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Emergence of Civilization

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Emergence of Civilization Unit 1 * * * * * * * * Economy and Society Technology was important made work easier, faster and more efficient Bronze Age - Vessels, tool ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Emergence of Civilization


1
Emergence of Civilization
  • Unit 1

2
Before Common Era (BCE)
Years
Scientists use the abbreviation BCE to mean
Before Common Era. It is the same thing as B.C.
(Before Christ). After the year 0 scientists use
the term CE for Common Era. It is the same as
A.D. (Anno Domini). To figure out how long ago
from today a date in BCE was, add the current
year to the BCE year.
3
GEOGRAPHY
  • Study of people, their environment and
    resources. Can give us contextual clues as to
    how they live their lives.
  • Every event happens somewhere
  • Must know WHERE it happens to fully understand
    WHY it happens.

4
GEOGRAPHY
  • 5 Major Themes of Geography
  • to help us understand what and why things happen
  • LOCATION Where, How do I get there?
  • exact location
  • LATITUDE - North and South of equator
  • LONGITUDE - East and West or Prime Meridian
  • Zero degrees, through Greenwich, England
  • Hemisphere Half of the globe
  • relative location

5
GEOGRAPHY
  • PLACE What is it like to live there?
  • physical and human characteristics of the
    LOCATION
  • mountains, rivers, beaches, topography, and
    animal and plant life of a place
  • human-designed features of a place, i.e. land
    use, architecture, forms of livelihood, religion,
    transportation communication.

6
GEOGRAPHY
  • Human Environment Interaction How do people
    relate to the land?
  • how people relate to it, are affected by it and
    have modified it.
  • Positively and negatively
  • interactions between 4 physical systems
  • Earths atmosphere, land, water, and life.

7
GEOGRAPHY
  • MOVEMENT
  • food, religion, political, work, ideas, products,
    disease
  • humans effect on the environment

8
GEOGRAPHY
  • REGIONS
  • areas with specific characteristics, things in
    common
  • Physical, political, religious, language,
    economic
  • All can in some way be represented with or by
    maps
  • sources for history

9
Terms to Know
  • PRE-HISTORY
  • Period before writing was invented
  • used pottery, buildings, bones, etc...to
    determine our best guess as to what life was like
    for them
  • ARTIFACTS
  • objects studied by archaeologists, shaped by
    humans, used to make our best guess of what life
    was like
  • tools, pottery, weapons, toys.

10
Terms to Know
  • Technology
  • A change in thinking and practice about how we do
    something to become more efficient and productive
    with less effort.

11
Terms to Know
  • ARCHAEOLOGISTS
  • scientists who analyze ARTIFACTS left by early
    people
  • try to piece together what life was like
  • Three step process of gathering and analyzing
  • 1 - find site
  • 2 - start digging
  • 3 - analyze artifacts found
  • a - determine location within/around a structure
  • b - determine age of the artifact
  • ANTHROPOLOGY
  • study of cultures, the unique way that people
    live.
  • To gain a better understanding of their lives and
    things that effected them.

12
Stone Age Peoples
  • Stone Age - Period when people used simple tools
    made of stone (arrow heads, axe heads) before
    writing was invented
  • Old Stone Age - Paleolithic
  • New Stone Age Mesolithic Neolithic

13
Stone Age Peoples
  • Old Stone Age
  • Paleolithic Era
  • Paleo means Old Stone
  • Started about 2.5 Million years ago.
  • Africa, China, Asia, Europe, and Americas

14
Old Stone Age Peoples
  • Nomadic
  • Move with and in search of food
  • Fished, hunted, gathered plants, roots, fruits,
    nuts and seeds.
  • Travel in groups of related families
  • No permanent shelters, lived in caves and
    lean-tos
  • Some organizational structures
  • Developed limited spoken languages
  • Clothing
  • Wore animal skins

15
Old Stone Age Peoples
  • Learned to control fire
  • light, cooking, protection and warmth
  • Simple tools become more specialized
  • Used bone stone chipped to make sharp edges
  • Made needles, axes, fish hooks, arrow heads,
    spear points

16
Old Stone Age Peoples
  • Some basic religious beliefs but no real
    structure
  • Cave drawings could help a hunt be productive
  • Burying dead with food Belief in an afterlife

17
End of Paleolithic Era
  • Marked by the end of the last Ice Age
  • Glaciers start to melt and move back towards the
    poles
  • Land bridges become covered with water as the
    oceans start to fill back up
  • Believed to be the way in which people first came
    to this continent from Africa and Europe,
    following herds
  • Changed the climate of many areas, deserts
    appeared with new plants

18
New Stone Age Peoples
  • New Stone Age
  • Mesolithic Era
  • Meso meaning middle
  • Lasted about 10,000 years
  • 18,000 B.C.E. to 8000 B.C.E.
  • Africa, China, Asia, Europe, Americas and Middle
    East (Mesopotamia)

19
New Stone Age Peoples
  • Mesolithic Era
  • Developed the Bow and Harpoons
  • Tamed dogs, used for hunting small animals
  • Built canoes from hollowed out logs
  • Cross large rivers
  • Fish in deep waters

20
New Stone Age Peoples
  • Neolithic Era
  • Neo meaning New
  • Lasted about 4000 years
  • 8000 B.C.E. to 3500 B.C.E.
  • Started grinding and polishing tools to sharper
    points and edges

21
New Stone Age Peoples
  • Agricultural Revolution
  • Change from hunting and moving to farming
  • Domesticated Animals For work and food
  • Dogs, Sheep, goats and pigs
  • Women farmed, men hunted
  • Permanent settlements
  • Villages
  • Built houses
  • Some remained hunters gatherers and nomadic

22
New Stone Age Peoples
  • Growth of political structure
  • Council of Elders
  • Make decisions
  • Settle disputes
  • Developed more complete spoken languages
  • Specialized tools
  • Hoes Granite
  • Cloth Wool
  • Nets for fishing
  • Pottery for cooking

23
New Stone Age Peoples
  • Used animals for work
  • Oxen to pull plows
  • Use of organic fertilizers
  • Work more land, harvest more crops
  • Support larger population
  • Simple religions based upon nature
  • Gods control the forces of nature

24
New Stone Age Peoples
  • Transportation Improvements
  • Wheel is invented
  • improved land transportation
  • replaced the wooden sleds
  • Sails start to be used for water transportation
  • Quicker, more efficient means of travel
  • Metals start to be used
  • Copper is the first
  • Bronze
  • mix of copper and tin - stronger metal

25
New Stone Age Peoples
  • By 3000 B.C.E. all of these inventions and items
    are in use in some part of the world, BUT NOT
    ALL.
  • Change in the way people lived and survived
  • Brings more technological advances

26
Emergence of Civilization
  • CIVITAS - Latin word meaning 'cities
  • Emerges at the end of the Neolithic era
  • First Civilizations develops in four different
    areas independently of each other.

27
5 Characteristics of Civilization
  • 1- Surplus of Food
  • 2- Complex Institutions
  • More complex government and religions
  • High level of cooperation for the benefit of the
    group
  • Technology Advances
  • 3- Division of Labor - Specialized workers
  • Specialized skills occupations
  • Creates a class of skilled worked called Artisans
  • Merchants and Traders

28
5 Characteristics of Civilization
  • 4- Writing - Record Keeping
  • Priests were the first to start using marks or
    drawings which evolved into writing
  • Needed to keep track of when to do important
    ceremonies and rituals to keep the gods happy
  • A sacrifice at the wrong time could ruin a crop
  • Scribes - Those who mastered the writing and
    reading of the symbols Keep Secretive
  • Government
  • Births, deaths, taxes
  • Ownership, marriages, business contracts, etc..
  • Became a way to pass down traditions, learning,
    wisdom, information, ideas and religious beliefs

29
Characteristics of Civilization
  • 5- Calendar
  • Needed to know when river would flood
  • Time from flood to flood was a year
  • Time from full moon to next full moon was a month
  • Not completely accurate about 11 days off

30
GROWTH OF CITIES
  • 4 Areas of the world develop independently of
    each other
  • Valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers -
    Middle East
  • Valley of the Nile River in Africa Egypt
  • Indus River Valley in South Asia India
  • Yellow River Valley East Asia - China
  • All Develop around Rivers
  • Fertile soil
  • Rivers consistently flood every year
  • Bring moisture to the land
  • Can be used for Transportation and food
  • Fish and animals

31
GROWTH OF CITIES Govt.
  • Construction projects increased as number of
    people increased
  • Organized projects
  • Clear land for farming
  • Irrigation systems for dry times of the year
  • Temples and palaces
  • Defense of cities from invaders - increased size
    and power of government

32
Religion
  • POLYTHEISTIC - Belief in many Gods and Goddesses
    that control the forces of nature
  • Believed in spirits
  • Believed that the Gods controlled forces of
    nature
  • Gave sacrifices to win the gods favor and get
    peace, good harvests, rainfall, etc.
  • Gave thanks to Gods when the outcome was
    favorable
  • Wanted to keep the Gods happy
  • Priests gained power because they carried out the
    rituals to keep the gods happy
  • Powerful positions in the governments

33
Religion
  • THEOCRACY - Government controlled by a church or
    religion
  • Military leaders worked in conjunction with
    priests to keep the gods happy and provided a
    defense against enemies
  • Military leaders increased in power
  • Became judges, made laws, supervised building
    projects
  • Collected taxes - earliest system of taxation
  • Labor for construction projects
  • Part of harvest
  • Used to pay for government and building projects

34
Economy and Society
  • Technology was important
  • made work easier, faster and more efficient
  • Bronze Age - Vessels, tool, weapons, longer
    lasting
  • Farming improved
  • Develop use of irrigation through ditches and
    canals
  • Fewer farms needed
  • Excess food used for trading with merchants for
    goods
  • Barter Economy - Trading goods or services for
    something you need
  • Creates a demand for more specialized skills and
    goods
  • Still used to some extent today
  • Social structure starts to change
  • Social Classes - Defines a persons place in
    society
  • Movement between classes
  • THEN --gt No movement born there die there
  • NOW --gt Movement is possible but still hard

35
Social Classes
  • Kids generally took over parents profession or
    occupation
  • Artisans - People with a specialized skill or
    trade Skilled Craftsperson
  • Indentured Servants - People working off debts

36
Family
  • Women managed the family
  • Cared for children, prepared food, made clothing
  • Probably invented weaving and pottery making
  • Probably discovered plants could be grown from
    seeds
  • Increased womens power and status as primary
    food provider
  • Lead to the Agricultural Revolution and drastic
    change in the way people lived.
  • As technology increased men became the primary
    food providers and primary authorities in society

37
Important Point to Note
  • Although civilization developed in different
    areas and at different times there was still
    limited contact between them
  • Trading
  • Migration
  • Wars
  • Brought a spread of ideas, skills, and a
    diversity of culture Cultural Diffusion
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