only 5 to buy cost between
    300-1,000 EACH to remove
  • Estimates say would take 1,000 years to clear the
    world of land mines if no new mines laid
  • However for every mine cleared, 20 more are
    laid
  • Only mine clearance technique known to be 100
    effective manually with metal detectors,
    prodders, and hand brooms

36
Land Mines cont
  • most heavily mine-affected countries in the
    world, according to a UN study, are Afghanistan,
    Angola, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Cambodia, Croatia,
    Eritrea, Iraq, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia,
    Nicaragua and Sudan.

These 12 countries together account for almost 50
percent of the landmines currently deployed in
the world and also suffer the highest number of
landmines casualities.
37
Land Mines cont
  • Top Land-mine producing countries include China,
    Russia, and the USA
  • 1996 Canadas Foreign Minister, Lloyd Axworthy
    hosted an international conference on Land
    Mines
  • December, 1997 over 120 countries signed the
    Anti-Personnel Land Mines Treaty in Ottawa
  • Bans the use, production, transfer, and
    stockpiling of land mines
  • USA HAS NOT SIGNED THIS TREATY ONLY MAJOR POWER
    TO DO SO

38
US Invasion of Iraq - 2003
  • Chretiens government refused to support the
    US-led invasion because it was NOT sanctioned by
    the UN

39
Afghanistan - 2001 - present
  • When USA was attacked on September 11th, 2001,
    Canada became involved in Afghanistan as part of
    the NATO Alliance
  • Controversial re whether we should remain there
    or not

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vPF0wVy9qiAs
40
New Era - Globalization
  • new trend developed centered around making
    money (economics) globalization vast network of
    business, communications, and cultural links
    among countries
  • goods and information travel more freely

41
Globalization Pros and Cons
  • Pros mostly for the have people and countries
  • developed world wealthy corporations
  • Cons mostly for have not people and countries
  • developing world and poor
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