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Chapter 3 Positive Reinforcement

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Chapter 3 Positive Reinforcement Define positive reinforcer and the principle of positive reinforcement Define operant behaviors and give example Factors Influencing ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3 Positive Reinforcement


1
Chapter 3Positive Reinforcement
2
  • Define positive reinforcer and the principle of
    positive reinforcement
  • Define operant behaviors and give example

3
Factors Influencing the effectiveness of positive
reinforcement
  • Selection of the behavior to be reinforced
    (clear, specific behavior)

4
Factors Influencing the effectiveness of positive
reinforcement
  • Choice of reinforcer individualized through
  • trial and error
  • observation of behavior
  • Premack principle (Opportunity to engage in
    behavior with high probability of occurring
    (desired behavior) can be used to reinforce low
    probability behavior.
  • 5 types of reinforcers (Consumable. Activity,
    Manipulative, Possessional, and Social )
  • Variety of Reinforcers Reinforcer Menu
    increases chances one of the reinforcers will be
    strong.

5
Factors Influencing the effectiveness of positive
reinforcement
  • Motivating Operations (motivational variables)
  • Conditions that alter the effectiveness of a
    reinforcer and thus the frequency of the behavior
    reinforced by that reinforcer.
  • Ex. Deprivation and satiation affect both the
    effectiveness of a reinforcer and frequency of
    behaviors reinforced by the reinforcer.

6
Factors Influencing the effectiveness of positive
reinforcement
  • Reinforcer Size
  • Sufficient to strengthen, small enough not to
    satiate
  • Reinforcer Immediacy
  • Direct-acting effect effect of immediacy
  • Indirect-acting effect delayed effects (due
    to cognitive effects such as instructions, self
    statements, etc)

7
Factors Influencing the effectiveness of positive
reinforcement
  • Instructions Rules
  • Guidelines for reinforcement of specific
    behavior in specific situation.
  • Is reinforcement Bribery?
  • Does extrinsic reinforcement undermine intrinsic
    motivation?

.
8
Factors Influencing the effectiveness of positive
reinforcement
  • Contingent vs. Non contingent reinforcement
  • Contingent to specific behavior effective
    reinforcement
  • Noncontingent reinforcement may accidently
    increase undesirable behavior that it happens to
    follow and may lead to adventitious reinforcment
    and superstitious behavior.

9
Factors Influencing the effectiveness of positive
reinforcement
  • Weaning from reinforcement
  • Gradually try to get natural reinforcers in the
    natural environment to maintain the behavior

10
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11
  • Chapter 4
  • Developing and Maintaining Behavior with
    Conditioned Reinforcement

12
  • Unconditioned (primary, unlearned) Reinforcers
  • Food, water, sex, warmth

13
  • Conditioned (secondary, learned) Reinforcers
  • Reinforcing strength from being paired or
    associated with other reinforcers (back- up
    reinforcers) (praise, television programs,
    clothes) We like these things because weve
    learned that they bring other good things.

14
  • Simple Conditioned Reinforcers for behaviors
    paired with single backup reinforcer
  • Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers paired with
    multiple backup reinforcers (money, praise, gift
    certificate)

15
  • Tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for
    backup reinforcers.
  • Token System A behavior modification program
    that uses tokens.

16
  • Why use conditioned reinforcers?
  • Can be delivered more immediately when
    unconditioned reinforcers are unavailable or too
    costly, etc.

17
  • Backup Reinforcers another level of complexity.
  • Can be either conditioned or unconditioned
    reinforcers
  • (We like this because it brings us this, which
    we like because it brings us something else and
    so on)

18
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of
Conditioned Reinforcement
  • Strength of Backup Reinforcers
  • Variety of Backup Reinforcers (see generalized
    backup reinforcers)
  • Schedule of pairing with Backup reinforcer
  • (intermittent schedule more effective)
  • Extinction of Conditioned reinforcer

19
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20
  • Chapter 5
  • Decreasing a Behavior with Extinction

21
  • Extinction definition
  • Contrast with punishment and forgetting.

22
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of
Extinction
  • Controlling Reinforcers
  • Collaboration between settings for consistency
    of withdrawal of reinforcers.
  • Extinction with Positive Reinforcement of
    Alternative Behavior
  • Be careful to reinforce the undesirable
    behavior by not waiting long enough after it
    stops to reward the absence of the behavior.
  • Is it cruel to ignore someone who may be a in
    time of need?

23
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of
Extinction
  • Setting of Extinction Program
  • to avoid exposure to reinforcement of
    undesirable behavior
  • Instructions and Rules speed learning if verbal
    skills present
  • After Continuous Reinforcement to overcome
    strength of intermittent schedule

24
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of
Extinction
  • Extinction Burst It may get worse before it
    gets better. Why?
  • Extinction and Aggression minimize aggression
    with reinforcement of alternative behaviors.
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