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Title: Prezentacja programu PowerPoint


1
India's General Elections 2014 An Overview
14,April, 2014 Warsaw ,Poland. Dr S.Y.
QuraishiFormer Chief Election Commissioner of
India syquraishi_at_gmail.com,
2
Indias Giant Leap
  • India chose Democracy in 1950
  • Granted universal adult suffrage in the very
    first election despite
  • a 16 literacy rate.
  • and a caste-based hierarchical social system.
  • oppressed masses of India had voted in many
    elections before Switzerland allowed its women
    and Australia its aborigines to vote.

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3
63 Years of Indian Elections
  • India has conducted 15 General Elections to
    Parliament and more than 340 General Elections to
    State Assemblies.
  • More than 3 million elected representatives
    National, State and Local bodies.
  • Indian elections never missed the deadline,
    credibility never challenged.
  • Barak Obama hailed Indian Elections as historic
    and an example for us all.
  • . Hilary Clinton described it as "global gold
    standard".

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4
Concerns of Diversity
  • Inclusivity of all sections
  • None to be marginalised
  • Constitutional Safeguards for minorities
  • Religious / Linguistic / Ethnic / Cultural
  • No intimidation allowed

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5
Inclusiveness Provisions for Women
  • Equal Voting Rights from day 1
  • Separate queues for women at polling stations
  • Separate polling stations for women in some areas
  • Women Officers at polling stations for identity
    check of women voters at Polling Stations
  • Use of Women Police

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6
Inclusiveness Provisions for Disabled
  • Ramps in all Polling Stations
  • Use of Braille on EVMs and Ballot papers
  • Allowing a companion for the infirm and disabled

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Inclusiveness Others
  • Use of Symbols on the ballot for illiterate
  • Use of Multi-language Electoral Roll
  • Use of Multi-language Ballot Paper
  • Transgender given the option to describe
    themselves as Others in electoral rolls

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8
The Largest Election in World History!
  • The size of 16th General Election to Lok Sabha
  • 814.5 million voters
  • 18-19 years 2.88 ( 0.75 in 2009)
  • Service Voters 13,28,621
  • 930,000 Polling Stations
  • 1.9 million Electronic Voting Machines
  • 11-12 m poll personnel to be deployed
  • Recognized National Parties - 6 (7)
  • Recognized State Parties - 47 (44)
  • Registered Parties - 1670 (1035)
  • Candidates contested (2009). -
    ? (8070)

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More Voters than every Continent!

  • Population Electorate
  • Entire Europe (50 Countries) - 731m 449 m
  • Entire Africa (54 Countries) - 922 m 566 m
  • North America (41 Countries) - 528 m 324 m
  • South America (15 Countries) - 382 m 235 m
  • NS. America (56 Countries) - 910 m 560 m
  • India - 1163 m 714 m
  • Commonwealth (52 Countries ex India) - 900 m
    approx.

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10
The Complexities
  • Its not just size and magnitude. It is about
  • Dealing with Regional, Religious, Ethnic,
    Cultural and Linguistic Diversities
  • Democracy even at the remotest locations
  • Separate polling station for a lone voter
  • Trekking 45 km in snow to reach 37 voters
  • Using elephants, camels, boats, cycles,
    helicopters, trains to ferry polling teams
  • Countrywide vulnerability mapping
  • Tracking information from each polling station

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11
Electoral Administration Framework
  • Election Commission of India created by the
    Indian Constitution. Fiercely independent.
  • CEC and 2 ECs.
  • Right to vote to all above 18 years of age.
  • Conducting Elections of President, VP, Parliament
    and State Legislatures.
  • Delimitation of constituencies after each census.

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12
Election Machinery in States
  • Chief Electoral Officers ( permanent). -
    35
  • District Election Officers
    - 601
  • Returning Officers (Parliament) - 543
  • Returning Officers (Assembly) - 4120
  • Asstt. Returning Officers (Parliament) - 4600
  • Asstt. Returning Officers (Assembly) - 10,000
  • Electoral Registration Officers - 4120
  • Asstt. Electoral Registration Officers -
    4800

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13
Electoral Roll - the Foundation
  • Health of ER ensured
  • Gender, Age cohorts, Elector- population ratio
  • Photo Electoral Rolls introduced.
  • Good deterrence against impersonation
  • Booth Level Officer (BLO) System introduced to
    ensure fidelity of ERs at doorsteps.

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14
Mobilization of the Staff
Preparation for Elections -
  • Drawn from various Central and State Government
    departments - no private individual associated.
  • Staff on deputation with the Commission.
  • Staff subject to Commission disciplinary
    control.
  • Staff mobilized deployed by the CEO under
    Commissions instructions.
  • Neutrality non negotiable.

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15
Preparation for Elections - Training and
Deployment of Staff
  • Staff of various districts and states mixed/
    randomised to ensure fairness.
  • Staff given nominal honorarium.
  • Deployment of Government employees keeps
    expenditure under check, enhances control.
  • Training Different Layers
  • Tainted and aligned not associated.

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16
Preparation for Elections - Procurement of
Materials
  • Procurement of EVMs by the Commission.
  • Other materials by the CEOs and DEOs.
  • Standard procurement procedures followed.
  • Specifications of materials decided by the
    Commission in case of non standard items.
  • Advance planning by the Commission, CEOs and DEOs
    for procurement at their levels.
  • Safety margins.

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17
Scheduling of Elections
Preparation for Elections -
  • Considerations in scheduling
  • Weather
  • Agricultural cycles
  • Festivals
  • Exam schedules
  • Public holidays
  • Logistical requirements
  • Law order
  • Movement of Central police forces
  • Why PHASES?

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18
Checking Intimidation, violence fraud
Preparation for Elections -
  • Vulnerability Mapping a response to threat and
    intimidation of voters.
  • 86,782 villages / hamlets identified as
    vulnerable.
  • 373,886 persons identified as potential trouble
    makers.
  • Preventive measures taken.
  • Video-graphers (74,729) Digital cameras (40,599)
    deployed a great deterrent
  • Hardly any complaint of threat and intimidation.

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19
COMET(Communication for Election Tracking)
  • Timely information is critical
  • Direct connectivity with all PSs (landline
    telephones, mobile phones, HF, VHF wireless
    networks, Satellite phones and even runners)
    established and pre tested
  • Proved an effective tool for tracking poll day
    events.
  • Deterrent for trouble makers.

28
20
EVMs The Wonder Machine of Indian Democracy
  • Pilot -1982 all VS elections since 1998, full LS
    2004
  • More than 1.4 million EVMs deployed in various
    locations across the country.
  • EVMs now used universally in all Elections.
  • Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT)
    introduced.

30
21
Model Code of Conduct
  • Minimum standards of behaviour
  • Conduct of political parties / candidates
  • Public meetings, Processions, Campaigning, Media
  • Special checks on govt in power
  • Conduct on poll day
  • Handling of complaints
  • Just added Code about Manifestos

32
22
Issues of Concern
  • Role of Money Power
  • Expenditure monitoring complex and tough
  • Paid News and surrogate advertisements
  • Criminalization of electoral politics
  • Dependence on Central Police Force
  • Lack of faith in State Police
  • Urban and Youth Apathy
  • Measures to ensure enhanced participation
  • Blaming the Pitch and the Umpire
  • Rumours / social media

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23
Use of Technology
  • Greater use of Technology
  • A National Electoral Database for
  • Better Citizen services and accessibility
  • Avoidance of duplicates in the database
  • Online registration
  • GIS for creation of polling stations
  • GPS for tracking of polling teams
  • Internet and mobile phones for Voter Education

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24
Voter Education The Game Changer
  • Voter Education / SVEEP
  • National, State district plans for electoral
    participation
  • Research on voters behaviour
  • Special focus on urban, young and women voters
  • National Voters Day
  • Partnership with schools/ colleges/ Civil Society
    and Election Watch bodies
  • Documentation/ Inventory of voter education
    activities/ materials

37
25
Some Media Reflections 2009
Hindustan Times 19.5.09
Hindustan Times 19.05.09
39
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Some Media Reflections (2)
  • It is truly the greatest show on Earth, an ode
    to a diverse and democratic ethos.an inspiration
    to all the World
  • - V Mitchell, New York Times, May 22, 2009
  • Indian voters show the way forward
  • Financial Times, London, May 17,
    2009

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27
India Elections 2009 - Glimpses
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Photo Gallery - Elections 2009
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Photo Gallery - Elections 2009
Indelible ink being marked on electors finger
An elder on way to cast her vote
Electors waiting in Q
Physically challenged casting her vote
Prime Minister of India after casting his vote
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THANK YOU
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