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Combining findings from different research

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Combining findings from different research Qualitative versus quantitative approach The EBM workshop A.A.Haghdoost, MD; PhD of Epidemiology Ahaghdoost_at_kmu.ac.ir – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Combining findings from different research


1
Combining findings from different research
Qualitative versus quantitative approach
  • The EBM workshop

A.A.Haghdoost, MD PhD of Epidemiology Ahaghdoost
_at_kmu.ac.ir
2
Rational
  • Researchers used to think the aim of a single
    study was to decide if a given effect was "real"
    (statistically significant).
  • But they put little faith in a single study of an
    effect, no matter how good the study and how
    statistically significant.

3
Rational
  • Each study produces a different estimate of the
    magnitude.
  • When many studies were done, someone would write
    a narrative ( qualitative) review trying to
    explain why the effect was/wasn't real in the
    studies.
  • Or would carry out a study to estimate the
    magnitude of an effect with adequate precision
    using others findings.

4
Quantitative approach
  • Meta-analysis combines the effects from all
    studies to give an overall mean effect and other
    important statistics.
  • The measured effects should be comparable and
    estimate a common quantity

5
Qualitative approach
  • If studies measured different parameters, such as
    measurement of depression using different
    questioners
  • If someone would like to combine the findings of
    qualitative studies

6
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7
Guideline
  • Clinical practice guidelines are recommendations
    for clinicians and consumers about optimal and
    appropriate care for specific clinical situations
  • Nowadays, formal guideline are generated by using
    both qualitative and quantitative methods

8
Meta synthesis
  • Putting together findings from qualitative
    studies
  • A relatively vague and little known comparative
    method of synthesizing qualitative studies for
    the accumulation of knowledge

9
Methodology of meta-synthesis (1)
  • Systematic review?!
  • Focus on search strategies, quality and
    aggregation
  • A critical assessment and evaluation of research
    (not simply a summary) that attempts to address a
    focused clinical question using methods designed
    to reduce the likelihood of bias.
  • Guyatt and Rennie 2002

10
Methodology of meta-synthesis (2)
  • Since the papers are usually extremely
    heterogeneous, you can group the articles into
    categories of similar domains.
  • For each article, central themes should be
    extracted and common metaphors identified for the
    whole category.
  • Content analysis and compare the similarity and
    differences between study findings

11
Arguments in Favor of Meta-Synthesis
  • Qualitative research may be endangered and
    marginalized by its failure to sum up or put
    together and not be little islands of
    knowledge
  • Need to compare findings and data in the same
    topical area
  • Need to extend beyond modernism to post modernism

12
Arguments Against Qualitative Meta-synthesis
  • You cant sum up poems or songs!
  • Variations of method and underlying theoretical
    assumptions
  • Diversity of practices
  • Destroys the integrity of individual studies
  • Thins our deep descriptions
  • De-contextualizes material
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