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Learning

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Learning Operant Conditioning Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcing the desired response immediately, every time it occurs. Learning occurs quickly, but as soon as ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learning


1
Learning
2
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3
Define Learning
  • Learning is a relatively permanent change in
    behavior as a result of experience.

4
Classical Conditioning
  • In classical conditioning, we learn to associate
    two stimuli and anticipate events.

5
  • For example, we learn that a flash of lightening
    signals an impending crack of thunder, so we
    start to brace ourselves when lightening flashes
    nearby.

6
Operant Conditioning
  • In operant conditioning, we learn to associate a
    response and its consequence. Typically we
    repeat acts followed by rewards and avoid acts
    followed by punishment.

7
  • For example, we learn that when we get good
    grades, we get money, so we continue to get good
    grades. Or, if we dont get good grades, we lose
    privileges. To avoid losing privileges, we get
    good grades.

8
Social/Vicarious/Observational Learning
  • In social learning (or observational learning),
    we learn from others experiences and examples.

9
  • For example, chimpanzees sometimes learn
    behaviors merely by observing others perform
    them. If one animal watches another learn to
    solve a puzzle that gains a food reward, the
    observing animal may perform the trick as well.

10
  • Classical Conditioning

11
  • Classical Conditioning The Office

12
Classical Conditioning
  • Ivan Pavlov - Russian Medical doctor who spent
    two decades studying the digestive system. Nobel
    Prize in 1904. Studied learning for the next
    three decades, by accident.

13
Classical Conditioning
  • After studying salivary secretion in dogs, he
    knew that when he put food in a dogs mouth the
    animal would invariably salivate. He also began
    to notice that when he worked with the same dog
    repeatedly, the dog began salivating to stimuli
    associated with food the sight of food, the
    food dish, the mere presence of the person
    bringing the food, even the sound of oncoming
    footsteps in anticipation of the food

14
Classical Conditioning
  • Pavlovs Experiment
  • Through experimentation, Pavlov asked If a
    neutral stimulus (something the dog could see or
    hear) regularly signaled the arrival of food,
    would the dog associate the two stimuli (the food
    and the neutral stimuli)? If so, would the dog
    begin to salivate to the neutral stimulus in
    anticipation of the food?

15
  • From Pavlovs research
  • Zimbardo and Pavlovs Experiment
  • Pavlovs Experiment

16
Classical Conditioning
  • Unconditioned Stimulus
  • A stimulus that naturally and automatically
    triggers a response

17
Classical Conditioning
  • Unconditioned Response
  • The unlearned, naturally occurring response to
    the unconditioned stimulus

18
Classical Conditioning
  • For example
  • For Pavlov, the UCS was food and the UCR was the
    dogs salivation

19
Classical Conditioning
  • Pavlovs Experiment (continued)
  • Just before placing food in the dogs mouth to
    produce salivation, Pavlov sounded a tone. After
    several pairings of tone and food, the dog began
    to salivate to the tone alone, in anticipation of
    the food.

20
Classical Conditioning
  • Conditioned Stimulus
  • An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after
    association with and unconditioned stimulus,
    comes to trigger a conditioned response

21
Classical Conditioning
  • Conditioned Response
  • The learned response to a previously neutral
    conditioned stimulus

22
Classical Conditioning
  • For example
  • For Pavlov, the previously neutral stimulus was
    the tone. During conditioning, the tone was
    paired with the food (UCS). After conditioning,
    the tone, when presented alone, produced
    salivation in the dog. The tone is now
    considered the CS, and the dogs salivation to
    the tone alone is now considered the CR.

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  • 1. While George was having a cavity filled by
    his dentist, the drill hit a nerve that had not
    been dulled by anesthetic, a couple of times.
    Each time he cringed in pain. George now gets
    anxious each time he sees the dentist.
  • What is the
  • Unconditioned stimulus ____________________
  • Unconditioned response ____________________
  • Conditioned stimulus ____________________
  • Conditioned response ____________________

25
  • 2. Every time a psychology instructor enters the
    classroom, she goes straight to the board to
    write an outline on it. Unfortunately, she has
    long finger nails and each time she writes the
    outline, her nails screech on the board, making
    students cringe. After a few weeks of this,
    students cringe at the sight of the teacher
    entering the classroom.

26
  • 3. Fanny eats fried chicken that has e coli in
    it and ends up vomiting for hours that night.
    Luckily she recovers within a day, but now just
    the thought (or the sight or the smell) of fried
    chicken makes her nauseous.

27
  • 4. At a football game, every time the home team
    scores a touchdown, the person behind you blasts
    an air horn near your ears causing you to wince.
    Unfortunately for you, the home team scores
    frequently. As the end of the game nears, the
    home team scores a touchdown, and even though the
    inconsiderate fan behind you has left, you still
    wince.

28
  • 5. LaToyas husband puts on Polo cologne every
    time theyre going to be sexually intimate. Now
    when LaToya is walking through the mall and
    passes a store selling Polo cologne, she becomes
    sexually aroused.

29
  • 6. Charlie has been humiliated in the past for
    doing poorly on tests. When that has happened,
    he would get so upset he would shake. Now when
    presented with a test, he begins to shake.

30
  • Fred has a fluffy down pillow with some of the
    down sticking out of the fabric. When he first
    tries out the pillow, a piece of down tickles his
    nose and he sneezes. He now sneezes every time
    he lays down on any kind of pillow.

31
  • It is springtime and the pollen from the flowers
    causes you to sneeze. Soon you are sneezing at
    the mere sight of a flowerreal or fake.

32
  • You ride a roller coaster and get sick afterward.
    Now, whenever you are near a roller coaster you
    feel queasy.

33
  • Your relationship is going badly and your
    significant other has yelled at you without
    warning several times. You now feel tense and
    fearful any time that you are around him or her.

34
Five Major Conditioning Processes
  • Acquisition
  • Generalization
  • Discrimination
  • Extinction
  • Spontaneous Recovery

35
Acquisition
  • The initial stage in classical conditioning
  • The phase associating a neutral stimulus with an
    unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral
    stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response

36
Acquisition
  • Findings
  • The time between presenting the neutral stimulus
    and the unconditioned stimulus needs to be short.
    For most species and procedures, about ½ second
    works best.
  • Conditioning is more likely to occur if the
    conditioned stimulus is presented before the
    unconditioned stimulus

37
Generalization
  • The tendency, once a response has been
    conditioned, for stimuli similar to the
    conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
  • IE. A dog responding to a bell tone may also
    respond to a similar sounding door bell. A
    person bit by a dog may fear all dogs. You may
    buy a lemon Ford, and never buy a Ford again.



38
Classical Conditioning - Generalization
  • Little Albert Experiment Fear Conditioning
  • An 11-month infant named Albert feared loud
    noises, but not white rats. In the experiment,
    when Albert was presented with a white rat and
    reached out to touch it, a hammer was struck on a
    steel beam behind his head. After a number of
    repetitions of seeing the rat and then hearing
    the frightening noise, Albert burst into tears at
    the mere sight of the rat.

39
Classical Conditioning - Extra
  • Five days after the testing, Albert showed
    generalization of his conditioned response by
    reacting with fear to a rabbit, a dog, and a
    sealskin coat.
  • Little Albert Experiment

40
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Discrimination
  • The learned ability to distinguish between a
    conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do
    not signal an unconditioned response
  • IE. A child is bitten by a dog, and only fears
    that dog. Other dogs dont illicit an automatic
    fear response.

42
Extinction
  • The diminishing of a conditioned response when an
    unconditioned stimulus no longer follows a
    conditioned stimulus
  • If the food no longer follows the bell tone,
    eventually the dog will no longer associate the
    bell tone with food and will stop salivating.

43
Spontaneous Recovery
  • The reappearance, after a rest period, of an
    extinguished conditioned response.
  • The conditioned response continues to get weaker
    after less pairings of the CS and the UCS, and
    after more and more rest periods

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  • Operant Conditioning

46
Operant Conditioning
  • Type of learning in which behavior is
    strengthened if followed by a reinforcer, or
    diminished if followed by a punisher

47
Operant Conditioning
  • B.F. Skinners Experiments
  • Based on Edward Thorndikes LAW OF EFFECT
    states that rewarded behavior is likely to recur
  • Experiments conducted with animals in an operant
    chamber (Skinner Box) a soundproof box, with a
    bar or key that an animal presses or pecks to
    release a reward of food or water

48
  • Pigeons and the Skinner Box

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51
Operant Conditioning
  • Shaping while conditioning an animal to perform
    certain behaviors, reinforcers are successively
    given only as the subject gets closer to the
    ultimate behavior goal

                                                                                                                                                                                                        
52
  • IE. If the purpose of putting a rat in a maze is
    to teach it to get from Point A to Point B while
    following a certain path, then every time the rat
    makes a turn towards the right path, a reward
    should be given. If it makes a turn towards the
    wrong path, NO reward is given.

53
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55
Operant Conditioning
  • Reinforcement any event that increases the
    frequency of a preceding response, or
    strengthens the behavior that it follows

56
  • IE. Being able to borrow the car after the
    dishes are done will increase the likelihood that
    you will do the dishes again.

57
Operant Conditioning
  • Positive Reinforcement strengthens a response
    by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus
    after a response.
  • IE. Food for a hungry animal. Attention,
    approval, money for people.

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  • Big Bang Theory Operant Conditioning

60
Operant Conditioning
  • Negative Reinforcement strengthens a response
    by reducing or removing an aversive stimulus

61
  • IE. Taking aspirin to relieve a headache will
    increase the behavior of taking aspirin because
    it reduces or eliminates the pain. Smoking a
    cigarette to relieve stress will increase the
    behavior of smoking because it reduces or
    eliminates anxiety and pressure.

62
Operant Conditioning
  • Positive ADDS a desirable stimulus, like getting
    a hug or watching t.v.
  • Negative REMOVES an aversive stimulus, like
    fastening a seatbelt to stop the annoying beeping

63
Operant Conditioning
  • Primary Reinforcers one that primarily satisfies
    a biological need
  • Conditioned or Secondary Reinforcers a stimulus
    that is learned, and/or is associated with a
    primary reinforcer

64
  • IE. Primary reinforcers may be food, or pain
    relief. Secondary reinforcers may be money,
    praise, good grades, a pleasant tone of voice.

65
Operant Conditioning
  • Immediate and Delayed Reinforcers How quickly
    does a reinforcement needed to be given after a
    desired behavior has been exhibited in order for
    the behavior to be conditioned? How often does
    the reinforcement need to be given to condition
    proper behavior?

66
Operant Conditioning
  • Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcing the
    desired response immediately, every time it
    occurs. Learning occurs quickly, but as soon as
    reinforcement ends, extinction occurs very
    quickly also.

67
  • You go to the same soda machine every day, put
    your money into it, and it delivers a soda. On
    Friday, you put your money into it and it doesnt
    work. Same thing Saturday. You stop using the
    machine, though a week later you may try again.

68
Operant Conditioning
  • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement
    Reinforcing a response only part of the time.
    This results in slower acquisition of a response,
    but much greater resistance to extinction also.

69
  • IE. Slot machines. You may win only once in
    long while, but youll keep playing because the
    reinforcement is worth it, and the habit may last
    a long time.

70
Operant Conditioning
  • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement Schedules
  • Fixed-Ratio a schedule of reinforcement that
    reinforces only after a specified number of
    responses.
  • IE. Every 10th sale gets a prize.

71
Operant Conditioning
  • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement Schedules
  • Variable-Ratio Schedule a schedule of
    reinforcement that reinforces a response after an
    unpredictable number of responses
  • IE. Slot machines, fishing.

72
Operant Conditioning
  • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement Schedules
  • Fixed-interval schedules a schedule of
    reinforcement that reinforces a response only
    after a specified time has elapsed
  • IE. At the end of every 30 minutes a new batch of
    cookies will be baked.

73
Operant Conditioning
  • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement Schedules
  • Variable-Interval Schedules a schedule of
    reinforcement that reinforces a response at
    unpredictable time intervals
  • IE. Youve Got Mailyou dont know when you
    will get an email, but you are always checking
    for it.

74
Operant Conditioning
  • Punishment An event that decreases the behavior
    that it follows
  • May be done by administering an undesirable
    consequence, or by withdrawing a desirable
    consequence

75
  • IE. Shock treatment and spanking are added,
    undesirable consequences, while taking away phone
    or car privileges withdraws desirable
    consequences.

76
Operant Conditioning
  • Issues/Questions regarding punishments
  • Physical punishments are not forgotten, just
    suppressed
  • Physical punishments may increase aggressiveness
    by demonstrating that aggression is a way to cope
    with problems
  • Punishments may create fear

77
Operant Conditioning
  • If punishment isnt delivered swiftly, or
    proportionally with regards to the crime, those
    punished may be confused, depressed, or helpless
  • Punishments still do not teach the proper
    behavior it only suppresses unwanted behaviors

78
  • Observational Learning

79
  • Mirror Neurons

80
Observational Learning
  • Observational Learning is learning by watching
    and imitating others

81
Observational Learning
  • For example, a child sees his big sister burn her
    fingers on the stove has thereby learned not to
    touch it.

82
Observational Learning
  • Modeling is the process of observing and
    imitating a specific behavior

83
Observational Learning
  • Pro-Social Models exemplify positive,
    constructive, helpful behavior. Anti-Social
    Models exemplify negative and hurtful behavior.

84
Observational Learning
  • Mirror Neurons in the frontal lobe are partially
    responsible for allowing humans to imitate simple
    language and emotions

85
Observational Learning
  • Albert Banduras Experiment The Bobo Doll
  • Children exposed to an adult taking out their
    frustrations on a Bobo doll would imitate their
    punches and kicks when presented with a Bobo doll
    when they were frustrated.

86
  • Bobo Doll Experiment
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